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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430817/kaposi-sarcoma-herpesvirus-kshv-latency-associated-nuclear-antigen-lana-recruits-components-of-the-mrn-mre11-rad50-nbs1-repair-complex-to-modulate-an-innate-immune-signaling-pathway-and-viral-latency
#1
Giuseppe Mariggiò, Sandra Koch, Guigen Zhang, Magdalena Weidner-Glunde, Jessica Rückert, Semra Kati, Susann Santag, Thomas F Schulz
Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), a γ2-herpesvirus and class 1 carcinogen, is responsible for at least three human malignancies: Kaposi Sarcoma (KS), Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) and Multicentric Castleman's Disease (MCD). Its major nuclear latency protein, LANA, is indispensable for the maintenance and replication of latent viral DNA in infected cells. Although LANA is mainly a nuclear protein, cytoplasmic isoforms of LANA exist and can act as antagonists of the cytoplasmic DNA sensor, cGAS. Here, we show that cytosolic LANA also recruits members of the MRN (Mre11-Rad50-NBS1) repair complex in the cytosol and thereby inhibits their recently reported role in the sensing of cytoplasmic DNA and activation of the NF-κB pathway...
April 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407694/molecular-mechanisms-of-activating-c-met-in-kshv-primary-effusion-lymphoma
#2
Bao Quoc Lam, Lu Dai, Li Li, Jing Qiao, Zhen Lin, Zhiqiang Qin
The oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a principal causative agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which is mostly seen in immunosuppressed patients. PEL is a rapidly progressing malignancy with a median survival time of approximately 6 months even under the conventional chemotherapy. We recently report that the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-MET pathway is highly activated in PEL cells and represents a promising therapeutic target (Blood. 2015;126(26):2821-31). However, the underlying mechanisms of c-MET activation within PEL cells remain largely unknown...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405925/a-survey-of-metal-concentrations-in-marine-sediment-cores-in-the-vicinity-of-an-old-mercury-mining-area-in-karaburun-aegean-sea
#3
Ebru Yesim Ozkan, Hasan Baha Buyukisik, Aynur Kontas, Mert Turkdogan
The aim of this study was to assess the historical trends of metal concentrations in coastal sediments in the vicinity of an inactive mining area, find background values and contamination levels of metals around the Karaburun peninsula, and then search for other sources of mercury in marine sediment cores using multivariate statistical analysis and report the potential ecological risks from that metal contamination. Surface sediment samples were taken from seven stations. Water depths were less than 20 m (coastal area) at stations KB07 and KB08...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399009/primary-effusion-lymphoma-current-concepts-and-management
#4
Nivedita Arora, Arjun Gupta, Navid Sadeghi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current epidemiology, management, and outcomes of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and highlight possible future research efforts. RECENT FINDINGS: Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone-based chemotherapy regimens alone or in combination with immunomodulatory agents (e.g., lenalidomide), or proteasome inhibitors (e.g., bortezomib), or targeted therapies, are commonly used to treat PEL. Highly active antiretroviral therapy should be continued or initiated in patients with HIV infection...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396094/ym155-induces-apoptosis-through-proteasome-dependent-degradation-of-mcl-1-in-primary-effusion-lymphoma
#5
Yuki Kojima, Fumihiko Hayakawa, Takanobu Morishita, Keiki Sugimoto, Yuka Minamikawa, Mizuho Iwase, Hideyuki Yamamoto, Daiki Hirano, Naoto Imoto, Kazuyuki Shimada, Seiji Okada, Hitoshi Kiyoi
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a lymphoma that shows malignant effusion in body cavities without contiguous tumor masses and has a very poor prognosis. We recently developed a novel drug screening system using patient-derived xenograft (PDX) cells that maintained the primary cell phenotype better than cell lines. This screening is expected to discover anti-tumor drugs that have been overlooked by conventional screening using cell lines. We herein performed this screening to identify new therapeutic agents for PEL...
April 8, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393364/sirt1-and-ampk-pathways-are-essential-for-the-proliferation-and-survival-of-primary-effusion-lymphoma-cells
#6
Meilan He, Brandon Tan, Karthik Vasan, Hongfeng Yuan, Fan Cheng, Suzane Ramos da Silva, Chun Lu, Shou-Jiang Gao
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and aggressive B-cell lymphoma with a dismal prognosis caused by infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Despite the findings that numerous viral genes and cellular pathways are essential for the proliferation and survival of PEL cells, there is currently no effective therapeutic treatment for PEL. Here, we report that the metabolic sensor SIRT1 is functionally required for sustaining the proliferation and survival of PEL cells. Knockdown of SIRT1 with specific shRNAs or inhibition of SIRT1 with an inhibitor (Tenovin-6) induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PEL cells...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388309/a-comprehensive-assessment-of-exposures-to-respirable-dust-and-silica-in-the-taconite-mining-industry
#7
Jooyeon Hwang, Gurumurthy Ramachandran, Peter C Raynor, Bruce H Alexander, Jeffrey H Mandel
This study assessed the present-day levels (year 2010-2011) of exposure to respirable dust (RD) and respirable silica (RS) in taconite mines and evaluated how the mining process influences exposure concentrations. Personal samples (n = 679) were collected to assess exposure levels of workers to RD and RS at six mines in the Mesabi Iron Range of Minnesota. The RD and RS concentrations were measured using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 0600 and NIOSH 7500, respectively. Between-mine, between-SEG (similar exposure groups), within-SEG, and within-worker components of variability for RD and RS exposures were estimated using a two- or three-way nested random-effects ANOVA model...
May 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376153/evidence-for-a-mesothelial-origin-of-body-cavity-effusion-lymphomas
#8
David Sanchez-Martin, Thomas S Uldrick, Hyeongil Kwak, Hidetaka Ohnuki, Mark N Polizzotto, Christina M Annunziata, Mark Raffeld, Kathleen M Wyvill, Karen Aleman, Victoria Wang, Vickie A Marshall, Denise Whitby, Robert Yarchoan, Giovanna Tosato
Background: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV)-induced lymphoma that typically arises in body cavities of HIV-infected patients. PEL cells are often co-infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). "PEL-like" lymphoma is a KSHV-unrelated lymphoma that arises in body cavities of HIV-negative patients. "PEL-like" lymphoma is sometimes EBV positive. The derivation of PEL/"PEL-like" cells is unclear. Methods: Mesothelial cells were cultured from body cavity effusions of 23 patients...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341153/elemental-distribution-and-trace-metal-contamination-in-the-surface-sediment-of-south-east-coast-of-india
#9
S Barath Kumar, R K Padhi, A K Mohanty, K K Satpathy
Spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of trace metals in the surface sediment of south east coast of India covering eight different ecosystems was studied. The concentration of major elements viz. Ca, Mg, K, Ti and trace metals viz. Cr, Mn, Co, Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Contamination factor, geo-accumulation index, probable effect level, enrichment factor and pollution load index were calculated to evaluate the pollution status...
January 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332731/undiagnosed-pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-and-chronic-pancreatitis-in-functional-gi-disorder-patients-with-diarrhea-or-abdominal-pain
#10
N J Talley, G Holtmann, N Q Nguyen, P R Gibson, P Bampton, M Veysey, J Wong, S Philcox, N Koloski, L Bunby, M Jones
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A previous UK study showed that 6.1% of patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) had evidence of severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), but these findings need replication. We aimed to identify the prevalence of PEl based on faecal elastase stool testing in consecutive outpatients presenting with chronic unexplained abdominal pain and/or diarrhea and/or IBS-D. METHODS: Patients aged over 40 years presenting to hospital outpatient clinics from 6 sites within Australia with unexplained abdominal pain and/or diarrhea for at least 3 months and/or IBS-D were studied...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304180/nanomedicine-for-the-treatment-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-the-2016-ats-bear-cage-award-winning-proposal
#11
Jacob S Brenner
After dozens of clinical trials, there are still no Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs that improve mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). These poor results may be caused in part by three unique pharmacological challenges presented by ARDS: (1) Patients with ARDS are fragile because of concomitant multiple organ dysfunction, so they do not tolerate off-target side effects of drugs; (2) inhaled drug delivery is impeded by the column of proteinaceous fluid covering the injured alveoli; and (3) ARDS is heterogeneous in its underlying pathophysiology, so targeting one pathway is unlikely to improve most patients...
April 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271351/distribution-and-residue-profile-of-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-sediment-and-fish-of-lake-manzala-egypt
#12
Ahmed A El-Kady, Terry L Wade, Stephen T Sweet, José L Sericano
Sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus) samples collected from Lake Manzala were analyzed to assess the spatial distribution of OCPs and 96 PCBs. Relatively higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos, ∑DDT, and HCB were found, particularly at the Bahr Al-Baqar drain station, which has uncontrolled inputs of untreated domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastes. The concentrations of ∑PCBs ranged from 19 to 69 ng/g dw and from 7.4 to 29 ng/g dw for sediment and fish samples, respectively. Ratios of DDT to its metabolites suggest that the source of ∑DDT is from past usage of technical DDT in the regions surrounding the lake...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261852/acute-leukemia-with-a-pure-erythroid-phenotype-underrecognized-morphologic-and-cytogenetic-signatures-universally-associated-with-primary-refractory-disease-and-a-dismal-clinical-outcome
#13
David C Park, Neval Ozkaya, Scott B Lovitch
AIMS: Pure erythroid leukemia (PEL) is a very rare and aggressive subtype of acute myeloid leukemia defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a neoplastic proliferation of immature cells committed exclusively to the erythroid lineage comprising >80% of bone marrow cells and not meeting criteria of other well-defined myeloid neoplasms. The aim of this study was to describe the clinicopathologic features of acute leukemias with a pure erythroid phenotype (ALPEP) irrespective of their WHO classification and determine if ALPEP represents a distinct clinicopathologic entity...
March 6, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258668/pathogenic-factors-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-the-role-of-biofilm-in-pathogenicity-and-as-a-target-for-phage-therapy
#14
Fairoz Al-Wrafy, Ewa Brzozowska, Sabina Górska, Andrzej Gamian
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause several acute and chronic infections in humans, and it has become an important cause of nosocomial infections and antibiotic resistance. Biofilm represents an important virulence factor for these bacteria, plays a role in P. aeruginosa infections and avoidance of immune defence mechanisms, and has the ability to protect the bacteria from antibiotics. Alginate, Psl and Pel, three exopolysaccharides, are the main components in biofilm matrix, with many biological functions attributed to them, especially with respect to the protection of the bacterial cell from antibiotics and the immune system...
February 14, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242707/oligomeric-lipoprotein-pelc-guides-pel-polysaccharide-export-across-the-outer-membrane-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Lindsey S Marmont, Jacquelyn D Rich, John C Whitney, Gregory B Whitfield, Henrik Almblad, Howard Robinson, Matthew R Parsek, Joe J Harrison, P Lynne Howell
Secreted polysaccharides are important functional and structural components of bacterial biofilms. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces the cationic exopolysaccharide Pel, which protects bacteria from aminoglycoside antibiotics and contributes to biofilm architecture through ionic interactions with extracellular DNA. A bioinformatics analysis of genome databases suggests that gene clusters for Pel biosynthesis are present in >125 bacterial species, yet little is known about how this biofilm exopolysaccharide is synthesized and exported from the cell...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239639/alzheimer-s-biomarkers-in-daily-practice-abide-project-rationale-and-design
#16
Arno de Wilde, Ingrid S van Maurik, Marleen Kunneman, Femke Bouwman, Marissa Zwan, Eline A J Willemse, Geert Jan Biessels, Mirella Minkman, Ruth Pel, Niki S M Schoonenboom, Ellen M A Smets, Mike P Wattjes, Frederik Barkhof, Andrew Stephens, Erik J van Lier, Richard Batrla-Utermann, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen, Bart N M van Berckel, Wiesje M van der Flier
INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's biomarkers in daily practice (ABIDE) project is designed to translate knowledge on diagnostic tests (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], cerebrospinal fluid [CSF], and amyloid positron emission tomography [PET]) to daily clinical practice with a focus on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: ABIDE is a 3-year project with a multifaceted design and is structured into interconnected substudies using both quantitative and qualitative research methods...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223377/exopolysaccharide-repressing-small-molecules-with-antibiofilm-and-antivirulence-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Laetitia Charron-Mazenod, David J Reading, Shauna L Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shawn Lewenza
Biofilm formation is a universal virulence strategy in which bacteria grow in dense microbial communities enmeshed within a polymeric extracellular matrix that protects them from antibiotic exposure and the immune system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an archetypal biofilm-forming organism that utilizes a biofilm growth strategy to cause chronic lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The extracellular matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms is comprised mainly of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and DNA. Both mucoid and non-mucoid isolates of P...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196090/the-uniqueness-of-morphological-features-of-pure-erythroid-leukemia-in-myeloid-neoplasm-with-erythroid-predominance-a-reassessment-using-criteria-revised-in-the-2016-world-health-organization-classification
#18
Po-Shen Ko, Yao-Chung Liu, Chiu-Mei Yeh, Jyh-Pyng Gau, Yuan-Bin Yu, Liang-Tsai Hsiao, Cheng-Hwai Tzeng, Po-Min Chen, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Chia-Jen Liu, Jin-Hwang Liu
We reviewed 97 consecutive cases of myeloid neoplasm with erythroid predominance (MN-EP) between 2000 and 2015. Following 2016 WHO classification, MN-EP patients were classified into four groups. Eight pure erythroid leukemia (PEL) (including t-MN and AML-MRC morphologically fulfilled criteria for PEL) patients had dismal outcomes (median OS: 1 month) and showed more bone marrow fibrosis, worse performance status (PS) and higher serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at diagnosis than the other groups. In the univariate analysis, risks of death in MN-EP patients included the morphologic features of PEL, very poor cytogenetic risk by IPSS-R, bone marrow fibrosis, leukocytosis, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, high LDH, and poor PS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184988/cloning-evaluation-and-high-level-expression-of-a-thermo-alkaline-pectate-lyase-from-alkaliphilic-bacillus-clausii-with-potential-in-ramie-degumming
#19
Cheng Zhou, Yanfen Xue, Yanhe Ma
Alkaline pectate lyases (Pels) have potential application in bioscouring of the textile industry. In this study, a thermo-alkaline Pel (BacPelA) gene from an alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii strain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The mature BacPelA exhibited maximum activity at pH 10.5 and 70 °C and showed high cleavage capability on methylated pectins. BacPelA showed the highest specific activity of 936.2 U mg(-1) on ≥85% methylated pectin and 675.5 U mg(-1) on standard substrate polygalacturonic acid (PGA) upon evaluation of the absorbance at 235 nm (A235)...
February 9, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167523/role-of-cyclic-di-gmp-and-exopolysaccharide-in-type-iv-pilus-dynamics
#20
Jan Ribbe, Amy E Baker, Sebastian Euler, George A O'Toole, Berenike Maier
For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, levels of cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) govern the transition from the planktonic state to biofilm formation. Type IV pili (T4P) are crucial determinants of biofilm structure and dynamics, but it is unknown how levels of c-di-GMP affect pilus dynamics. Here, we scrutinized how c-di-GMP affects molecular motor properties and adhesive behavior of T4P. By means of retraction, T4P generated forces of ∼30 pN. Deletion mutants in the proteins with known roles in biofilm formation, swarming motility, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production (specifically, the diguanylate cyclases sadC and roeA or the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase bifA) showed only modest effects on velocity or force of T4P retraction...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
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