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TOX gene

Urszula Czajka, Aldona Wiatrzyk, Ewa Mosiej, Kamila Formińska, Aleksandra A Zasada
BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a re-emerging pathogen in Europe causing invasive infections in vaccinated persons and classical diphtheria in unvaccinated persons. In the presented study we analysed genetic changes in C. diphtheriae isolates collected in Poland from the period before the introduction of the mass anti-diphtheria vaccination to the present time when over 98% of the population is vaccinated. METHODS: A total of 62 C. diphtheriae isolates collected in the 1950s-1960s, 1990s and 2000-2016 in Poland were investigated...
March 9, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ximena Blanco Crivelli, María P Bonino, Paula Von Wernich Castillo, Armando Navarro, Osvaldo Degregorio, Adriana Bentancor
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are pathovars of E. coli that impact human health by causing childhood diseases. In this work, 118 synanthropic rodents of the genus Rattus from Buenos Aires, Argentina were evaluated as EPEC and STEC carriers. Rectal swab samples from captured animals were evaluated by conventional PCR to detect the presence of the eae , stx 1, stx 2, and rfb O157 genes. Twenty-one isolates were obtained (17 EPEC isolates from seven animals and four STEC isolates from the same animal)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Qing-Gang Zhu, Zi-Yuan Gong, Miao-Miao Wang, Xian Li, Donald Grierson, Xue-Ren Yin, Kun-Song Chen
Plant responses to anaerobic environments are regulated by ethylene response factors (ERFs) in both vegetative and productive organs, but the roles of other transcription factors (TFs) in hypoxia responses are poorly understood. Here, eight TFs (DkbHLH1, DkMYB9/10/11, DkRH2-1, DkGT3-1, DkAN1-1, DkHSF1) were shown to be strongly up-regulated by AHCA (artificial high CO2 atmosphere, 1 % O2 and 95 % CO2). Dual-luciferase assay indicated some TFs were activators of previously characterized DkERFs, including DkMYB10 for the DkERF9 promoter, DkERF18/19 and DkMYB6 for the DkERF19 promoter, DkERF21/22 for the DkERF10 promoter...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Manuel Wittchen, Tobias Busche, Andrew H Gaspar, Ju Huck Lee, Hung Ton-That, Jörn Kalinowski, Andreas Tauch
BACKGROUND: The human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the causative agent of diphtheria. In the 1990s a large diphtheria outbreak in Eastern Europe was caused by the strain C. diphtheriae NCTC 13129. Although the genome was sequenced more than a decade ago, not much is known about its transcriptome. Our aim was to use transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to close this knowledge gap and gain insights into the transcriptional landscape of a C. diphtheriae tox+ strain. RESULTS: We applied two different RNA-Seq techniques, one to retrieve 5'-ends of primary transcripts and the other to characterize the whole transcriptional landscape in order to gain insights into various features of the C...
January 25, 2018: BMC Genomics
Xiaoming Wu
The present study aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of myelination in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) based on genome expression profiles. Microarray data (GSE60345) was acquired from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were integrated and subsequently subjected to pathway and term enrichment analysis. A protein‑protein interaction network was constructed and the top 200 DEGs according to their degree value were further subjected to pathway enrichment analysis...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Cuiyan Wu, Huan Liu, Feng'e Zhang, Wanzhen Shao, Lei Yang, Yujie Ning, Sen Wang, Guanghui Zhao, Byeong Jae Lee, Mikko Lammi, Xiong Guo
Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a deformative, endemic osteochondropathy involving degeneration and necrosis of growth plates and articular cartilage. The pathogenesis of KBD is related to gene expression and regulation mechanisms, but long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in KBD have not been investigated. In this study, we identified 316 up-regulated and 631 down-regulated lncRNAs (≥ 2-fold change) in KBD chondrocytes using microarray analysis, of which more than three-quarters were intergenic lncRNAs and antisense lncRNAs...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Weina Guo, Martina Jelocnik, Jing Li, Konrad Sachse, Adam Polkinghorne, Yvonne Pannekoek, Bernhard Kaltenboeck, Jiansen Gong, Jinfeng You, Chengming Wang
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia (C.) gallinacea is a recently identified bacterium that mainly infects domestic chickens. Demonstration of C. gallinacea in human atypical pneumonia suggests its zoonotic potential. Its prevalence in chickens exceeds that of C. psittaci, but genetic and genomic research on C. gallinacea is still at the beginning. In this study, we conducted whole-genome sequencing of C. gallinacea strain JX-1 isolated from an asymptomatic chicken, and comparative genomic analysis between C...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
Steffen Grosse-Kock, Valentina Kolodkina, Edward C Schwalbe, Jochen Blom, Andreas Burkovski, Paul A Hoskisson, Sylvain Brisse, Darren Smith, Iain C Sutcliffe, Leonid Titov, Vartul Sangal
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria remains a major public health concern with multiple recent outbreaks around the world. Moreover, invasive non-toxigenic strains have emerged globally causing severe infections. A diphtheria epidemic in the former Soviet Union in the 1990s resulted in ~5000 deaths. In this study, we analysed the genome sequences of a collection of 93 C. diphtheriae strains collected during and after this outbreak (1996 - 2014) in a former Soviet State, Belarus to understand the evolutionary dynamics and virulence capacities of these strains...
November 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
Alberto Oliveira, Leticia C Oliveira, Flavia Aburjaile, Leandro Benevides, Sandeep Tiwari, Syed B Jamal, Arthur Silva, Henrique C P Figueiredo, Preetam Ghosh, Ricardo W Portela, Vasco A De Carvalho Azevedo, Alice R Wattam
This review gathers recent information about genomic and transcriptomic studies in the Corynebacterium genus, exploring, for example, prediction of pathogenicity islands and stress response in different pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. In addition, is described several phylogeny studies to Corynebacterium, exploring since the identification of species until biological speciation in one species belonging to the genus Corynebacterium. Important concepts associated with virulence highlighting the role of Pld protein and Tox gene...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Simona De Summa, Francesca Graziano, Brunella Pilato, Rosamaria Pinto, Katia Danza, Rosanna Lacalamita, Simona Serratì, Domenico Sambiasi, Mario Grassi, Stefania Tommasi
Breast cancer is a malignancy with a strong heritable component. Genetic counseling has been principally focused on families carrying high-penetrance breast cancer 1/2, early onset genes. Current modeling suggests that the majority of the unexplained fraction of familial risk is likely to be explained by a polygenic model. The aim of the present study was to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of breast cancer susceptibility through the analysis of 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1, cyclin D1, cytochrome C oxidase copper chaperone, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, TOX high mobility group box family member 3 and solute carrier family 4 member 7...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
Indrikis A Krams, Sanita Kecko, Priit Jõers, Giedrius Trakimas, Didzis Elferts, Ronalds Krams, Severi Luoto, Markus J Rantala, Inna Inashkina, Dita Gudrā, Dāvids Fridmanis, Jorge Contreras-Garduño, Lelde Grantiņa-Ieviņa, Tatjana Krama
Communities of symbiotic microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract play an important role in food digestion and protection against opportunistic microbes. Diet diversity increases the number of symbionts in the intestines, a benefit that is considered to impose no cost for the host organism. However, less is known about the possible immunological investments that hosts have to make in order to control the infections caused by symbiont populations that increase due to diet diversity. By using taxonomical composition analysis of the 16S rRNA V3 region, we show that Enterococci are the dominating group of bacteria in the midgut of the larvae of the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
James J Beaudoin, Nanye Long, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Puneet Puri, Patrick S Kamath, Vijay Shah, Arun J Sanyal, David W Crabb, Naga P Chalasani, Thomas J Urban
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the genetic variability between heavy drinkers with and without alcoholic hepatitis (AH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An exploratory genome-wide association study (GWAS; NCT02172898) was conducted comparing 90 AH cases with 93 heavy drinking matched controls without liver disease in order to identify variants or genes associated with risk for AH. Individuals were genotyped using the multi-ethnic genotyping array, after which the data underwent conventional quality control...
August 4, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Kar-Wai Hong, A W Asmah Hani, C A Nurul Aina Murni, R R Pusparani, Chee Kheong Chong, Khebir Verasahib, Wan Noraini W Yusoff, Noorliza M Noordin, Kok Keng Tee, Wai-Fong Yin, Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Kok-Gan Chan
In this study, we report the comparative genomics and phylogenetic analysis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain B-D-16-78 that was isolated from a clinical specimen in 2016. The complete genome of C. diphtheriae strain B-D-16-78 was sequenced using PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time sequencing technology and consists of a 2,474,151-bp circular chromosome with an average GC content of 53.56%. The core genome of C. diphtheriae was also deduced from a total of 74 strains with complete or draft genome sequences and the core genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed close genetic relationship among strains that shared the same MLST allelic profile...
July 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ivan V Litvinov, Michael T Tetzlaff, Philippe Thibault, Pamela Gangar, Linda Moreau, Andrew K Watters, Elena Netchiporouk, Kevin Pehr, Victor G Prieto, Elham Rahme, Nathalie Provost, Martin Gilbert, Denis Sasseville, Madeleine Duvic
Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas (CTCL) are rare, but potentially devastating malignancies, whose pathogenesis remains poorly elucidated. Unfortunately, currently it is not possible to predict based on the available criteria in which patients the cancer will progress and which patients will experience an indolent disease course. Furthermore, at early stages this malignancy often masquerades as psoriasis, chronic eczema or other benign inflammatory dermatoses. As a result, it takes on average 6 y to diagnose this lymphoma since its initial presentation...
2017: Oncoimmunology
Yashas Rajendra, Sowmya Balasubramanian, Neil A McCracken, Dawn L Norris, Zhirui Lian, Matthew G Schmitt, Christopher C Frye, Gavin C Barnard
Generating purified protein for GLP toxicology studies (GLP-Tox) represents an important and often rate limiting step in the biopharmaceutical drug development process. Toxicity testing requires large amounts of therapeutic protein (>100g), typically produced in a single 500L - 2,500L bioreactor, using the final CHO clonally-derived cell line (CDCL). One approach currently used to save time is to manufacture GLP-Tox material using pools of high-producing CHO CDCLs instead of waiting for the final CDCL. Recently, we reported CHO pools producing mAb titers >7 g/L using piggyBac-mediated gene integration (PB CHO pools)...
May 25, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
Katarzyna Iżykowska, Grzegorz K Przybylski, Claudia Gand, Floriane C Braun, Piotr Grabarczyk, Andreas W Kuss, Karolina Olek-Hrab, Armando N Bastidas Torres, Maarten H Vermeer, Willem H Zoutman, Cornelis P Tensen, Christian A Schmidt
Sézary syndrome (SS) is an aggressive, leukemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma variant. Molecular pathogenesis of SS is still unclear despite many studies on genetic alterations, gene expression and epigenetic regulations. Through whole genome and transcriptome next generation sequencing nine Sézary syndrome patients were analyzed in terms of copy number variations and rearrangements affecting gene expression. Recurrent copy number variations were detected within 8q (MYC, TOX), 17p (TP53, NCOR1), 10q (PTEN, FAS), 2p (DNMT3A), 11q (USP28), 9p (CAAP1), but no recurrent rearrangements were identified...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
Typhaine Billard-Pomares, Cécile Rouyer, Violaine Walewski, Edgar Badell-Ocando, Marc Dumas, Coralie Zumelzu, Françoise Jaureguy, Sylvain Brisse, Frédéric Caux, Olivier Bouchaud, Etienne Carbonnelle
Cutaneous diphtheria is uncommon in Europe. In this study, we report a case of imported cutaneous infection due to a non-toxigenic but tox gene-bearing (NTTB) strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The NTTB strains are recognized as emerging pathogens across Europe, and physicians and bacteriologists should be aware of the circulation of these strains.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Charles R Midgett, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Maria Pellegrini, Ronald K Taylor, Karen Skorupski, F Jon Kull
ToxR is a transmembrane transcription factor that is essential for virulence gene expression and human colonization by Vibrio cholerae. ToxR requires its operon partner ToxS, a periplasmic integral membrane protein, for full activity. These two proteins are thought to interact through their respective periplasmic domains, ToxRp and ToxSp. In addition, ToxR is thought to be responsive to various environmental cues, such as bile salts and alkaline pH, but how these factors influence ToxR is not yet understood...
July 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Emmanuel Pinard, Luke Green, Michael Reutlinger, Marla Weetall, Nikolai A Naryshkin, John Baird, Karen S Chen, Sergey V Paushkin, Friedrich Metzger, Hasane Ratni
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by mutation or deletion of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, resulting in low levels of functional SMN protein. We have reported recently the identification of small molecules (coumarins, iso-coumarins and pyrido-pyrimidinones) that modify the alternative splicing of SMN2, a paralogous gene to SMN1, restoring the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein level in mouse models of SMA. Herein, we report our efforts to identify a novel chemotype as one strategy to potentially circumvent safety concerns from earlier derivatives such as in vitro phototoxicity and in vitro mutagenicity associated with compounds 1 and 2 or the in vivo retinal findings observed in a long-term chronic tox study with 3 at high exposures only...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Shen Li, Chengai Xu, Yuan Tian, Xueshi Wang, Rui Jiang, Miaomiao Zhang, Lili Wang, Guifu Yang, Ying Gao, Chenyu Song, Yukun He, Ying Zhang, Jie Li, Wei-Dong Li
To find the genetic markers related to the antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG), we analyzed associations among candidate gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative traits of weight changes and lipid profiles in a Chinese Han population. A total of 339 schizophrenic patients, including 86 first-episode patients (FEPs), meeting the entry criteria were collected. All patients received atypical antipsychotic drug monotherapy and hospitalization and were followed for 12 weeks. Forty-three SNPs in 23 candidate genes were calculated for quantitative genetic association with AIWG, performed by PLINK...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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