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Asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis

Santosh D Bhosale, Robert Moulder, Mikko S Venäläinen, Juhani S Koskinen, Niina Pitkänen, Markus T Juonala, Mika A P Kähönen, Terho J Lehtimäki, Jorma S A Viikari, Laura L Elo, David R Goodlett, Riitta Lahesmaa, Olli T Raitakari
To evaluate the presence of serum protein biomarkers associated with the early phases of formation of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, label-free quantitative proteomics analyses were made for serum samples collected as part of The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Samples from subjects who had an asymptomatic carotid artery plaque detected by ultrasound examination (N = 43, Age = 30-45 years) were compared with plaque free controls (N = 43) (matched for age, sex, body weight and systolic blood pressure)...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Apostolos Safouris, Dong-Eog Kim, Andrei V Alexandrov
Atherosclerosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke that can be effectively prevented with appropriate lifestyle modifications and control of cardiovascular risk factors. Medical advances in recent years along with aggressive cardiovascular risk factor modifications have resulted in decreased recurrence rates of atherosclerotic stroke. Non-statin lipid-lowering molecules have recently shown clinical benefit and are recommended for very high-risk patients to reduce their risk of stroke. Aggressive hypertension treatment is crucial to reduce atherosclerotic stroke risk...
May 2018: Journal of Stroke
Kazuhiro Osawa, Rine Nakanishi, Robyn L McClelland, Joseph F Polak, Warrick Bishop, Ralph L Sacco, Indre Ceponiene, Negin Nezarat, Sina Rahmani, Hong Qi, Mitsuru Kanisawa, Matthew J Budoff
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between minimally elevated coronary artery calcification (CAC) and cerebrovascular disease is not well known. We assessed whether individuals with minimal CAC (Agatston scores of 1-10) have higher ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) frequencies compared with those with no CAC. We also investigated the relative prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in these two groups. METHODS: A total of 3924 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) without previous cardiovascular events, including stroke, and with baseline CAC scores of 0-10 were followed for the occurrence of incident ischemic stroke/TIA...
May 17, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Iosif Koutagiar, Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios, Ioannis Skoumas, Angeliki Rigatou, Antigoni Miliou, Alexandros-Nikitas Skliros, Stavroula Pantou, Kostantinos Filis, Dimitrios Tousoulis
INTRODUCTION: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels predict cardiovascular risk. We aimed at determining the correlation of PCSK9 levels with predictors of cardiovascular risk, such as central hemodynamics and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in subjects with familial dyslipidaemias. METHODS: Thirty-three asymptomatic subjects (age 45.4±12.3, 21 men) with either familial combined hyperlipidemia or heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, free of hypolipidaemic therapy, underwent evaluation of central hemodynamics (aortic augmentation index [AIx@75], augmented pressure [AP]), and cIMT...
May 25, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
Ammara Usman, Jianmin Yuan, Andrew J Patterson, Martin J Graves, Kevin Varty, Umar Sadat, Jonathan H Gillard
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a systemic inflammatory disease intertwined with neovascularization. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) enables the assessment of plaque neovascularization. This study aimed to explore the systemic nature of atherosclerosis by assessing difference in severity of neovascularization as quantified by DCE-MRI of vertebral arteries (VAs) between patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery disease. METHODS: Ten consecutive patients with asymptomatic VA stenosis and concomitant symptomatic carotid artery disease (group 1) and 10 consecutive patients with asymptomatic VA stenosis and concomitant asymptomatic carotid artery disease (group 2) underwent 3-dimensional DCE-MRI of their cervical segment of VAs...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Federico Rodríguez Lucci, Elena Schvartz, Roberto Lagos, Lucia Fernández Cisneros, Virginia Pujol Lereis, Sebastian F Ameriso
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Most risk scores that use imaging methods to determine the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis assess the carotid and coronary arteries. The value of assessing subclavian arteries to improve the predictive capacity of traditional imaging studies is not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied subjects without cardiac, cerebral, or peripheral vascular symptoms and normal carotid ultrasound. They had at least 1 traditional vascular risk factor...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Isly L de Barros, Laura Costa, Bento Bezerra, Rafael Gomes, Natanael Morais, Célia M C Strunz, Moacir Novaes, Otávio C E Gebara, Rodrigo Pinto Pedrosa, José C Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Traditional strategies for primary cardiovascular prevention have been insufficient in reducing the high rates of coronary ischemic events in women, probably because these women are often stratified into low-risk groups. However, cardiovascular diseases continue to be the main cause of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. We hypothesized that carotid atherosclerosis (CA) is common in middle-aged women. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated asymptomatic peri- and post-menopausal women with no cardiovascular diseases or the use of hormone therapy from two gynecologic clinics...
2018: PloS One
Yiting Xu, Xiaojing Ma, Qin Xiong, Xueli Zhang, Yun Shen, Yuqian Bao
BACKGROUND: Our study examined whether osteocalcin contributed to identifying carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) over the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score. METHODS: We recruited 618 middle-aged and elderly men from communities in Shanghai. Serum osteocalcin levels were determined using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. C-IMT was measured by ultrasonography. RESULTS: The study included 245 men with low ASCVD risk and 373 men with moderate-to-high ASCVD risk...
May 19, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Rebecca Mortimer, Subramanian Nachiappan, David C Howlett
Stroke poses a significant burden on healthcare and is the second largest cause of death globally. Both medical and surgical interventions to reduce the risk of stroke in asymptomatic patients have been shown to be effective but identifying the target at risk population is more problematic. Screening for carotid artery stenosis offers one pathway for this, as there is some correlation between risk of stroke and extent of stenosis. Identification of patients who are at risk of cardiovascular disease as well as stroke, allows initiation of effective medical treatment of modifiable risk factors to address this risk...
May 17, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Elisa Mazza, Yvelise Ferro, Theodora Lamprinoudi, Carmine Gazzaruso, Patrizia Doldo, Arturo Pujia, Tiziana Montalcini
Several biologically active molecules including nutrients can affect the vascular endothelium which becomes dysfunctional and, as a consequence, predisposes to atherosclerosis. However, the impact of the intake of sodium and polyunsaturated fatty acids on carotid atherosclerosis in a population of elderly women has scarcely been studied. Our aim was to investigate the association between carotid intima-media thickness and atherosclerotic plaque and nutrient intake in asymptomatic elderly women. Carotid atherosclerosis was determined by duplex ultrasound in 108 elderly women...
May 7, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Vesna Gorenjak, Alex-Ander Aldasoro Arguinano, Sébastien Dadé, Maria G Stathopoulou, Dwaine R Vance, Christine Masson, Sophie Visvikis-Siest
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is known for its anti-inflammatory properties during the immune response, and influences negatively on TNF-α expression levels. Genetic epidemiology studies have identified polymorphisms located in the TREM2 gene associated with neurodegenerative and chronic inflammatory diseases. TREM2 levels have been observed to affect plasma levels of TNF-α and plaque stability in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis. In this study, we investigated polymorphisms located in the TREM2 gene region and association with TNF-α levels and the intima media thickness of the femoral artery...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Miriam Kozarova, Zuzana Malachovska, Jozef Zidzik, Martin Javorsky, Katarina Demkova, Viera Habalova, Ivan Tkac
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies identified several gene variants associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Among them, rs6584389 A>C was significantly associated with PAD defined by decreased ankle-brachial index (ABI). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the rs6584389 variant is also associated with the earlier stages of atherosclerosis assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT) or pulse-wave velocity (PWV) in clinically asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), a group of patients with a high cardiovascular risk...
April 19, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Aline Silva-Costa, Joanna Guimarães, Dora Chor, Maria de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Isabela Bensenor, Itamar Santos, Sandhi Barreto, Rosane Härter Griep
PURPOSE: The study of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) associated with night work is difficult due to the long period required for conditions to manifest and the healthy-worker effect. Analyzing asymptomatic pre-clinical changes in the atherosclerotic process is a way to assess the pathways between exposure to night work and CVD. AIM: To evaluate the associations between night work and subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)...
April 2, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Andrea Igoren Guaricci, Valentina Lorenzoni, Marco Guglielmo, Saima Mushtaq, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Filippo Cademartiri, Mark Rabbat, Daniele Andreini, Gaetano Serviddio, Nicola Gaibazzi, Mauro Pepi, Gianluca Pontone
BACKGROUD: The aim of the study was to evaluate the incremental prognostic benefit of carotid artery disease and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) features in addition to clinical evaluation in a asymptomatic population. METHODS: Over a six-year period, 10-year-FRS together with carotid ultrasound (CUS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were evaluated for the prediction of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). RESULTS: We enrolled 517 consecutive asymptomatic patients (63% male, 64±10 years of age, 17...
March 31, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
C Altin, V Erol, E Aydin, M Yilmaz, M A Tekindal, L E Sade, H Gulay, H Muderrisoglu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in obese patients. We aimed to investigate the influence of significant weight loss following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and epicardial fat thickness (EFT) which are the independent predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients were recruited for standard indications. A total of 105 patients (79 women and 26 men) with the mean age of 43...
May 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Haize Goikuria, Maria Del Mar Freijo, Reyes Vega Manrique, María Sastre, Elena Elizagaray, Ana Lorenzo, Koen Vandenbroeck, Iraide Alloza
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are central players in carotid atherosclerosis plaque development. Although the precise mechanisms involved in plaque destabilization are not completely understood, it is known that VSMC proliferation and migration participate in plaque stabilization. In this study, we analyzed expression patterns of genes involved in carotid atherosclerosis development (e.g., transcription factors of regulation of SMC genes) of VSMCs located inside or outside the plaque lesion that may give clues about changes in phenotypic plasticity during atherosclerosis...
March 18, 2018: Cells
Bo Liu, Zhihao Chen, Xiaoqi Dong, Guangming Qin
OBJECTIVES: Comorbid hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia is an important risk factor for carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation. We put forward the hypothesis that the subjects with comorbid prehypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia also had an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis, using carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as the marker of the atherosclerotic process. METHODS: A total of 4102 asymptomatic Chinese subjects aged 18-60 years were divided into four groups according to blood pressure (BP) and homocysteine (HCY) level: the control group without prehypertension or hyperhomocysteinemia, isolated prehypertension group, simple hyperhomocysteinemia group and prehypertension with hyperhomocysteinemia group...
March 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Sam C Tyagi, Matthew J Dougherty, Shinichi Fukuhara, Douglas A Troutman, Danielle M Pineda, Hong Zheng, Keith D Calligaro
BACKGROUND: Carotid artery occlusive disease can cause stroke by embolization, thrombosis, and hypoperfusion. The majority of strokes secondary to cervical carotid atherosclerosis are believed to be of embolic etiology. However, cerebral hypoperfusion could be an important factor in perioperative stroke. We retrospectively reviewed the stump pressure (SP) of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) of patients at Pennsylvania Hospital to identify whether physiologic perfusion differences account for differences in perioperative stroke rates, particularly in octogenarians...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Ansgar Adams, Waldemar Bojara, Klaus Schunk
Background: A study was conducted as to whether the early diagnosis of coronary heart disease in asymptomatic subjects with advanced atherosclerosis of the carotid artery which additionally shows at least one risk factor is successful using ultrasound technology. Methods: Within the scope of an occupational screening program using subjects from diverse employment sectors, people were given the opportunity to determine their risk of heart attack. During the study the total plaque area (TPA), the maximum plaque thickness in the carotid artery and the PROCAM-Scores of 3,748 healthy men and 2,260 healthy women between the ages of 20 and 64 years were determined...
February 2018: Cardiology Research
Filippo Molinari, U Raghavendra, Anjan Gudigar, Kristen M Meiburger, U Rajendra Acharya
Atherosclerosis is a type of cardiovascular disease which may cause stroke. It is due to the deposition of fatty plaque in the artery walls resulting in the reduction of elasticity gradually and hence restricting the blood flow to the heart. Hence, an early prediction of carotid plaque deposition is important, as it can save lives. This paper proposes a novel data mining framework for the assessment of atherosclerosis in its early stage using ultrasound images. In this work, we are using 1353 symptomatic and 420 asymptomatic carotid plaque ultrasound images...
February 23, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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