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molecular exercise physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597244/seasonal-and-flight-related-variation-of-galectin-expression-in-heart-liver-and-flight-muscles-of-yellow-rumped-warblers-setophaga-coronata
#1
Stefanie S Bradley, Morag F Dick, Christopher G Guglielmo, Alexander V Timoshenko
Galectins, a family of multifunctional glycan-binding proteins, are proposed as biomarkers of cellular stress responses. Avian migration is an energetically challenging physical stress, which represents a physiological model of muscular endurance exercises. This study assesses change in galectin gene expression profiles associated with seasonal variation in migratory state and endurance flight in yellow-rumped warblers (Setophaga coronata). Bioinformatics analysis and real-time qPCR were used to analyse the expression of galectins in flight muscle, heart and liver tissues of 15 warblers separated into three groups of winter unflown, and fall migratory flown/unflown birds...
June 8, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575921/endurance-exercise-in-hypoxia-hyperoxia-and-normoxia-mitochondrial-and-global-adaptations
#2
Axel Przyklenk, Boris Gutmann, Thorsten Schiffer, Wildor Hollmann, Heiko K Strueder, Wilhelm Bloch, Andreas Mierau, Sebastian Gehlert
We hypothesized short-term endurance exercise (EN) in hypoxia (HY) to exert decreased mitochondrial adaptation, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and peak power output (PPO) compared to EN in normoxia (NOR) and hyperoxia (PER). 11 male subjects performed repeated unipedal cycling EN in HY, PER, and NOR over 4 weeks in a cross-over design. VO2peak, PPO, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate (Bla) were determined pre- and post-intervention to assess physiological demands and adaptation. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected to determine molecular mitochondrial signaling and adaptation...
June 2, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569408/aerobic-exercise-reduces-hippocampal-erk-and-p38-activation-and-improves-memory-of-middle-aged-rats
#3
Fabrízio Dos Santos Cardoso, Erivelton Fernandes França, Fernando Tadeu Serra, Angélica Begatti Victorino, Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Jansen Fernandes, Francisco Romero Cabral, Daniel Paulino Venancio, Ricardo Mario Arida, Sérgio Gomes da Silva
Aging is often accompanied by cognitive decline, memory impairment, and an increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Although the physiological processes of aging are not fully understood, these age-related changes have been interpreted by means of various cellular and molecular theories. Among these theories, alterations in the intracellular signaling pathways associated with cell growth, proliferation, and survival have been highlighted. Based on these observations and on recent evidence showing the beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive function in the elderly, we investigated the cell signaling pathways in the hippocampal formation of middle-aged rats (18 months old) submitted to treadmill exercise over 10 days...
June 1, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546086/physical-activity-and-cardiovascular-aging-physiological-and-molecular-insights
#4
REVIEW
Djordje G Jakovljevic
Aging is associated with significant changes in both cardiac and vascular structure and function that lower the threshold for clinical signs and symptoms, making older people more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases, morbidity and mortality. Understanding of age-related cardiovascular changes is necessary for effective and efficient prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in older people. Cardiac aging is associated with left ventricular remodelling marked by increased mass-to-volume ratio and accompanied by systolic and diastolic myocardial dysfunction, and reduced sensitivity to sympathetic stimuli that compromises myocardial contractility and pumping ability in older people...
May 22, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533625/beneficial-effect-of-interventional-exercise-on-autistic-fragile-x-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Seunghoon Lee, Jinyoung Won, Sookyoung Park, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Joo-Heon Kim, Yonggeun Hong
[Purpose] The purpose of the present review is to discuss recent published articles in the understanding of efficacy of interventional exercise on autistic Fragile X syndrome (FXS) with special emphasis on its significance in clinical application in patients. [Methods] This review article was identified scientifically and/or clinically relevant articles from PubMed that directly/indirectly met the inclusion criteria. [Results] Mutation of fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene on the X chromosome is related with loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) that affecting physiological and behavioral abnormalities...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490539/physiological-redundancy-and-the-integrative-responses-to-exercise
#6
Michael J Joyner, Jerome A Dempsey
The biological responses to acute and chronic exercise are marked by a high level of physiological redundancy that operates at various levels of integration, including the molecular, cellular, organ-system, and whole-body scale. During acute exercise, this redundancy protects whole-body homeostasis in the face of 10-fold or more increases in whole-body metabolic rate. In some cases, there are "trade-offs" between optimizing the performance of a given organ or system versus whole-body performance. Physiological redundancy also plays a key role in the adaptive responses to exercise training and high levels of habitual physical activity, including the positive effects of regular exercise on health...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467921/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-cardiac-adaptation-to-exercise
#7
REVIEW
Rick B Vega, John P Konhilas, Daniel P Kelly, Leslie A Leinwand
Exercise elicits coordinated multi-organ responses including skeletal muscle, vasculature, heart, and lung. In the short term, the output of the heart increases to meet the demand of strenuous exercise. Long-term exercise instigates remodeling of the heart including growth and adaptive molecular and cellular re-programming. Signaling pathways such as the insulin-like growth factor 1/PI3K/Akt pathway mediate many of these responses. Exercise-induced, or physiologic, cardiac growth contrasts with growth elicited by pathological stimuli such as hypertension...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398948/angiopoietin-like-4-enhances-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-tendon-fibroblasts
#8
Sarwat Jamil, Rouhollah Mousavizadeh, Mani Roshan-Moniri, Scott J Tebbutt, Robert G McCormack, Vincent Duronio, Alex Scott
PURPOSE: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is known to play a variety of roles in the response to exercise, and more recently has been shown to enhance the healing of tendon, a fibrous load-bearing tissue required for efficient movement. The objective of the current study was to further explore the mechanisms of ANGPTL4's impact on tendon cells using a gene array approach. METHODS: Human tendon fibroblasts were treated with recANGPTL4 and their global transcriptome response analyzed after 4 and 24 hours...
April 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365405/novel-insights-into-cardiac-remodelling-revealed-by-proteomic-analysis-of-the-trout-heart-during-exercise-training
#9
Laura A Dindia, Sarah L Alderman, Todd E Gillis
The changes in the cardiac proteome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were quantified during the early phases (4, 7, and 14d) of a typical exercise-training regime to provide a comprehensive overview of the cellular changes responsible for developing a trained heart phenotype. Enhanced somatic growth during the 14d experiment was paralleled by cardiac growth to maintain relative ventricular mass. This was reflected in the cardiac proteome by the increased abundance of contractile proteins and cellular integrity proteins as early as Day 4, including a pronounced and sustained increase in blood vessel epicardial substance - an intercellular adhesion protein expressed in the vertebrate heart...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348175/omics-and-exercise-global-approaches-for-mapping-exercise-biological-networks
#10
Nolan J Hoffman
The application of global "-omics" technologies to exercise has introduced new opportunities to map the complexity and interconnectedness of biological networks underlying the tissue-specific responses and systemic health benefits of exercise. This review will introduce major research tracks and recent advancements in this emerging field, as well as critical gaps in understanding the orchestration of molecular exercise dynamics that will benefit from unbiased omics investigations. Furthermore, significant research hurdles that need to be overcome to effectively fill these gaps related to data collection, computation, interpretation, and integration across omics applications will be discussed...
March 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342901/the-sympathetic-neuro-adipose-connection-and-the-control-of-body-weight
#11
REVIEW
Inês Mahú, Ana I Domingos
In recent decades, obesity has become a global public health crisis irrespective of age or gender [20]. But according to historic records, concerns over appropriate maintenance of body size have been long established. For more than to 2 millennia, the main therapeutic approach to curb excess weight has been to recommend dietary restrictions and regular exercise (Haslam, 2016). Nevertheless, more contemporary studies indicate that the employment of such approaches in the treatment of severely obese patients causes metabolic adaptions which impair their long-term success in weight management [8]...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328535/the-assessment-of-labor-a-brief-history
#12
Wayne R Cohen, Emanuel A Friedman
In the 1930s, investigators in the US, Germany and Switzerland made the first attempts to quantify the course of labor in a clinically meaningful way. They emphasized the rupture of membranes as a pivotal event governing labor progress. Attention was also placed on the total number of contractions as a guide to normality. Beginning in the 1950s, Friedman determined that changes in cervical dilatation and fetal station over time were the most useful parameters for the assessment of labor progress. He showed all normal labors had similar patterns of dilatation and descent, differing only in the durations and slopes of their component parts...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322825/dissection-of-mechanoresponse-elements-in-promoter-sites-of-the-mechanoresponsive-cyr61-gene
#13
Lothar Seefried, Sigrid Müller-Deubert, Melanie Krug, Almoatazbellah Youssef, Norbert Schütze, Anita Ignatius, Franz Jakob, Regina Ebert
Mechanotransduction is important for mesenchymal regeneration and differentiation. Exaggerated high or very low impact yields pathological outcome resulting in fracture or tissue atrophy. Pathological strain in animal models was described but tools to dissect the respective stimuli and downstream pathways are limited. We expand the analytical tools to describe DNA strain response elements in a reporter gene approach. Deletion constructs of the human cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) promoter were cloned into luciferase vectors and stably transfected into human telomerase-immortalised mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT)...
March 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289716/muscular-dystrophy-in-ptfr-cavin-1-null-mice
#14
Shi-Ying Ding, Libin Liu, Paul F Pilch
ice and humans lacking the caveolae component polymerase I transcription release factor (PTRF, also known as cavin-1) exhibit lipo- and muscular dystrophy. Here we describe the molecular features underlying the muscle phenotype for PTRF/cavin-1 null mice. These animals had a decreased ability to exercise, and exhibited muscle hypertrophy with increased muscle fiber size and muscle mass due, in part, to constitutive activation of the Akt pathway. Their muscles were fibrotic and exhibited impaired membrane integrity accompanied by an apparent compensatory activation of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex along with elevated expression of proteins involved in muscle repair function...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286759/bioinformatics-analysis-reveals-micrornas-regulating-biological-pathways-in-exercise-induced-cardiac-physiological-hypertrophy
#15
REVIEW
Jiahong Xu, Yang Liu, Yuan Xie, Cuimei Zhao, Hongbao Wang
Exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy is generally considered to be a type of adaptive change after exercise training and is beneficial for cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at investigating exercise-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and their potential biological pathways. Here, we collected 23 miRNAs from 8 published studies. MirPath v.3 from the DIANA tools website was used to execute the analysis, and TargetScan was used to predict the target genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266660/high-glucose-alters-tendon-homeostasis-through-downregulation-of-the-ampk-egr1-pathway
#16
Yu-Fu Wu, Hsing-Kuo Wang, Hong-Wei Chang, Jingyu Sun, Jui-Sheng Sun, Yuan-Hung Chao
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with higher risk of tendinopathy, which reduces tolerance to exercise and functional activities and affects lifestyle and glycemic control. Expression of tendon-related genes and matrix metabolism in tenocytes are essential for maintaining physiological functions of tendon. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in diabetic tendinopathy remain unclear. We hypothesized that high glucose (HG) alters the characteristics of tenocyte. Using in vitro 2-week culture of tenocytes, we found that expression of tendon-related genes, including Egr1, Mkx, TGF-β1, Col1a2, and Bgn, was significantly decreased in HG culture and that higher glucose consumption occurred...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216413/does-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-training-of-the-lower-limb-have-functional-effects-on-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Antoine Langeard, Lucile Bigot, Nathalie Chastan, Antoine Gauthier
The lower limb muscle functions of the elderly are known to be preferentially altered by ageing. Traditional training effectively counteracts some of these functional declines but is not always accessible due to its cost and to the accessibility of the training centers and to the incapacities of some seniors to practice some exercises. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) could provide an interesting alternative muscle training technique because it is inexpensive and transportable. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the current evidence on the effect of the use of lower limb NMES as a training technique for healthy elderly rehabilitation...
May 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212624/understanding-the-response-to-endurance-exercise-using-a-systems-biology-approach-combining-blood-metabolomics-transcriptomics-and-mirnomics-in-horses
#18
Núria Mach, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Allison Clark, Marco Moroldo, Céline Robert, Eric Barrey, Jesús Maria López, Laurence Le Moyec
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise in horses requires adaptive processes involving physiological, biochemical, and cognitive-behavioral responses in an attempt to regain homeostasis. We hypothesized that the identification of the relationships between blood metabolome, transcriptome, and miRNome during endurance exercise in horses could provide significant insights into the molecular response to endurance exercise. For this reason, the serum metabolome and whole-blood transcriptome and miRNome data were obtained from ten horses before and after a 160 km endurance competition...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158895/mimicking-exercise-in-three-dimensional-bioengineered-skeletal-muscle-to-investigate-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-physiological-adaptation
#19
REVIEW
Andreas M Kasper, Daniel C Turner, Neil R W Martin, Adam P Sharples
Bioengineering of skeletal muscle in-vitro in order to produce highly aligned myofibres in relevant three dimensional (3D) matrices have allowed scientists to model the in-vivo skeletal muscle niche. This review discusses essential experimental considerations for developing bioengineered muscle in order to investigate exercise mimicking stimuli. We identify current knowledge in the use of electrical stimulation and co-culture with motor neurons to enhance skeletal muscle maturation and contractile function in bioengineered systems in-vitro...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153015/the-effects-of-short-term-high-fat-feeding-on-exercise-capacity-multi-tissue-transcriptome-changes-by-rna-sequencing-analysis
#20
Ya Xiao, Wanshan Wang, Liguo Chen, Jieyu Chen, Pingping Jiang, Xiuqiong Fu, Xiaoli Nie, Hiuyee Kwan, Yanyan Liu, Xiaoshan Zhao
BACKGROUND: The effects of short-term high fat diets on physiology are elusive and the molecular changes following fat overconsumption remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate exercise capacity in mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 3 days and investigate the molecular mechanisms in the early response to high-fat feeding. METHODS: Exercise capacity was assessed by weight-loaded swimming test in mice fed a control diet (10 kcal% fat) or a HFD (60 kcal% fat) for 3 days...
February 2, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
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