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TOX gene

Aruni De Zoysa, Androulla Efstratiou, Ginder Mann, Timothy G Harrison, Norman K Fry
Toxigenic corynebacteria are uncommon in the UK; however, laboratory confirmation by the national reference laboratory can inform public health action according to national guidelines. Standard phenotypic tests for identification and toxin expression of isolates can take from ≥24 to ≥48 h from receipt. To decrease the time to result, a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for confirmation of both identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans/Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and detection of the diphtheria toxin gene...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Mark Gosink
One of the many roles of a toxicologist is to determine if an observed adverse event (AE) is related to a previously unrecognized function of a given gene/protein. Towards that end, he or she will search a variety of public and propriety databases for information linking that protein to the observed AE. However, these databases tend to present all available information about a protein, which can be overwhelming, limiting the ability to find information about the specific toxicity being investigated. ToxReporter compiles information from a broad selection of resources and limits display of the information to user-selected areas of interest...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Daniel Nilsson, Maria Pettersson, Peter Gustavsson, Alisa Förster, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Josephine Wincent, Vasilios Zachariadis, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Ann Nordgren, Outi Mäkitie, Valtteri Wirta, Max Käller, Francesco Vezzi, James R Lupski, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Elisabeth Syk Lundberg, Claudia M B Carvalho, Anna Lindstrand
Most balanced translocations are thought to result mechanistically from nonhomologous end joining or, in rare cases of recurrent events, by nonallelic homologous recombination. Here, we use low-coverage mate pair whole-genome sequencing to fine map rearrangement breakpoint junctions in both phenotypically normal and affected translocation carriers. In total, 46 junctions from 22 carriers of balanced translocations were characterized. Genes were disrupted in 48% of the breakpoints; recessive genes in four normal carriers and known dominant intellectual disability genes in three affected carriers...
February 2017: Human Mutation
Marcos Guilherme da Cunha, Gilson César Nobre Franco, Marcelo Franchin, John A Beutler, Severino Matias de Alencar, Masaharu Ikegaki, Pedro Luiz Rosalen
In silico and in vitro methodologies have been used as important tools in the drug discovery process, including from natural sources. The aim of this study was to predict pharmacokinetic and toxicity (ADME/Tox) properties of a coumarin isolated from geopropolis using in silico and in vitro approaches. Cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (CNM) isolated from Brazilian M. scutellaris geopropolis was evaluated for its pharmacokinetic parameters by in silico models (ACD/Percepta™ and MetaDrug™ software). Genotoxicity was assessed by in vitro DNA damage signaling PCR array...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Bernice M Benoit, Neha Jariwala, Geraldine O'Connor, Landon K Oetjen, Timothy M Whelan, Adrienne Werth, Andrea B Troxel, Hélène Sicard, Lisa Zhu, Christopher Miller, Junko Takeshita, Daniel W McVicar, Brian S Kim, Alain H Rook, Maria Wysocka
Sézary syndrome (SS), a leukemic variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), is associated with a significantly shorter life expectancy compared to skin-restricted mycosis fungoides. Early diagnosis of SS is, therefore, key to achieving enhanced therapeutic responses. However, the lack of a biomarker(s) highly specific for malignant CD4(+) T cells in SS patients has been a serious obstacle in making an early diagnosis. We recently demonstrated the high expression of CD164 on CD4(+) T cells from Sézary syndrome patients with a wide range of circulating tumor burdens...
January 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
Partha Pratim Das, Saurav Jyoti Patgiri, Lahari Saikia, Debosmita Paul
Diphtheria is still a significant child health problem in countries with low immunization coverage. Reports of diphtheria in adult population are also increasing. Here we describe three recent outbreaks of diphtheria in Dibrugarh district, Assam in two consecutive years. The study was undertaken in Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh after the diagnosis of two Diphtheria cases in the month of September and October 2015 and another in January 2016. Outbreak investigation was done after defining operational definition and throat swabs were collected from thirty three (33) individuals including three (3) index cases and thirty (30) close contacts...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
B Kullin, T Brock, N Rajabally, F Anwar, G Vedantam, S Reid, V Abratt
The C. difficile infection rate in South Africa is concerning. Many strains previously isolated from diarrhetic patients at Groote Schuur Hospital were ribotype 017. This study further characterised these strains with respect to their clonal relationships, antibiotic susceptibility, toxin production and various attributes impacting on pathogen colonisation. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was used to characterise all C. difficile isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test and PCR-based analysis of the ermB, gyrA and gyrB genes...
October 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Vartul Sangal, Paul A Hoskisson
Diphtheria is a debilitating disease caused by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains and has been effectively controlled by the toxoid vaccine, yet several recent outbreaks have been reported across the globe. Moreover, non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains are emerging as a major global health concern by causing severe pharyngitis and tonsillitis, endocarditis, septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. Molecular epidemiological investigations suggest the existence of outbreak-associated clones with multiple genotypes circulating around the world...
September 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Azar Dokht Khosravi, Fatemeh Shafie, Effat Abbasi Montazeri, Soodabeh Rostami
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections have emerged as a major infectious disease threat in recent decades with infection particularly in immunocompromised hosts. P. aeruginosa possesses several virulence factors with involvement in pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of virulence genes of toxA and toxS and to analyze their relation to antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. METHODS: In total 185 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from burn patients...
August 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Yue Xiao, Qiongsi Zhang, Yiquan Luo, Ying Zhang, Xi Luo, Yuchuan Wang, Weiguo Cao, Vito De Pinto, Qiuyun Liu, Gang Li
Cellulases that endure extreme conditions are essential in various industrial sectors. This study reports a mini-cellulase gene tox-1 from Neurospora crassa. The gene tox-1 was cloned in Escherichia coli after chimerization with the YebF gene and substitutions of certain isoleucine and valine with leucine residues. The yeast transformants could grow on rice straw-agar medium. The 44-amino acid peptide and its two mutant variants displayed potent cellulase activities in Congo Red assay and enzymatic assays. Conservative replacements with leucine have substantially increased the stabilities and half-lives of the peptides at alkaline pH and low and high temperatures and also the tolerance to organic solvents and surfactants, on the basis of activities toward cellose...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Michael K Fenwick, Benjamin Philmus, Tadhg P Begley, Steven E Ealick
Toxoflavin is a major virulence factor of the rice pathogen Burkholderia glumae. The tox operon of B. glumae contains five putative toxoflavin biosynthetic genes toxABCDE. ToxA is a predicted S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase, and toxA knockouts of B. glumae are less virulent in plant infection models. In this study, we show that ToxA performs two consecutive methylations to convert the putative azapteridine intermediate, 1,6-didemethyltoxoflavin, to toxoflavin. In addition, we report a series of crystal structures of ToxA complexes that reveals the molecular basis of the dual methyltransferase activity...
May 17, 2016: Biochemistry
António Miguel de Jesus Domingues, Benedetta Artegiani, Andreas Dahl, Federico Calegari
In recent years, DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) has emerged as a powerful tool to profile protein-DNA interaction on a genome-wide scale. While DamID has been primarily combined with microarray analyses, which limits the spatial resolution and full potential of this technique, our group was the first to combine DamID with sequencing (DamID-Seq) for characterizing the binding loci and properties of a transcription factor (Tox) (sequencing data available at NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus under the accession number GSE64240)...
March 2016: Genomics Data
Xin Yu, Zheng Li
Thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box factor (TOX) is a member of an evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding protein family and is expressed in several immune-relevant cell subsets. TOX encodes a nuclear protein of the high-mobility group box superfamily. It contains a DNA-binding domain, which allows it to regulate transcription by modifying local chromatin structure and modulating the formation of multi-protein complexes. Previous studies have shown that TOX play important roles in immune system...
2015: American Journal of Cancer Research
Maxime Thouvenin, Bassam Beilouny, Edgar Badell, Nicole Guiso
Corynebacterium ulcerans is a bacterium able to infect humans by inducing a disease close to diphtheria. We describe the case of a 83-year-old patient hospitalized as a matter of urgency in intensive care for which C. ulcerans was isolated in pure culture in its bronchial samples. Even if the isolate was not secreting toxin in vitro, it possesses the tox gene which motivated the use of specific antitoxin serum. After two months of intensive care the patient went out of the service. It is about a remarkable case of clinicobiologic collaboration...
January 2016: Annales de Biologie Clinique
Chihiro Katsukawa, Takako Komiya, Kaoru Umeda, Minami Goto, Tokuma Yanai, Motohide Takahashi, Akihiko Yamamoto, Masaaki Iwaki
Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans is a zoonotic pathogen that produces diphtheria toxin and causes a diphtheria-like illness in humans. The organism is known to infect and circulate among dogs, which can then transmit it to humans. Furthermore, previous studies have found that C. ulcerans is carried by wild animals, including game animals. In the present study, we tested hunting and companion dogs for the presence of toxigenic C. ulcerans and succeeded in isolating the bacterium from a hunting dog. Moreover, several hunting dogs had serum diphtheria antitoxin titers that were higher than the titers required for protection in humans, suggesting a history of exposure to toxigenic Corynebacterium strains...
March 2016: Microbiology and Immunology
Rui Liu, Hao Chen, Ran Zhang, Zhi Zhou, Zhanhui Hou, Dahai Gao, Huan Zhang, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Yesso scallop-pathogenic Vibrio splendidus strain JZ6 was found to have the highest virulence at 10°C, while its pathogenicity was significantly reduced with increased temperature and completely incapacitated at 28°C. In the present study, comparative transcriptome analyses of JZ6 and another nonpathogenic V. splendidus strain, TZ19, were conducted at two crucial culture temperatures (10°C and 28°C) in order to determine the possible mechanism of temperature regulation of virulence. Comparisons among four libraries, constructed from JZ6 and TZ19 cultured at 10°C and 28°C (designated JZ6_10, JZ6_28, TZ19_10, and TZ19_28), revealed that 241 genes were possibly related to the increased virulence of JZ6 at 10°C...
January 22, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Catherine Jessica Lai, Boon Hunt Tay
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NpC) is rare in the west but common in Southeast Asia and only a few other locations. With the limited geographic incidence, it is relatively under-studied. It also has as co-determinant the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which may adapt to NpC therapies, so not only must a therapeutic compound be found, the discovery process must be rapid, to cope with the changing basis of the EBV. An R-based computer workbench, Mendel, was developed so biologists could quickly upload genomic data, pre-process them, and identify upregulated and downregulated genes...
February 1, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
F J Wei, C Y Cai, P Yu, J Lv, C Ling, W T Shi, H X Jiao, B C Chang, F H Yang, Y Tian, M S Li, Y H Wang, L Zou, J M Shi, L M Chen, W D Li
Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many loci associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hyperuricemia, and obesity in various ethnic populations. However, quantitative traits have been less well investigated in Han Chinese T2DM populations. We investigated the association between candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and metabolic syndrome-related quantitative traits in Han Chinese T2DM subjects. Unrelated Han Chinese T2DM patients (1975) were recruited. Eighty-six SNPs were genotyped and tested for association with quantitative traits including lipid profiles, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum uric acid (SUA), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), plasma glucose [fasting plasma glucose (FPG)], plasma glucose 120 min post-OGTT (P2PG; OGTT = oral glucose tolerance test), and insulin resistance-related traits...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Corey R Seehus, Jonathan Kaye
TOX, an evolutionarily conserved member of the HMG-box family of proteins, is essential for the development of various cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. TOX is required for the development of CD4(+) T lineage cells in the thymus, including natural killer T and T regulatory cells, as well as development of natural killer cells and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells, the latter required for lymph node organogenesis. Recently, we have identified a broader role for TOX in the innate immune system, demonstrating that this nuclear protein is required for generation of bone marrow progenitors that have potential to give rise to all innate lymphoid cells...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
Brittany O Dulmage, Oleg Akilov, John R Vu, Louis D Falo, Larisa J Geskin
Studies have examined gene expression changes in Sézary syndrome (SS), but disease pathogenesis remains largely unknown, and diagnosis and treatment are difficult. TOX is a transcription factor involved in CD4+ T-cell development with downstream effects on RUNX3, a known tumor suppressor gene. We sought to identify genes involved in SS disease pathogenesis with the potential to enable diagnosis and treatment. We utilized previously reported transcriptome sequencing data to construct a list of candidate genes, which was narrowed using pathway analysis...
November 6, 2015: Oncotarget
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