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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773792/mxb-is-an-interferon-induced-restriction-factor-of-human-herpesviruses
#1
Michel Crameri, Michael Bauer, Nicole Caduff, Raphael Walker, Fiona Steiner, Francesca D Franzoso, Cornelia Gujer, Karin Boucke, Talissa Kucera, Andrea Zbinden, Christian Münz, Cornel Fraefel, Urs F Greber, Jovan Pavlovic
The type I interferon (IFN) system plays an important role in controlling herpesvirus infections, but it is unclear which IFN-mediated effectors interfere with herpesvirus replication. Here we report that human myxovirus resistance protein B (MxB, also designated Mx2) is a potent human herpesvirus restriction factor in the context of IFN. We demonstrate that ectopic MxB expression restricts a range of herpesviruses from the Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae, including herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762709/determinants-of-%C3%AE-herpesvirus-shedding-in-saliva-among-ugandan-children-and-their-mothers
#2
Robert Newton, Nazzarena Labo, Katie Wakeham, Vickie Marshall, Romin Roshan, Angela Nalwoga, Ismail Sebina, Lawrence Muhangi, Emily L Webb, Wendell Miley, Rosemary Rochford, Alison M Elliott, Denise Whitby
Introduction: Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are transmitted via saliva but factors associated with salivary shedding are unknown. Methods: We measured the shedding of both viruses in the saliva of ~500 Ugandan mothers and their six-year old children, testing all participants for EBV and KSHV seropositive individuals for KSHV. Results: EBV and KSHV were shed by 72% and 22% of the mothers, and by 85% and 40% of children, respectively; boys were more likely than girls to shed KSHV (48% versus 30%), but not EBV...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748909/the-effect-of-storage-temperature-on-the-biological-activity-of-extracellular-vesicles-for-the-complement-system
#3
Sang June Park, Hyungtaek Jeon, Seung-Min Yoo, Myung-Shin Lee
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of intercellular communication by transporting cargo containing proteins, lipids, mRNA, and miRNA. There is increasing evidence that EVs have various roles in regulating migration, invasion, stemness, survival, and immune functions. Previously, we have found that EVs from Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected human endothelial cells have the potential to activate the complement system. Although many studies have shown that the physical properties of EVs can be changed by their storage condition, there have been few studies for the stability of biological activity of EVs in various storage conditions...
May 10, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746587/metabolic-reprogramming-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpes-virus-infected-b-cells-in-hypoxia
#4
Rajnish Kumar Singh, Fengchao Lang, Yonggang Pei, Hem Chandra Jha, Erle S Robertson
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection stabilizes hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). The interaction between KSHV encoded factors and HIFs plays a critical role in KSHV latency, reactivation and associated disease phenotypes. Besides modulation of large-scale signaling, KSHV infection also reprograms the metabolic activity of infected cells. However, the mechanism and cellular pathways modulated during these changes are poorly understood. We performed comparative RNA sequencing analysis on cells with stabilized hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) of KSHV negative or positive background to identify changes in global and metabolic gene expression...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743595/transactivation-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-herv-k-by-kshv-promotes-kaposi-s-sarcoma-development
#5
Lu Dai, Luis Del Valle, Wendell Miley, Denise Whitby, Augusto C Ochoa, Erik K Flemington, Zhiqiang Qin
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of several human cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which represents the most common AIDS-associated malignancy that lacks effective treatment options. Despite its clear role in AIDS malignancies, the fact that only a small set of KSHV-infected patients will eventually develop these tumors implies that additional co-factors are required for the development of KSHV-related cancers. In the current study, we demonstrate for the first time that KSHV de novo infection or viral latent proteins are able to transactivate human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) through a variety of cellular signaling pathways and transcriptional factors...
May 10, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743366/regulation-of-virus-associated-lymphoma-growth-and-gene-expression-by-bacterial-quorum-sensing-molecules
#6
Jing Qiao, Yueyu Cao, Jovanny Zabaleta, Liang Yang, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can cause several human cancers including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which frequently occur in immunocompromised patients. KSHV infected patients often suffer from polymicrobial infections caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how these co-infected microorganisms or their secreted metabolites may affect KSHV infection and virus-associated malignancies pathogenesis. Quorum sensing (QS), a cell density-based intercellular communication system, employs extracellular diffusible signaling molecules to regulate bacterial virulence mechanisms in a wide range of bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which is one of mostly common opportunistic microorganisms found in immunocompromised individuals...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741631/relationship-between-anaemia-malaria-co-infection-and-kaposi-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-kshv-seropositivity-in-a-population-based-study-in-rural-uganda
#7
Angela Nalwoga, Stephen Cose, Stephen Nash, Wendell Miley, Gershim Asiki, Sylvia Kusemererwa, Robert Yarchoan, Nazzarena Labo, Denise Whitby, Robert Newton
We examined anaemia and malaria as risk factors for KSHV seropositivity and antibody levels in a long-standing rural Ugandan cohort, in which KSHV is prevalent. Samples from 4134 children, aged 1-17 years, with a sex ratio of 1:1 and 3149 adults aged 18-103 years, 41% of whom were males, were analysed. Among children, malaria infection was associated with higher KSHV prevalence (61% versus 41% prevalence among malaria infected and uninfected respectively); malaria was not assessed in adults. Additionally, lower haemoglobin level was associated with an increased prevalence of KSHV seropositivity, both in children and in adults...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740418/inhibition-of-tip60-reduces-lytic-and-latent-gene-expression-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpes-virus-kshv-and-proliferation-of-kshv-infected-tumor-cells
#8
Sydney Simpson, Guillaume Fiches, Maxime J Jean, Michael Dieringer, James McGuinness, Sinu P John, Meir Shamay, Prashant Desai, Jian Zhu, Netty G Santoso
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic virus responsible for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and Multicentric Castleman's disease in immunocompromised individuals. Despite the burden of these diseases there are few treatment options for afflicted individuals, due in part to our limited understanding of virus-host interactions. Tip60, a histone aceytltransferase (HAT) has been previously shown to interact with both the KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen protein (LANA), which is the main factor in maintaining the viral latent state, and ORF36, a viral kinase expressed in the lytic phase...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739902/repurposing-cytarabine-for-treating-primary-effusion-lymphoma-by-targeting-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-latent-and-lytic-replications
#9
Marion Gruffaz, Shenghua Zhou, Karthik Vasan, Teresa Rushing, Qing Liu Michael, Chu Lu, Jae U Jung, Shou-Jiang Gao
Oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically linked to primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), an aggressive and nontreatable malignancy commonly found in AIDS patients. In this study, we performed a high-throughput screening of 3,731 characterized compounds and identified cytarabine, approved by the FDA for treating numerous types of cancer, as a potent inhibitor of KSHV-induced PEL. We showed the high efficacy of cytarabine in the growth inhibition of various PEL cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736315/kshv-co-infection-regulates-hpv16-cervical-cancer-cells-pathogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Lu Dai, Jing Qiao, Luis Del Valle, Zhiqiang Qin
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the etiological agent of cervical, oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Another oncogenic virus, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can cause several human cancers arising in those immunocompromised patients. KSHV DNA has been detected in the oral cavity and the female genital tract, although its detection rate in cervical samples is relatively low. Therefore, it remains unclear about the role of KSHV co-infection in the development of HPV-related neoplasia...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733294/human-herpesvirus-encoded-kinase-induces-b-cell-lymphomas-in-vivo
#11
Penny M Anders, Nathan D Montgomery, Stephanie A Montgomery, Aadra P Bhatt, Dirk P Dittmer, Blossom Damania
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus that is the etiological agent of the endothelial cell cancer Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and 2 B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV ORF36, also known as viral protein kinase (vPK), is a viral serine/threonine kinase. We previously reported that KSHV vPK enhances cell proliferation and mimics cellular S6 kinase to phosphorylate ribosomal protein S6, a protein involved in protein synthesis...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733293/a-viral-protein-kinase-drug-target-for-tumors
#12
Richard F Ambinder
The human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), are both associated with tumors. Standard antiviral therapies are ineffective at treating these tumors. A serine/threonine kinase important for viral replication is conserved across the herpesviruses. Expression of the KSHV protein kinase in transgenic mice under the control of a ubiquitin promoter was associated with B cell lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoma. If the viral protein kinase is important in the pathogenesis of KSHV lymphoproliferative disease or lymphoma, the kinase may present a very good target for pharmacologic therapies...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727474/high-prevalence-and-correlates-of-human-herpesvirus-6a-in-nevocytic-nevus-and-seborrheic-diseases-implication-from-a-pilot-study-of-skin-patient-tissues-in-shanghai
#13
Ling Ding, Xiaohui Mo, Liming Zhang, Feng Zhou, Caixia Zhu, Yuyan Wang, Cankun Cai, Yeqiang Liu, Fang Wei, Qiliang Cai
Skin disorders vary greatly in symptoms and severity, and the causes of these disorders are largely unknown. Human herpesvirus (HHV) has been shown to cause many diseases. However, the prevalence and correlate of each HHV infection with different skin disorders remains obscure. To reveal the potential link of certain type of skin disease with herpesvirus infection, a total of 272 patient tissues with inflammatory or neoplastic skin diseases including 7 subtypes in Shanghai, China, were investigated. We found that the overall prevalence of HHV-6A in inflammatory or neoplastic skin tissues is the most common (40...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698584/rna-epitranscriptomics-regulation-of-infection-of-rna-and-dna-viruses-by-n-6-methyladenosine-m-6-a
#14
REVIEW
Brandon Tan, Shou-Jiang Gao
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) was discovered 4 decades ago. However, the functions of m6 A and the cellular machinery that regulates its changes have just been revealed in the last few years. m6 A is an abundant internal mRNA modification on cellular RNA and is implicated in diverse cellular functions. Recent works have demonstrated the presence of m6 A in the genomes of RNA viruses and transcripts of a DNA virus with either a proviral or antiviral role. Here, we first summarize what is known about the m6 A "writers," "erasers," "readers," and "antireaders" as well as the role of m6 A in mRNA metabolism...
April 26, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698475/cadm1-is-essential-for-kshv-encoded-vgpcr-and-vflip-mediated-chronic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#15
Richard Hunte, Patricia Alonso, Remy Thomas, Cassandra Alexandria Bazile, Juan Carlos Ramos, Louise van der Weyden, Juan Dominguez-Bendala, Wasif Noor Khan, Noula Shembade
Approximately 12% of all human cancers worldwide are caused by infections with oncogenic viruses. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV8) is one of the oncogenic viruses responsible for human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL), and the lymphoproliferative disorder multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Chronic inflammation mediated by KSHV infection plays a decisive role in the development and survival of these cancers. NF-κB, a family of transcription factors regulating inflammation, cell survival, and proliferation, is persistently activated in KSHV-infected cells...
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695433/krab-zfp-repressors-enforce-quiescence-of-oncogenic-human-herpesviruses
#16
Xiaofan Li, Eric M Burton, Siva Koganti, Jizu Zhi, Francis Doyle, Scott A Tenenbaum, Biljana Horn, Sumita Bhaduri-McIntosh
Cancer-causing herpesviruses infect nearly every human and persist indefinitely in B lymphocytes in a quiescent state known as latency. A hallmark of this quiescence or latency is the presence of extrachromosomal viral genomes with highly restricted expression of viral genes. Silencing of viral genes ensures both immune evasion by the virus and limited pathology to the host; yet, how multiple genes on multiple copies of viral genomes are simultaneously silenced is a mystery. In a unifying theme, we report that both cancer-causing human herpesviruses, despite having evolved independently, are silenced through the activities of two members of the KRAB-ZFP epigenetic silencing family, revealing a novel STAT3-KRAB-ZFP axis of viral latency...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695253/microrna-expression-profiling-for-the-prediction-of-resistance-to-neoadjuvant-radiochemotherapy-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-esophagus
#17
Julia Slotta-Huspenina, Enken Drecoll, Marcus Feith, Daniel Habermehl, Stephanie Combs, Wilko Weichert, Marcus Bettstetter, Karen Becker, Rupert Langer
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in cancer biology. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy followed by surgery is a standard treatment for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, a subset of patients do not respond. We evaluated whether miRNA profiles can predict resistance to radiochemotherapy. METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pretherapeutic biopsies of patients treated by radiochemotherapy followed by esophagectomy were analyzed...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694443/correction-deregulation-of-kshv-latency-conformation-by-er-stress-and-caspase-dependent-rad21-cleavage
#18
Alessandra De Leo, Horng-Shen Chen, Chih-Chi Andrew Hu, Paul M Lieberman
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006596.].
April 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689462/macaque-homologs-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-kshv-infect-germinal-center-lymphoid-cells-epithelial-cells-in-skin-and-gastrointestinal-tract-and-gonadal-germ-cells-in-naturally-infected-macaques
#19
Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, A Gregory Bruce, Kellie Howard, Minako Ikoma, Margaret E Thouless, Timothy M Rose
We developed a set of rabbit antisera to characterize infections by the macaque RV2 rhadinovirus homologs of KSHV. We analyzed tissues from rhesus and pig-tailed macaques naturally infected with rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV) or Macaca nemestrina rhadinovirus 2 (MneRV2). Our study demonstrates that RV2 rhadinoviruses have a tropism for epithelial cells, lymphocytes and gonadal germ cells in vivo. We observed latent infections in both undifferentiated and differentiated epithelial cells with expression of the latency marker, LANA...
April 21, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670201/at-the-end-of-kshv-s-tether
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
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