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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132312/genomic-analysis-of-endemic-clones-of-toxigenic-and-non-toxigenic-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-in-belarus-during-and-after-the-major-epidemic-in-1990s
#1
Steffen Grosse-Kock, Valentina Kolodkina, Edward C Schwalbe, Jochen Blom, Andreas Burkovski, Paul A Hoskisson, Sylvain Brisse, Darren Smith, Iain C Sutcliffe, Leonid Titov, Vartul Sangal
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria remains a major public health concern with multiple recent outbreaks around the world. Moreover, invasive non-toxigenic strains have emerged globally causing severe infections. A diphtheria epidemic in the former Soviet Union in the 1990s resulted in ~5000 deaths. In this study, we analysed the genome sequences of a collection of 93 C. diphtheriae strains collected during and after this outbreak (1996 - 2014) in a former Soviet State, Belarus to understand the evolutionary dynamics and virulence capacities of these strains...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075239/insight-of-genus-corynebacterium-ascertaining-the-role-of-pathogenic-and-non-pathogenic-species
#2
REVIEW
Alberto Oliveira, Leticia C Oliveira, Flavia Aburjaile, Leandro Benevides, Sandeep Tiwari, Syed B Jamal, Arthur Silva, Henrique C P Figueiredo, Preetam Ghosh, Ricardo W Portela, Vasco A De Carvalho Azevedo, Alice R Wattam
This review gathers recent information about genomic and transcriptomic studies in the Corynebacterium genus, exploring, for example, prediction of pathogenicity islands and stress response in different pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. In addition, is described several phylogeny studies to Corynebacterium, exploring since the identification of species until biological speciation in one species belonging to the genus Corynebacterium. Important concepts associated with virulence highlighting the role of Pld protein and Tox gene...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943953/six-low-penetrance-snps-for-the-estimation-of-breast-cancer-heritability-a-family-based-study-in-caucasian-italian-patients
#3
Simona De Summa, Francesca Graziano, Brunella Pilato, Rosamaria Pinto, Katia Danza, Rosanna Lacalamita, Simona Serratì, Domenico Sambiasi, Mario Grassi, Stefania Tommasi
Breast cancer is a malignancy with a strong heritable component. Genetic counseling has been principally focused on families carrying high-penetrance breast cancer 1/2, early onset genes. Current modeling suggests that the majority of the unexplained fraction of familial risk is likely to be explained by a polygenic model. The aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of breast cancer susceptibility through the analysis of 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1, cyclin D1, cytochrome C oxidase copper chaperone, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, TOX high mobility group box family member 3 and solute carrier family 4 member 7...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939559/microbiome-symbionts-and-diet-diversity-incur-costs-on-the-immune-system-of-insect-larvae
#4
Indrikis A Krams, Sanita Kecko, Priit Jõers, Giedrius Trakimas, Didzis Elferts, Ronalds Krams, Severi Luoto, Markus J Rantala, Inna Inashkina, Dita Gudrā, Dāvids Fridmanis, Jorge Contreras-Garduño, Lelde Grantiņa-Ieviņa, Tatjana Krama
Communities of symbiotic microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract play an important role in food digestion and protection against opportunistic microbes. Diet diversity increases the number of symbionts in the intestines, a benefit that is considered to impose no cost for the host organism. However, less is known about the possible immunological investments that hosts have to make in order to control the infections caused by symbiont populations that increase due to diet diversity. By using taxonomical composition analysis of the 16S rRNA V3 region, we show that Enterococci are the dominating group of bacteria in the midgut of the larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776448/an-exploratory-genome-wide-analysis-of-genetic-risk-for-alcoholic-hepatitis
#5
James J Beaudoin, Nanye Long, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Puneet Puri, Patrick S Kamath, Vijay Shah, Arun J Sanyal, David W Crabb, Naga P Chalasani, Thomas J Urban
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the genetic variability between heavy drinkers with and without alcoholic hepatitis (AH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An exploratory genome-wide association study (GWAS; NCT02172898) was conducted comparing 90 AH cases with 93 heavy drinking matched controls without liver disease in order to identify variants or genes associated with risk for AH. Individuals were genotyped using the multi-ethnic genotyping array, after which the data underwent conventional quality control...
August 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711373/comparative-genomic-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-toxigenic-clinical-isolate-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-strain-b-d-16-78-from-malaysia
#6
Kar-Wai Hong, A W Asmah Hani, C A Nurul Aina Murni, R R Pusparani, Chee Kheong Chong, Khebir Verasahib, Wan Noraini W Yusoff, Noorliza M Noordin, Kok Keng Tee, Wai-Fong Yin, Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Kok-Gan Chan
In this study, we report the comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain B-D-16-78 that was isolated from a clinical specimen in 2016. The complete genome of C. diphtheriae strain B-D-16-78 was sequenced using PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time sequencing technology and consists of a 2,474,151-bp circular chromosome with an average GC content of 53.56%. The core genome of C. diphtheriae was also deduced from a total of 74 strains with complete or draft genome sequences and the core genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed close genetic relationship among strains that shared the same MLST allelic profile...
July 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638728/gene-expression-analysis-in-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphomas-ctcl-highlights-disease-heterogeneity-and-potential-diagnostic-and-prognostic-indicators
#7
Ivan V Litvinov, Michael T Tetzlaff, Philippe Thibault, Pamela Gangar, Linda Moreau, Andrew K Watters, Elena Netchiporouk, Kevin Pehr, Victor G Prieto, Elham Rahme, Nathalie Provost, Martin Gilbert, Denis Sasseville, Madeleine Duvic
Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL) are rare, but potentially devastating malignancies, whose pathogenesis remains poorly elucidated. Unfortunately, currently it is not possible to predict based on the available criteria in which patients the cancer will progress and which patients will experience an indolent disease course. Furthermore, at early stages this malignancy often masquerades as psoriasis, chronic eczema or other benign inflammatory dermatoses. As a result, it takes on average 6 y to diagnose this lymphoma since its initial presentation...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547769/evaluation-of-piggybac-mediated-cho-pools-to-enable-material-generation-to-support-glp-toxicology-studies
#8
Yashas Rajendra, Sowmya Balasubramanian, Neil A McCracken, Dawn L Norris, Zhirui Lian, Matthew G Schmitt, Christopher C Frye, Gavin C Barnard
Generating purified protein for GLP toxicology studies (GLP-Tox) represents an important and often rate limiting step in the biopharmaceutical drug development process. Toxicity testing requires large amounts of therapeutic protein (>100g), typically produced in a single 500L - 2,500L bioreactor, using the final CHO clonally-derived cell line (CDCL). One approach currently used to save time is to manufacture GLP-Tox material using pools of high-producing CHO CDCLs instead of waiting for the final CDCL. Recently, we reported CHO pools producing mAb titers >7 g/L using piggyBac-mediated gene integration (PB CHO pools)...
May 25, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489605/genetic-rearrangements-result-in-altered-gene-expression-and-novel-fusion-transcripts-in-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome
#9
Katarzyna Iżykowska, Grzegorz K Przybylski, Claudia Gand, Floriane C Braun, Piotr Grabarczyk, Andreas W Kuss, Karolina Olek-Hrab, Armando N Bastidas Torres, Maarten H Vermeer, Willem H Zoutman, Cornelis P Tensen, Christian A Schmidt
Sézary syndrome (SS) is an aggressive, leukemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma variant. Molecular pathogenesis of SS is still unclear despite many studies on genetic alterations, gene expression and epigenetic regulations. Through whole genome and transcriptome next generation sequencing nine Sézary syndrome patients were analyzed in terms of copy number variations and rearrangements affecting gene expression. Recurrent copy number variations were detected within 8q (MYC, TOX), 17p (TP53, NCOR1), 10q (PTEN, FAS), 2p (DNMT3A), 11q (USP28), 9p (CAAP1), but no recurrent rearrangements were identified...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480263/diagnosis-in-france-of-a-non-toxigenic-tox-gene-bearing-strain-of-corynebacterium-diphtheriae-in-a-young-male-back-from-senegal
#10
Typhaine Billard-Pomares, Cécile Rouyer, Violaine Walewski, Edgar Badell-Ocando, Marc Dumas, Coralie Zumelzu, Françoise Jaureguy, Sylvain Brisse, Frédéric Caux, Olivier Bouchaud, Etienne Carbonnelle
Cutaneous diphtheria is uncommon in Europe. In this study, we report a case of imported cutaneous infection due to a non-toxigenic but tox gene-bearing (NTTB) strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The NTTB strains are recognized as emerging pathogens across Europe, and physicians and bacteriologists should be aware of the circulation of these strains.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464377/bile-salts-and-alkaline-ph-reciprocally-modulate-the-interaction-between-the-periplasmic-domains-of-vibrio-cholerae-toxr-and-toxs
#11
Charles R Midgett, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Maria Pellegrini, Ronald K Taylor, Karen Skorupski, F Jon Kull
ToxR is a transmembrane transcription factor that is essential for virulence gene expression and human colonization by Vibrio cholerae. ToxR requires its operon partner ToxS, a periplasmic integral membrane protein, for full activity. These two proteins are thought to interact through their respective periplasmic domains, ToxRp and ToxSp. In addition, ToxR is thought to be responsive to various environmental cues, such as bile salts and alkaline pH, but how these factors influence ToxR is not yet understood...
July 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441483/discovery-of-a-novel-class-of-survival-motor-neuron-2-splicing-modifiers-for-the-treatment-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#12
Emmanuel Pinard, Luke Green, Michael Reutlinger, Marla Weetall, Nikolai A Naryshkin, John Baird, Karen S Chen, Sergey V Paushkin, Friedrich Metzger, Hasane Ratni
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by mutation or deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in low levels of functional SMN protein. We have reported recently the identification of small molecules (coumarins, iso-coumarins and pyrido-pyrimidinones) that modify the alternative splicing of SMN2, a paralogous gene to SMN1, restoring the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein level in mouse models of SMA. Herein, we report our efforts to identify a novel chemotype as one strategy to potentially circumvent safety concerns from earlier derivatives such as in vitro phototoxicity and in vitro mutagenicity associated with compounds 1 and 2 or the in vivo retinal findings observed in a long-term chronic tox study with 3 at high exposures only...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327672/tox-and-adipoq-gene-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-antipsychotic-induced-weight-gain-in-han-chinese
#13
Shen Li, Chengai Xu, Yuan Tian, Xueshi Wang, Rui Jiang, Miaomiao Zhang, Lili Wang, Guifu Yang, Ying Gao, Chenyu Song, Yukun He, Ying Zhang, Jie Li, Wei-Dong Li
To find the genetic markers related to the antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG), we analyzed associations among candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative traits of weight changes and lipid profiles in a Chinese Han population. A total of 339 schizophrenic patients, including 86 first-episode patients (FEPs), meeting the entry criteria were collected. All patients received atypical antipsychotic drug monotherapy and hospitalization and were followed for 12 weeks. Forty-three SNPs in 23 candidate genes were calculated for quantitative genetic association with AIWG, performed by PLINK...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295044/novel-transcriptome-assembly-and-comparative-toxicity-pathway-analysis-in-mahi-mahi-coryphaena-hippurus-embryos-and-larvae-exposed-to-deepwater-horizon-oil
#14
Elvis Genbo Xu, Edward M Mager, Martin Grosell, E Starr Hazard, Gary Hardiman, Daniel Schlenk
The impacts of Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil on morphology and function during embryonic development have been documented for a number of fish species, including the economically and ecologically important pelagic species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). However, further investigations on molecular events and pathways responsible for developmental toxicity have been largely restricted due to the limited molecular data available for this species. We sought to establish the de novo transcriptomic database from the embryos and larvae of mahi-mahi exposed to water accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) of two DWH oil types (weathered and source oil), in an effort to advance our understanding of the molecular aspects involved during specific toxicity responses...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902437/development-validation-and-implementation-of-a-quadruplex-real-time-pcr-assay-for-identification-of-potentially-toxigenic-corynebacteria
#15
Aruni De Zoysa, Androulla Efstratiou, Ginder Mann, Timothy G Harrison, Norman K Fry
Toxigenic corynebacteria are uncommon in the UK; however, laboratory confirmation by the national reference laboratory can inform public health action according to national guidelines. Standard phenotypic tests for identification and toxin expression of isolates can take from ≥24 to ≥48 h from receipt. To decrease the time to result, a real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for confirmation of both identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans/Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and detection of the diphtheria toxin gene...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888230/toxreporter-viewing-the-genome-through-the-eyes-of-a-toxicologist
#16
Mark Gosink
One of the many roles of a toxicologist is to determine if an observed adverse event (AE) is related to a previously unrecognized function of a given gene/protein. Towards that end, he or she will search a variety of public and propriety databases for information linking that protein to the observed AE. However, these databases tend to present all available information about a protein, which can be overwhelming, limiting the ability to find information about the specific toxicity being investigated. ToxReporter compiles information from a broad selection of resources and limits display of the information to user-selected areas of interest...
2016: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862604/whole-genome-sequencing-of-cytogenetically-balanced-chromosome-translocations-identifies-potentially-pathological-gene-disruptions-and-highlights-the-importance-of-microhomology-in-the-mechanism-of-formation
#17
Daniel Nilsson, Maria Pettersson, Peter Gustavsson, Alisa Förster, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Josephine Wincent, Vasilios Zachariadis, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Ann Nordgren, Outi Mäkitie, Valtteri Wirta, Max Käller, Francesco Vezzi, James R Lupski, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Elisabeth Syk Lundberg, Claudia M B Carvalho, Anna Lindstrand
Most balanced translocations are thought to result mechanistically from nonhomologous end joining or, in rare cases of recurrent events, by nonallelic homologous recombination. Here, we use low-coverage mate pair whole-genome sequencing to fine map rearrangement breakpoint junctions in both phenotypically normal and affected translocation carriers. In total, 46 junctions from 22 carriers of balanced translocations were characterized. Genes were disrupted in 48% of the breakpoints; recessive genes in four normal carriers and known dominant intellectual disability genes in three affected carriers...
February 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773722/prediction-of-pharmacokinetic-and-toxicological-parameters-of-a-4-phenylcoumarin-isolated-from-geopropolis-in-silico-and-in-vitro-approaches
#18
Marcos Guilherme da Cunha, Gilson César Nobre Franco, Marcelo Franchin, John A Beutler, Severino Matias de Alencar, Masaharu Ikegaki, Pedro Luiz Rosalen
In silico and in vitro methodologies have been used as important tools in the drug discovery process, including from natural sources. The aim of this study was to predict pharmacokinetic and toxicity (ADME/Tox) properties of a coumarin isolated from geopropolis using in silico and in vitro approaches. Cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (CNM) isolated from Brazilian M. scutellaris geopropolis was evaluated for its pharmacokinetic parameters by in silico models (ACD/Percepta™ and MetaDrug™ software). Genotoxicity was assessed by in vitro DNA damage signaling PCR array...
November 30, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766406/cd164-identifies-cd4-t-cells-highly-expressing-genes-associated-with-malignancy-in-s%C3%A3-zary-syndrome-the-s%C3%A3-zary-signature-genes-fcrl3-tox-and-mir-214
#19
Bernice M Benoit, Neha Jariwala, Geraldine O'Connor, Landon K Oetjen, Timothy M Whelan, Adrienne Werth, Andrea B Troxel, Hélène Sicard, Lisa Zhu, Christopher Miller, Junko Takeshita, Daniel W McVicar, Brian S Kim, Alain H Rook, Maria Wysocka
Sézary syndrome (SS), a leukemic variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), is associated with a significantly shorter life expectancy compared to skin-restricted mycosis fungoides. Early diagnosis of SS is, therefore, key to achieving enhanced therapeutic responses. However, the lack of a biomarker(s) highly specific for malignant CD4(+) T cells in SS patients has been a serious obstacle in making an early diagnosis. We recently demonstrated the high expression of CD164 on CD4(+) T cells from Sézary syndrome patients with a wide range of circulating tumor burdens...
January 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630847/recent-outbreaks-of-diphtheria-in-dibrugarh-district-assam-india
#20
Partha Pratim Das, Saurav Jyoti Patgiri, Lahari Saikia, Debosmita Paul
Diphtheria is still a significant child health problem in countries with low immunization coverage. Reports of diphtheria in adult population are also increasing. Here we describe three recent outbreaks of diphtheria in Dibrugarh district, Assam in two consecutive years. The study was undertaken in Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh after the diagnosis of two Diphtheria cases in the month of September and October 2015 and another in January 2016. Outbreak investigation was done after defining operational definition and throat swabs were collected from thirty three (33) individuals including three (3) index cases and thirty (30) close contacts...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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