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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909492/modelling-glioma-invasion-using-3d-bioprinting-and-scaffold-free-3d-culture
#1
Derek M van Pel, Kaori Harada, Dandan Song, Christian C Naus, Wun Chey Sin
Glioma is a highly aggressive form of brain cancer, with some subtypes having 5-year survival rates of less than 5%. Tumour cell invasion into the surrounding parenchyma seems to be the primary driver of these poor outcomes, as most gliomas recur within 2 cm of the original surgically-resected tumour. Many current approaches to the development of anticancer therapy attempt to target genetic weaknesses in a particular cancer, but may not take into account the microenvironment experienced by a tumour and the patient-specific genetic differences in susceptibility to treatment...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899086/modulation-of-cellular-cpg-dna-methylation-by-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus
#2
Guy Journo, Carmel Tushinsky, Asia Shterngas, Nir Avital, Yonatan Eran, Marcela Viviana Karpuj, Milana Frenkel-Morgenstern, Meir Shamay
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, HHV-8) is a gamma herpesvirus associated with several human malignancies. DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides is an epigenetic mark dysregulated in many cancer types, and in KSHV infected cells. Several previous studies have analyzed in detail the CpG methylation of the KSHV episomal genomes, but little is known about the impact of KSHV on the human genome. Our knowledge of cellular CpG methylation in the context of KSHV infection is currently limited to four hyper-methylated human gene promoters...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896673/kshv-genome-replication-and-maintenance-in-latency
#3
Keiji Ueda
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also called human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), is the eighth human herpesvirus found by Yuan Chang and Patrick Moore, 1992. It is a Rhadinovirus belonging to the gamma herpesvirus subfamily. As known for many gamma herpesviruses, KSHV is also well-correlated to several cancer formations such as Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease. Different from the other herpesvirus subfamily, gamma herpesviruses establish latency as a default infection strategy when they infect to the target cells, as KSHV is present as the latent form in the related cancers...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894833/effect-of-ion-partitioning-on-electrostatics-of-soft-particles-with-volumetrically-charged-inner-core-coated-with-ph-regulated-polyelectrolyte-layer
#4
Ardalan Ganjizade, Arman Sadeghi, Seyed Nezameddin Ashrafizadeh
The effect of ion partitioning on the electrostatics of a soft particle with a volumetrically charged core and a pH-dependent polyelectrolyte layer (PEL) is numerically investigated. It is observed that, whenever the ion partitioning is noticeable, the soft layer can be fully charged in a broader range of pH. Besides, a higher number density of the PEL functional groups and a lower charge density of the core result in a sharper dependence of the electric potential on the electrolyte pH. Briefly, we conclude that, since the PEL charge is dependent upon the concentration of the hydroxide/hydrogen ions, for the pH-regulated soft particles, the ion partitioning effect, as a phenomenon influencing the ionic distribution, can be a determinant factor...
May 24, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866805/rsmv-a-small-non-coding-regulatory-rna-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-that-sequesters-rsma-and-rsmf-from-target-mrnas
#5
Kayley H Janssen, Manisha R Diaz, Cindy J Gode, Matthew C Wolfgang, Timothy L Yahr
The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has distinct genetic programs that favor either acute or chronic virulence gene expression. Acute virulence is associated with twitching and swimming motility, expression of a type III secretion system (T3SS), and the absence of alginate, Psl, or Pel polysaccharide production. Traits associated with chronic infection include growth as a biofilm, reduced motility, and expression of a type VI secretion system (T6SS). The Rsm post-transcriptional regulatory system plays important roles in the inverse control of phenotypes associated with acute and chronic virulence...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862030/pre-edit-protocol-for-a-randomised-feasibility-trial-of-elastance-directed-intrapleural-catheter-or-talc-pleurodesis-edit-in-malignant-pleural-effusion
#6
Geoffrey A Martin, Selina Tsim, Andrew C Kidd, John E Foster, Philip McLoone, Anthony Chalmers, Kevin G Blyth
Introduction: Non-expansile lung (NEL) is a common cause of talc pleurodesis (TP) failure in malignant pleural effusion (MPE), but is often occult prior to drainage. Reliable detection of NEL would allow patients to be allocated between intrapleural catheter (IPC) and TP. High pleural elastance (PEL ) has been associated with NEL in observational studies. Pre-EDIT is a randomised feasibility trial of elastance-directed IPC or TP (EDIT) management using a novel, purpose-built digital pleural manometer (Rocket Medical, UK)...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846793/vertical-profile-contamination-assessment-of-mercury-and-arsenic-in-sediment-cores-from-typical-intertidal-zones-of-china
#7
Chenchen Wang, Dawei Pan, Haitao Han, Xueping Hu
The vertical profiles, contamination levels, and potential ecological risks of mercury and arsenic were studied from the sediment cores of seven typical intertidal zones, including the Liaohe River Estuary, the Jianhe River Estuary, the Dagu River Estuary, Yancheng Shoal, the Dongtan Yangtze River Estuary, Hangzhou Bay, and the Pearl River Estuary. Marine sediment quality standards, the threshold effect level (TEL), and the probable effect level (PEL) were used as guidelines to evaluate sediment quality. In addition, the geo-accumulation index (Igeo ) and potential ecological risk index ([Formula: see text]) were used to assess contamination and potential ecological risks from mercury and arsenic...
May 30, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845933/replacement-reduction-refinement-animal-welfare-progress-in-european-pharmacopoeia-monographs-activities-of-the-european-pharmacopoeia-commission-from-2007-to-2017
#8
C Lang, O Kolaj-Robin, G Cirefice, L Taconet, E Pel, S Jouette, M Buda, C Milne, E Charton
Since the opening for signature of the European Convention for the Protection of Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes in 1986, the European Pharmacopoeia Commission and its experts have carried out a programme of work committed to Replacing, Reducing and Refining (3Rs) the use of animals for test purposes. While updates on achievements in the field of the 3Rs are regularly provided, this article summarises the activities of the Ph. Eur. Commission in this field within the last decade.
2018: Pharmeuropa Bio & Scientific Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843050/gram-negative-synthase-dependent-exopolysaccharide-biosynthetic-machines
#9
REVIEW
Kristin E Low, P Lynne Howell
Bacteria predominantly exist as matrix embedded communities of cells called biofilms. The biofilm matrix is made up of a variety of self-produced extracellular components including DNA, proteins, and exopolysaccharides. Bacterial exopolysaccharides have been implicated in surface adhesion, resistance to antibiotics, and protection from host immune systems. Herein we review the structure and function of the proteins involved in the production of the Gram-negative synthase-dependent exopolysaccharides: alginate, poly-β(1,6)-N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (PNAG), cellulose, and the Pel polysaccharide...
May 26, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777120/softness-induced-enhancement-in-net-throughput-of-non-linear-bio-fluids-in-nanofluidic-channel-under-edl-phenomenon
#10
Harshad Sanjay Gaikwad, Pranab Kumar Mondal, Somchai Wongwises
In this article, we describe the electro-hydrodynamics of non-Newtonian fluid in narrow fluidic channel with solvent permeable and ion-penetrable polyelectrolyte layer (PEL) grafted on channel surface with an interaction of non-overlapping electric double layer (EDL) phenomenon. In this analysis, we integrate power-law model in the momentum equation for describing the non-Newtonian rheology. The complex interplay between the non-Newtonian rheology and interfacial electrochemistry in presence of PEL on the walls leads to non-intuitive variations in the underlying flow dynamics in the channels...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775645/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-induce-a-permissive-state-in-the-bone-marrow-that-enhances-g-csf-induced-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilization-in-mice
#11
Evert-Jan F M de Kruijf, Rob Zuijderduijn, Marjolein C Stip, Willem E Fibbe, Melissa van Pel
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) support hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in vivo and enhance HSC engraftment and hematopoietic recovery upon co-transplantation with HSC. These data have led to the hypothesis that MSC may impact the HSC niche, leading to changes in HSC retention and trafficking. We studied the effect of MSC administration on the HSC compartment in the bone marrow (BM) in mice. Following injection of MSC, HSC numbers in the BM were decreased coinciding with an increased cell cycle activity compared to PBS-injected controls...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743366/regulation-of-virus-associated-lymphoma-growth-and-gene-expression-by-bacterial-quorum-sensing-molecules
#12
Jing Qiao, Yueyu Cao, Jovanny Zabaleta, Liang Yang, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can cause several human cancers including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which frequently occur in immunocompromised patients. KSHV infected patients often suffer from polymicrobial infections caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how these co-infected microorganisms or their secreted metabolites may affect KSHV infection and virus-associated malignancies pathogenesis. Quorum sensing (QS), a cell density-based intercellular communication system, employs extracellular diffusible signaling molecules to regulate bacterial virulence mechanisms in a wide range of bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which is one of mostly common opportunistic microorganisms found in immunocompromised individuals...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742931/the-intraocular-staining-potential-of-anthocyanins-and-their-retinal-biocompatibility-a-preclinical-study
#13
Lan-Hsin Chuang, An-Lun Wu, Nan-Kai Wang, Kuan-Jen Chen, Laura Liu, Yih-Shiou Hwang, Ling Yeung, Wei-Chi Wu, Chi-Chun Lai
PURPOSE: To perform preclinical studies to determine the efficacy and safety of anthocyanins as stains for the internal limiting membrane (ILM) of the eye. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cyanidin (Cya), delphinidin (Del), luteolinidin (Lut), peonidin (Peo), and pelargonidin (Pel) were evaluated. These natural dyes were used to stain the lens capsule and ILM of pig eyes. The effects of these dyes on retinal cell viability was determined using a water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay, and oxidative stress was measured in vitro...
May 9, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740418/inhibition-of-tip60-reduces-lytic-and-latent-gene-expression-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpes-virus-kshv-and-proliferation-of-kshv-infected-tumor-cells
#14
Sydney Simpson, Guillaume Fiches, Maxime J Jean, Michael Dieringer, James McGuinness, Sinu P John, Meir Shamay, Prashant Desai, Jian Zhu, Netty G Santoso
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic virus responsible for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and Multicentric Castleman's disease in immunocompromised individuals. Despite the burden of these diseases there are few treatment options for afflicted individuals, due in part to our limited understanding of virus-host interactions. Tip60, a histone aceytltransferase (HAT) has been previously shown to interact with both the KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen protein (LANA), which is the main factor in maintaining the viral latent state, and ORF36, a viral kinase expressed in the lytic phase...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739902/repurposing-cytarabine-for-treating-primary-effusion-lymphoma-by-targeting-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-latent-and-lytic-replications
#15
Marion Gruffaz, Shenghua Zhou, Karthik Vasan, Teresa Rushing, Qing Liu Michael, Chu Lu, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
Oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically linked to primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), an aggressive and nontreatable malignancy commonly found in AIDS patients. In this study, we performed a high-throughput screening of 3,731 characterized compounds and identified cytarabine, approved by the FDA for treating numerous types of cancer, as a potent inhibitor of KSHV-induced PEL. We showed the high efficacy of cytarabine in the growth inhibition of various PEL cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733294/human-herpesvirus-encoded-kinase-induces-b-cell-lymphomas-in-vivo
#16
Penny M Anders, Nathan D Montgomery, Stephanie A Montgomery, Aadra P Bhatt, Dirk P Dittmer, Blossom Damania
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus that is the etiological agent of the endothelial cell cancer Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and 2 B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV ORF36, also known as viral protein kinase (vPK), is a viral serine/threonine kinase. We previously reported that KSHV vPK enhances cell proliferation and mimics cellular S6 kinase to phosphorylate ribosomal protein S6, a protein involved in protein synthesis...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718466/genome-wide-mapping-of-the-rna-targets-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-riboregulatory-protein-rsmn
#17
Manuel Romero, Hazel Silistre, Laura Lovelock, Victoria J Wright, Kok-Gan Chan, Kar-Wai Hong, Paul Williams, Miguel Cámara, Stephan Heeb
Pseudomonads typically carry multiple non-identical alleles of the post-transcriptional regulator rsmA. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, RsmN is notable in that its structural rearrangement confers distinct and overlapping functions with RsmA. However, little is known about the specificities of RsmN for its target RNAs and overall impact on the biology of this pathogen. We purified and mapped 503 transcripts directly bound by RsmN in P. aeruginosa. About 200 of the mRNAs identified encode proteins of demonstrated function including some determining acute and chronic virulence traits...
April 30, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698475/cadm1-is-essential-for-kshv-encoded-vgpcr-and-vflip-mediated-chronic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#18
Richard Hunte, Patricia Alonso, Remy Thomas, Cassandra Alexandria Bazile, Juan Carlos Ramos, Louise van der Weyden, Juan Dominguez-Bendala, Wasif Noor Khan, Noula Shembade
Approximately 12% of all human cancers worldwide are caused by infections with oncogenic viruses. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV8) is one of the oncogenic viruses responsible for human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL), and the lymphoproliferative disorder multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Chronic inflammation mediated by KSHV infection plays a decisive role in the development and survival of these cancers. NF-κB, a family of transcription factors regulating inflammation, cell survival, and proliferation, is persistently activated in KSHV-infected cells...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697219/2-deoxy-2-18f-fluoro-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-in-primary-extranodal-lymphomas-treatment-response-evaluation-and-prognosis
#19
Barbara Salvatore, Rosa Fonti, Amalia De Renzo, Sara Pellegrino, Ida L Ferrara, Ciro G Mainolfi, Luana Marano, Carmine Selleri, Fabrizio Pane, Silvana Del Vecchio, Leonardo Pace
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the role of [18F]FDG PET/CT in tumor response assessment and prognosis of Primary Extranodal Lymphoma (PEL) patients. METHODS: We examined retrospectively, 56 PEL patients: 31 with aggressive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 25 with indolent lymphoma (20 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-MALT and 5 follicular lymphoma). All patients had undergone [18F]FDG PET/CT at diagnosis (PET-I) and 50 of them also after therapy (PET-II)...
April 24, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686009/influence-of-gestational-age-at-initiation-of-antihypertensive-therapy-secondary-analysis-of-chips-trial-data-control-of-hypertension-in-pregnancy-study
#20
Anouk Pels, Ben Willem J Mol, Joel Singer, Terry Lee, Peter von Dadelszen, Wessel Ganzevoort, Elizabeth Asztalos, Laura A Magee
For hypertensive women in CHIPS (Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy Study), we assessed whether the maternal benefits of tight control could be achieved, while minimizing any potentially negative effect on fetal growth, by delaying initiation of antihypertensive therapy until later in pregnancy. For the 981 women with nonsevere, chronic or gestational hypertension randomized to less-tight (target diastolic blood pressure, 100 mm Hg), or tight (target, 85 mm Hg) control, we used mixed-effects logistic regression to examine whether the effect of less-tight (versus tight) control on major outcomes was dependent on gestational age at randomization, adjusting for baseline factors as in the primary analysis and including an interaction term between gestational age at randomization and treatment allocation...
June 2018: Hypertension
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