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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027662/redox-control-of-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#1
Emmeran Le Moal, Vincent Pialoux, Gaëtan Juban, Carole Groussard, Hassan Zouhal, Bénédicte Chazaud, Rémi Mounier
Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of Muscle Stem Cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent...
December 27, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007575/the-mechanism-of-formation-structure-and-physiological-relevance-of-covalent-hemoglobin-attachment-to-the-erythrocyte-membrane
#2
Elizabeth M Welbourn, Michael T Wilson, Ashril Yusof, Metodi V Metodiev, Chris E Cooper
Covalent hemoglobin binding to membranes leads to band 3 (AE1) clustering and the removal of erythrocytes from the circulation; it is also implicated in blood storage lesions. Damaged hemoglobin, with the heme being in a redox and oxygen-binding inactive hemichrome form, has been implicated as the binding species. However, previous studies used strong non-physiological oxidants. In vivo hemoglobin is constantly being oxidised to methemoglobin (ferric), with around 1% of hemoglobin being in this form at any one time...
December 20, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955950/resistive-training-and-molecular-regulators-of-vascular-metabolic-risk-in-chronic-stroke
#3
Alice S Ryan, Guoyan Li, Charlene Hafer-Macko, Frederick M Ivey
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator (PGC-1α) gene and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) respond to physiological stimuli and regulate insulin resistance. Inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the soluble forms of intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and vascular CAM-1 (sVCAM-1) are associated with increased risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Resistive training (RT) reduces hyperinsulinemia and improves insulin action in chronic stroke...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927764/circulating-microrna-are-predictive-of-aging-and-acute-adaptive-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-men
#4
Lee M Margolis, Sarah J Lessard, Yassine Ezzyat, Roger A Fielding, Donato A Rivas
Circulating microRNA (c-miRNA) have the potential to function as novel noninvasive markers of the underlying physiological state of skeletal muscle. This investigation sought to determine the influence of aging on c-miRNA expression at rest and following resistance exercise in male volunteers (Young: n = 9; Older: n = 9). Primary findings were that fasting c-miRNA expression profiles were significantly predictive of aging, with miR-19b-3p, miR-206, and miR-486 distinguishing between age groups. Following resistance exercise, principal component analysis revealed a divergent response in expression of 10 c-miRNA, where expression profiles were upregulated in younger and downregulated in older participants...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927026/modulation-of-local-and-systemic-heterocellular-communication-by-mechanical-forces-a-role-of-enos
#5
Ralf Erkens, Tatsiana Suvorava, Christian M Kramer, Lukas Diederich, Malte Kelm, Miriam Margherita Cortese-Krott
SIGNIFICANCE: In this review, we discuss the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a key physiological mechanotransducer modulating both local and systemic heterocellular communication, and contributing to the integrated (patho)physiology of the cardiovascular system. A deeper understanding of mechanotransduction-mediated local and systemic nodes controlling heterocellular communication between the endothelium, blood cells and other cell types (e.g. cardiomyocytes) may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease...
December 7, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#6
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891582/versatile-roles-of-intracellularly-located-trpv1-channel
#7
REVIEW
Rui Zhao, Suk Ying Tsang
The ubiquitous expression in many organs throughout the body and the ability to respond to a wide variety of physical and chemical stimuli have brought transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to the vanguards of our sensory systems. TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is the founding member of the TRPV subfamily. TRPV1 can be activated by noxious heat, protons and vanilloids. Previous studies have shown that TRPV1 is located on the plasma membrane, serving to non-selectively permeate calcium ion from the extracellular region to the cytoplasm...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888580/biology-of-vo2-max-looking-under-the-physiology-lamp
#8
REVIEW
C Lundby, D Montero, M Joyner
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882550/investigating-interactions-between-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-cardiac-myocytes-what-can-we-learn-from-different-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Katja Rietdorf, Hilary MacQueen
Heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Some cardiovascular conditions can be modulated by lifestyle factors such as increased exercise or a healthier diet, but many require surgical or pharmacological interventions for their management. More targeted and less invasive therapies would be beneficial. Recently it has become apparent that epicardial adipose tissue plays an important role in normal and pathological cardiac function, and it is now the focus of considerable research...
November 24, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852752/temperature-induced-cardiac-remodeling-in-fish
#10
REVIEW
Adam N Keen, Jordan M Klaiman, Holly A Shiels, Todd E Gillis
Thermal acclimation causes the heart of multiple fish species to undergo significant remodeling. This includes changes in electrical activity, energy utilization and structural properties at the gross and molecular level of organization. The purpose of this Review is to summarize the current state of knowledge of temperature-induced structural remodeling in the fish ventricle across multiple levels of biological organization, and to examine how such changes result in the modification of the functional properties of the heart...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836414/identification-of-the-igf-1-processing-product-human-ec-rodent-eb-peptide-in-various-tissues-evidence-for-its-differential-regulation-after-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-humans
#11
George Vassilakos, Anastassios Philippou, Michael Koutsilieris
OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a pleiotropic factor expressed in various tissues and plays a critical role in skeletal muscle physiology. Alternative splicing of the IGF-1 gene gives rise to different precursor polypeptides (isoforms) which could undergo post-translational cleavage, generating the common mature IGF-1 peptide and different carboxyl terminal extension (E-) peptides, with the fate of the latter being, so far, unknown. The objective if this study was to identify the IGF-1Ec forms or processing product(s), other than mature IGF-1, generated in different human and rodent tissues and particularly in human skeletal muscle after exercise-induced damage...
November 4, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812978/role-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-for-regulating-post-exercise-insulin-sensitivity
#12
Rasmus Kjøbsted, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Jonas T Treebak
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance precedes development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). As skeletal muscle is a major sink for glucose disposal, understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in maintaining insulin sensitivity of this tissue could potentially benefit millions of people that are diagnosed with insulin resistance. Regular physical activity in both healthy and insulin-resistant individuals is recognized as the single most effective intervention to increase whole-body insulin sensitivity and thereby positively affect glucose homeostasis...
2016: EXS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804106/the-role-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-2-channel-in-cardiac-aging
#13
Shannon Jones, Adrien Mann, Mariah C Worley, Logan Fulford, David Hall, Rajiv Karani, Min Jiang, Nathan Robbins, Jack Rubinstein, Sheryl E Koch
BACKGROUND: The aging heart is characterized by cellular and molecular changes leading to a decline in physiologic function and cardiac remodeling, specifically the development of myocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), a stretch-mediated channel and regulator of calcium homeostasis, plays a key role in the function and structure of the heart. TRPV2 also plays an important role in the adaptive and maladaptive compensatory mechanisms of the heart in response to pathologic and exercise-induced stress...
November 1, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793219/sleep-and-microbes
#14
J M Krueger, M R Opp
Sleep is profoundly altered during the course of infectious diseases. The typical response to infection includes an initial increase in nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) followed by an inhibition in NREMS. REMS is inhibited during infections. Bacterial cell wall components, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide, macrophage digests of these components, such as muramyl peptides, and viral products, such as viral double-stranded RNA, trigger sleep responses. They do so via pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition receptors that, in turn, enhance cytokine production...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758871/novel-molecular-interactions-of-acylcarnitines-and-fatty-acids-with-myoglobin
#15
Sree V Chintapalli, Srinivas Jayanthi, Prema L Mallipeddi, Ravikumar Gundampati, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh Kumar, Damian B van Rossum, Andriy Anishkin, Sean H Adams
Previous research has indicated that long-chain fatty acids can bind myoglobin (Mb) in an oxygen-dependent manner. This suggests that oxy-Mb may play an important role in fuel delivery in Mb-rich muscle fibers (e.g. type I fibers and cardiomyocytes), and raises the possibility that Mb also serves as an acylcarnitine-binding protein. We report for the first time the putative interaction and affinity characteristics for different chain lengths of both fatty acids and acylcarnitines with oxy-Mb using molecular dynamic simulations and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721367/a-pair-of-identical-twins-discordant-for-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-differ-in-physiological-parameters-and-gut-microbiome-composition
#16
Ludovic Giloteaux, Maureen R Hanson, Betsy A Keller
BACKGROUND Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) present with profound fatigue, flu-like symptoms, pain, cognitive impairment, orthostatic intolerance, and post-exertional malaise (PEM), and exacerbation of some or all of the baseline symptoms. CASE REPORT We report on a pair of 34-year-old monozygotic twins discordant for ME/CFS, with WELL, the non-affected twin, and ILL, the affected twin. Both twins performed a two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), pre- and post-exercise blood samples were drawn, and both provided stool samples for biochemical and molecular analysis...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719674/age-environment-object-recognition-and-morphological-diversity-of-gfap-immunolabeled-astrocytes
#17
Daniel Guerreiro Diniz, Marcus Augusto de Oliveira, Camila Mendes de Lima, César Augusto Raiol Fôro, Marcia Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, João Bento-Torres, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Daniel Clive Anthony, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the glial response to a standard environment and how the response may be associated with age-related cognitive decline in learning and memory. Here we investigated aging and environmental influences on hippocampal-dependent tasks and on the morphology of an unbiased selected population of astrocytes from the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, which is the main target of perforant pathway. RESULTS: Six and twenty-month-old female, albino Swiss mice were housed, from weaning, in a standard or enriched environment, including running wheels for exercise and tested for object recognition and contextual memories...
October 10, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686535/function-of-the-sirt3-mitochondrial-deacetylase-in-cellular-physiology-cancer-and-neurodegenerative-disease
#18
REVIEW
Aneesa Ansari, Md Shahedur Rahman, Subbroto K Saha, Forhad K Saikot, Akash Deep, Ki-Hyun Kim
In mammals, seven members of the sirtuin protein family known as class III histone deacetylase have been identified for their characteristic features. These distinguished characteristics include the tissues where they are distributed or located, enzymatic activities, molecular functions, and involvement in diseases. Among the sirtuin members, SIRT3 has received much attention for its role in cancer genetics, aging, neurodegenerative disease, and stress resistance. SIRT3 controls energy demand during stress conditions such as fasting and exercise as well as metabolism through the deacetylation and acetylation of mitochondrial enzymes...
September 29, 2016: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27656620/size-dependent-classification-of-heat-shock-proteins-a-mini-review
#19
REVIEW
Hyunseok Jee
Molecular chaperones are ubiquitous and abundant within cellular environments, functioning as a defense mechanism against outer environment. The range of molecular chaperones varies from 10 to over 100 kDa. Depending on the size, the specific locations and physiological roles of molecular chaperones vary within the cell. Multifunctionality of heat shock proteins (HSPs) expressed via various cyto-stress including heat shock have been spotlighted as a reliable prognostic target biomarker for therapeutic purpose in neuromuscular disease or cancer related studies...
August 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638040/eccentric-exercise-physiological-characteristics-and-acute-responses
#20
Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross, Mike McGuigan
An eccentric contraction involves the active lengthening of muscle under an external load. The molecular and neural mechanisms underpinning eccentric contractions differ from those of concentric and isometric contractions and remain less understood. A number of molecular theories have been put forth to explain the unexplained observations during eccentric contractions that deviate from the predictions of the established theories of muscle contraction. Postulated mechanisms include a strain-induced modulation of actin-myosin interactions at the level of the cross-bridge, the activation of the structural protein titin, and the winding of titin on actin...
September 15, 2016: Sports Medicine
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