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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341153/elemental-distribution-and-trace-metal-contamination-in-the-surface-sediment-of-south-east-coast-of-india
#1
S Barath Kumar, R K Padhi, A K Mohanty, K K Satpathy
Spatial distribution and potential ecological risk of trace metals in the surface sediment of south east coast of India covering eight different ecosystems was studied. The concentration of major elements viz. Ca, Mg, K, Ti and trace metals viz. Cr, Mn, Co, Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Contamination factor, geo-accumulation index, probable effect level, enrichment factor and pollution load index were calculated to evaluate the pollution status...
January 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332731/undiagnosed-pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-and-chronic-pancreatitis-in-functional-gi-disorder-patients-with-diarrhea-or-abdominal-pain
#2
N J Talley, G Holtmann, N Q Nguyen, P R Gibson, P Bampton, M Veysey, J Wong, S Philcox, N Koloski, L Bunby, M Jones
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A previous UK study showed that 6.1% of patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) had evidence of severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), but these findings need replication. We aimed to identify the prevalence of PEl based on faecal elastase stool testing in consecutive outpatients presenting with chronic unexplained abdominal pain and/or diarrhea and/or IBS-D. METHODS: Patients aged over 40 years presenting to hospital outpatient clinics from 6 sites within Australia with unexplained abdominal pain and/or diarrhea for at least 3 months and/or IBS-D were studied...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304180/nanomedicine-for-the-treatment-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-the-2016-ats-bear-cage-award-winning-proposal
#3
Jacob S Brenner
After dozens of clinical trials, there are still no FDA-approved drugs which improve mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). These poor results may in part be caused by three unique pharmacological challenges presented by ARDS: 1) ARDS patients are fragile due to concomitant multiple organ dysfunction, so do not tolerate off-target side effects of drugs; 2) inhaled drug delivery is impeded by the column of proteinaceous fluid covering the injured alveoli; 3) ARDS is heterogeneous in its underlying pathophysiology, so targeting one pathway is unlikely to improve most patients...
March 17, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271351/distribution-and-residue-profile-of-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-sediment-and-fish-of-lake-manzala-egypt
#4
Ahmed A El-Kady, Terry L Wade, Stephen T Sweet, José L Sericano
Sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus) samples collected from Lake Manzala were analyzed to assess the spatial distribution of OCPs and 96 PCBs. Relatively higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos, ∑DDT, and HCB were found, particularly at the Bahr Al-Baqar drain station, which has uncontrolled inputs of untreated domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastes. The concentrations of ∑PCBs ranged from 19 to 69 ng/g dw and from 7.4 to 29 ng/g dw for sediment and fish samples, respectively. Ratios of DDT to its metabolites suggest that the source of ∑DDT is from past usage of technical DDT in the regions surrounding the lake...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261852/acute-leukemia-with-a-pure-erythroid-phenotype-underrecognized-morphologic-and-cytogenetic-signatures-universally-associated-with-primary-refractory-disease-and-a-dismal-clinical-outcome
#5
David C Park, Neval Ozkaya, Scott B Lovitch
AIMS: Pure erythroid leukemia (PEL) is a very rare and aggressive subtype of acute myeloid leukemia defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a neoplastic proliferation of immature cells committed exclusively to the erythroid lineage comprising >80% of bone marrow cells and not meeting criteria of other well-defined myeloid neoplasms. The aim of this study was to describe the clinicopathologic features of acute leukemias with a pure erythroid phenotype (ALPEP) irrespective of their WHO classification and determine if ALPEP represents a distinct clinicopathologic entity...
March 6, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258668/pathogenic-factors-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-the-role-of-biofilm-in-pathogenicity-and-as-a-target-for-phage-therapy
#6
Fairoz Al-Wrafy, Ewa Brzozowska, Sabina Górska, Andrzej Gamian
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause several acute and chronic infections in humans, and it has become an important cause of nosocomial infections and antibiotic resistance. Biofilm represents an important virulence factor for these bacteria, plays a role in P. aeruginosa infections and avoidance of immune defence mechanisms, and has the ability to protect the bacteria from antibiotics. Alginate, Psl and Pel, three exopolysaccharides, are the main components in biofilm matrix, with many biological functions attributed to them, especially with respect to the protection of the bacterial cell from antibiotics and the immune system...
February 14, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242707/oligomeric-lipoprotein-pelc-guides-pel-polysaccharide-export-across-the-outer-membrane-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#7
Lindsey S Marmont, Jacquelyn D Rich, John C Whitney, Gregory B Whitfield, Henrik Almblad, Howard Robinson, Matthew R Parsek, Joe J Harrison, P Lynne Howell
Secreted polysaccharides are important functional and structural components of bacterial biofilms. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces the cationic exopolysaccharide Pel, which protects bacteria from aminoglycoside antibiotics and contributes to biofilm architecture through ionic interactions with extracellular DNA. A bioinformatics analysis of genome databases suggests that gene clusters for Pel biosynthesis are present in >125 bacterial species, yet little is known about how this biofilm exopolysaccharide is synthesized and exported from the cell...
February 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239639/alzheimer-s-biomarkers-in-daily-practice-abide-project-rationale-and-design
#8
Arno de Wilde, Ingrid S van Maurik, Marleen Kunneman, Femke Bouwman, Marissa Zwan, Eline A J Willemse, Geert Jan Biessels, Mirella Minkman, Ruth Pel, Niki S M Schoonenboom, Ellen M A Smets, Mike P Wattjes, Frederik Barkhof, Andrew Stephens, Erik J van Lier, Richard Batrla-Utermann, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen, Bart N M van Berckel, Wiesje M van der Flier
INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's biomarkers in daily practice (ABIDE) project is designed to translate knowledge on diagnostic tests (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], cerebrospinal fluid [CSF], and amyloid positron emission tomography [PET]) to daily clinical practice with a focus on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: ABIDE is a 3-year project with a multifaceted design and is structured into interconnected substudies using both quantitative and qualitative research methods...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223377/exopolysaccharide-repressing-small-molecules-with-antibiofilm-and-antivirulence-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#9
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Laetitia Charron-Mazenod, David J Reading, Shauna L Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shawn Lewenza
Biofilm formation is a universal virulence strategy in which bacteria grow in dense microbial communities enmeshed within a polymeric extracellular matrix that protects them from antibiotic exposure and the immune system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an archetypal biofilm-forming organism that utilizes a biofilm growth strategy to cause chronic lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The extracellular matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms is comprised mainly of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and DNA. Both mucoid and non-mucoid isolates of P...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196090/the-uniqueness-of-morphological-features-of-pure-erythroid-leukemia-in-myeloid-neoplasm-with-erythroid-predominance-a-reassessment-using-criteria-revised-in-the-2016-world-health-organization-classification
#10
Po-Shen Ko, Yao-Chung Liu, Chiu-Mei Yeh, Jyh-Pyng Gau, Yuan-Bin Yu, Liang-Tsai Hsiao, Cheng-Hwai Tzeng, Po-Min Chen, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Chia-Jen Liu, Jin-Hwang Liu
We reviewed 97 consecutive cases of myeloid neoplasm with erythroid predominance (MN-EP) between 2000 and 2015. Following 2016 WHO classification, MN-EP patients were classified into four groups. Eight pure erythroid leukemia (PEL) (including t-MN and AML-MRC morphologically fulfilled criteria for PEL) patients had dismal outcomes (median OS: 1 month) and showed more bone marrow fibrosis, worse performance status (PS) and higher serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at diagnosis than the other groups. In the univariate analysis, risks of death in MN-EP patients included the morphologic features of PEL, very poor cytogenetic risk by IPSS-R, bone marrow fibrosis, leukocytosis, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, high LDH, and poor PS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184988/cloning-evaluation-and-high-level-expression-of-a-thermo-alkaline-pectate-lyase-from-alkaliphilic-bacillus-clausii-with-potential-in-ramie-degumming
#11
Cheng Zhou, Yanfen Xue, Yanhe Ma
Alkaline pectate lyases (Pels) have potential application in bioscouring of the textile industry. In this study, a thermo-alkaline Pel (BacPelA) gene from an alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii strain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The mature BacPelA exhibited maximum activity at pH 10.5 and 70 °C and showed high cleavage capability on methylated pectins. BacPelA showed the highest specific activity of 936.2 U mg(-1) on ≥85% methylated pectin and 675.5 U mg(-1) on standard substrate polygalacturonic acid (PGA) upon evaluation of the absorbance at 235 nm (A235)...
February 9, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167523/the-role-of-cyclic-di-gmp-and-exopolysaccharide-in-type-iv-pilus-dynamics
#12
Jan Ribbe, Amy E Baker, Sebstian Euler, George A O'Toole, Berenike Maier
For Pseudomonas aeruginosa the levels of cyclic di-GMP govern the transition from the planktonic state to biofilm formation. Type IV pili (T4P) are crucial determinants of biofilm structure and dynamics, but it is unknown how the levels of c-di-GMP affect pilus dynamics. Here, we scrutinized how c-di-GMP affects molecular motor properties and adhesive behavior of T4P. By means of retraction, T4P generated forces of ∼ 30 pN. Deletion mutants in the proteins with known roles in biofilm formation, swarming motility and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, specifically, the diguanulate cyclases sadC and roeA or the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase bifA, showed only modest effects on velocity or force of T4P retraction...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167419/comparative-pharmacokinetic-profiles-of-selected-irreversible-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-neratinib-and-pelitinib-with-apigenin-in-rat-plasma-by-uplc-ms-ms
#13
Hadir M Maher, Nourah Z Alzoman, Shereen M Shehata, Ashwag O Abahussain
Neratinib (NER) and pelitinib (PEL) are irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that have been recently employed in cancer treatment. Apigenin (API), among other flavonoids, is known to have antioxidant, anti-proliferative, and carcinogenic effect. API can potentiate the antitumor effect of chemotherapeutic agents and/or alleviate the side effects of many anticancer agents. Since TKIs are mostly metabolized by CYP3A4 enzymes and that API could alter the enzymatic activity, potential drug interactions could be expected following their co-aministration...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161410/methylseleninic-acid-and-sodium-selenite-induce-severe-er-stress-and-subsequent-apoptosis-through-upr-activation-in-pel-cells
#14
Zenpei Shigemi, Kazuki Manabe, Naoko Hara, Yusuke Baba, Kohei Hosokawa, Hiroki Kagawa, Tadashi Watanabe, Masahiro Fujimuro
Selenium compounds such as methylseleninic acid (MSA) and sodium selenite (SS) have been widely evaluated as potential anti-cancer agents in the clinical setting. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma, associated with immunosuppressed individuals, such as post-transplant or AIDS patients. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of PEL and Kaposi's sarcoma. Here, we found that MSA and SS markedly inhibited the growth of PEL cells compared with KSHV-uninfected B cells...
March 25, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146424/up-regulation-of-tumor-suppressor-genes-by-exogenous-dhc16-cer-contributes-to-its-anti-cancer-activity-in-primary-effusion-lymphoma
#15
Yueyu Cao, Jing Qiao, Zhen Lin, Jovanny Zabaleta, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and highly aggressive B-cell malignancy with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, while lack of effective therapies. Our recent data indicated that targeting the sphingolipid metabolism by either sphingosine kinase inhibitor or exogenous ceramide species induces PEL cell apoptosis and suppresses tumor progression in vivo. However, the underlying mechanisms for these exogenous ceramides "killing" PEL cells remain largely unknown. Based on the microarray analysis, we found that exogenous dhC16-Cer treatment affected the expression of many cellular genes with important functions within PEL cells such as regulation of cell cycle, cell survival/proliferation, and apoptosis/anti-apoptosis...
January 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145945/training-internal-medicine-residents-in-social-medicine-and-research-based-health-advocacy-a-novel-in-depth-curriculum
#16
Gaurab Basu, Richard J Pels, Rachel L Stark, Priyank Jain, David H Bor, Danny McCormick
PROBLEM: Health disparities are pervasive worldwide. Physicians have a unique vantage point from which they can observe the ways social, economic, and political factors impact health outcomes and can be effective advocates for enhanced health outcomes and health equity. However, social medicine and health advocacy curricula are uncommon in postgraduate medical education. APPROACH: In academic year (AY) 2012, the Cambridge Health Alliance internal medicine residency program transformed an elective into a required social medicine and research-based health advocacy curriculum...
January 31, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144286/study-of-clinical-haematological-and-cytogenetic-profile-of-patients-with-acute-erythroid-leukaemia
#17
Jacob Abraham Linu, Ms Namratha Udupa, D S Madhumathi, K C Lakshmaiah, K Govind Babu, D Lokanatha, Mc Suresh Babu, K N Lokesh, L K Rajeev, A H Rudresha
BACKGROUND: Acute erythroid leukaemia (AEL) is a rare subtype of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), constituting <5% of all the cases of AML. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2001 classified AEL into two types: (1) erythroid/myeloid leukaemia which required ≥50% erythroid precursors with ≥20% of the non-erythroid cells to be myeloid blasts and (2) pure erythroleukemia (pEL) with ≥80% erythroblasts. The WHO 2008 classification kept these subcategories, but made erythroleukemia a diagnosis of exclusion...
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139296/lignans-from-the-fruits-of-schisandra-chinensis-turcz-baill-inhibit-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-9-expression
#18
Pisey Pel, Hee-Sung Chae, Piseth Nhoek, Woojin Yeo, Young-Mi Kim, Young-Won Chin
Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis, using the proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mRNA expression screening assay, led to isolation of two previously unknown lignans, 14-tigloylschinlignan D and rel-(7R, 8R, 7'R, 8'R)-manglisin E, along with 28 known compounds. All structures were established by NMR spectroscopic data as well as CD and MS analysis. All isolates were tested for their inhibitory activities on the mRNA expression of PCSK9. Of the tested compounds, four of the compounds rel-(7R, 8R, 7'R, 8'R)-manglisin E, (-)-schisandrin C, schinlignan D, and (+)-schisandrol B potently inhibited PCSK9 mRNA expression with IC50 values of 3...
April 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137803/importance-of-the-exopolysaccharide-matrix-in-antimicrobial-tolerance-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-aggregates
#19
Lise Goltermann, Tim Tolker-Nielsen
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can infect the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and persist in the form of antibiotic tolerant aggregates in the mucus. It has recently been suggested that such aggregates are formed due to restricted bacterial motility independent of the production of extracellular matrix components, and that they do not rely on an extracellular matrix for antimicrobial tolerance. However, we show here that biofilm matrix over-expression, as displayed by various clinical isolates, significantly protects P...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131077/distribution-of-pahs-in-different-compartment-of-creek-ecosystem-ecotoxicological-concern-and-human-health-risk
#20
M Tiwari, S K Sahu, G G Pandit
We report levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment, seawater, fish and crab samples from Thane creek, India. Concentrations of sixteen USEPA PAH in sediments varies from 874 to 1925ngg(-1), dry weight (dw) in winter, between 219-495ngg(-1) in summer. In seawater Σ16 PAHs concentration during winter was recorded 706±193ngL(-1), and during summer 337±79ngL(-1). Total concentrations of PAHs in consumable portion of lizard fish, bombay duck and crab were found 156.8±18 and 122±24.5ngg(-1), 117...
March 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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