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molecular exercise physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773865/perlecan-a-heparan-sulfate-proteoglycan-regulates-systemic-metabolism-with-dynamic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle
#1
Yuri Yamashita, Satoshi Nakada, Toshinori Yoshihara, Takeshi Nara, Norihiko Furuya, Takashi Miida, Nobutaka Hattori, Eri Arikawa-Hirasawa
Perlecan (HSPG2), a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is a component of basement membranes and participates in a variety of biological activities. Here, we show physiological roles of perlecan in both obesity and the onset of metabolic syndrome. The perinatal lethality-rescued perlecan knockout (Hspg2-/- -Tg) mice showed a smaller mass and cell size of white adipose tissues than control (WT-Tg) mice. Abnormal lipid deposition, such as fatty liver, was not detected in the Hspg2-/- -Tg mice, and those mice also consumed more fat as an energy source, likely due to their activated fatty acid oxidation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714638/mechanisms-behind-pyrroloquinoline-quinone-supplementation-on-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-biogenesis-possible-synergistic-effects-with-exercise
#2
Paul Hwang, Darryn S Willoughby
There is clear evidence that endurance exercise training elicits intramuscular adaptations that can lead to elevations in mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative capacity, mitochondrial density, and mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated by the activation of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha. This master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis activates nuclear respiratory factors (NRF-1, NRF-2) and mitochondrial transcription factor A, which enables the expansion of mitochondrial size and transcription of mitochondrial DNA...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705396/acute-physical-exercise-increases-the-adaptor-protein-appl1-in-the-hypothalamus-of-obese-mice
#3
Rafael Calais Gaspar, Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Guilherme Pedron Formigari, Gabriel Keine Kuga, Susana Castelo Branco Ramos Nakandakari, José Diego Botezelli, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli
Adiponectin is considered an adipokine that has essential anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitivity actions. The adaptor protein containing the pleckstrin homology domain, the phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and leucine zipper motif 1 (APPL1) is a protein involved in adiponectin signaling that plays a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. In the central nervous system, adiponectin can potentiate the effects of leptin in the arcuate proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. However, the role of APPL1 in the hypothalamus is not well understood...
April 26, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704981/ub-and-down-ubiquitin-exercise-for-the-elderly
#4
REVIEW
Jörg Höhfeld, Thorsten Hoppe
Conjugation of ubiquitin onto proteins generates a degradation signal or exerts degradation-independent regulatory functions. Ubiquitylation is governed by the antagonistic action of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs). Several recent publications illustrate a balanced interplay of ligases and DUBs at signaling hubs that are central to longevity and protein homeostasis (proteostasis). In addition, stress-induced alterations of ubiquitin conjugation are emerging as key events that drive aging and contribute to the pathology of age-related diseases...
April 25, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698983/micrornas-in-high-and-low-responders-to-resistance-training-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#5
Amanda D Hagstrom, Joshua Denham
Accounting for one in three cancer diagnoses, breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Exercise has a well-accepted role in the multi-disciplinary approach to rehabilitating breast cancer survivors. Despite the many known benefits of resistance training on women recovering from breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that have crucial roles in growth and development. Here, we analysed the abundance of 9 miRNAs, with known roles in muscle physiology and some linked to cancer, in serum samples from 24 breast cancer survivors before and after a 16-week resistance training or usual care intervention...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671055/a-new-perspective-of-the-hippocampus-in-the-origin-of-exercise-brain-interactions
#6
REVIEW
Catarina Rendeiro, Justin S Rhodes
Exercising regularly is a highly effective strategy for maintaining cognitive health throughout the lifespan. Over the last 20 years, many molecular, physiological and structural changes have been documented in response to aerobic exercise training in humans and animals, particularly in the hippocampus. However, how exercise produces such neurological changes remains elusive. A recent line of investigation has suggested that muscle-derived circulating factors cross into the brain and may be the key agents driving enhancement in synaptic plasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis from aerobic exercise...
April 18, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532423/body-composition-and-metabolic-changes-during-a-520-day-mission-simulation-to-mars
#7
F Strollo, C Macchi, I Eberini, M A Masini, M Botta, G Vassilieva, I Nichiporuk, M Monici, D Santucci, F Celotti, P Magni, M Ruscica
PURPOSE: The "Mars-500 project" allowed to evaluate the changes in psychological/physiological adaptation over a prolonged confinement, in order to gather information for future missions. Here, we evaluated the impact of confinement and isolation on body composition, glucose metabolism/insulin resistance and adipokine levels. METHODS: The "Mars-500 project" consisted of 520 consecutive days of confinement from June 3, 2010 to Nov 4, 2011. The crew was composed of six male subjects (three Russians, two Europeans, and one Chinese) with a median age of 31 years (range 27-38 years)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485903/metabolic-and-molecular-framework-for-the-enhancement-of-endurance-by-intermittent-food-deprivation
#8
Krisztina Marosi, Keelin Moehl, Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Sarah J Mitchell, Yongqing Zhang, Elin Lehrmann, Miguel A Aon, Sonia Cortassa, Kevin G Becker, Mark P Mattson
Evolutionary considerations suggest that the body has been optimized to perform at a high level in the food-deprived state when fatty acids and their ketone metabolites are a major fuel source for muscle cells. Because controlled food deprivation in laboratory animals and intermittent energy restriction in humans is a potent physiologic stimulus for ketosis, we designed a study to determine the impact of intermittent food deprivation during endurance training on performance and to elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms...
February 27, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363055/upper-respiratory-symptoms-gut-health-and-mucosal-immunity-in-athletes
#9
REVIEW
Candice Colbey, Amanda J Cox, David B Pyne, Ping Zhang, Allan W Cripps, Nicholas P West
Upper respiratory symptoms remain the most common illness in athletes. Upper respiratory symptoms during heavy training and competition may impair performance. Preventing illness is the primary reason for the use of supplements, such as probiotics and prebiotics, for maintaining or promoting gut health and immune function. While exercise-induced perturbations in the immune system may increase susceptibility to illness and infection, growing evidence indicates that upper respiratory symptoms are related to a breakdown in the homeostatic regulation of the mucosal immune system of the airways...
March 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357501/effects-of-aging-and-parkinson-s-disease-on-motor-unit-remodeling-influence-of-resistance-exercise-training
#10
Neil A Kelly, Kelley G Hammond, C Scott Bickel, Samuel T Windham, S Craig Tuggle, Marcas M Bamman
Aging muscle atrophy is in part a neurodegenerative process revealed by denervation/reinnervation events leading to motor unit remodeling (i.e., myofiber type grouping). However, this process and its physiological relevance are poorly understood, as is the wide-ranging heterogeneity among aging humans. Here, we attempted to address 1) the relation between myofiber type grouping and molecular regulators of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability; 2) the impact of motor unit remodeling on recruitment during submaximal contractions; 3) the prevalence and impact of motor unit remodeling in Parkinson's disease (PD), an age-related neurodegenerative disease; and 4) the influence of resistance exercise training (RT) on regulators of motor unit remodeling...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346164/the-nuclear-receptor-nor-1-is-a-pleiotropic-regulator-of-exercise-induced-adaptations
#11
Michael A Pearen, George E O Muscat
Exercise induces various physical and metabolic changes in skeletal muscle that adaptively reprograms this tissue to current physiological and environmental demands. Underlying these changes are broad modifications to gene expression. We postulate that the nuclear hormone receptor, Nor-1, is activated after exercise, and this transcription factor modifies gene expression to drive the molecular and cellular adaptations associated with contractile reorganization.
April 2018: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321394/-chrono-nutrition-and-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid
#12
Shigenobu Shibata, Akiko Furutani
Circadian clock system has been widely maintained in many spices from prokaryote to mammals. "Circadian" means "approximately day" in Latin, thus circadian rhythm means about 24 hour rhythms. The earth revolves once every 24 hours, and our circadian system has been developed for adjusting to this 24 hour cycles, to get sun light information for getting their foods or for alive in birds or mammals. We have two different circadian systems so-called main oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and local oscillator located in the various peripheral organ tissues such as liver, kidney and skeletal muscle...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317069/blood-flow-restriction-training-as-a-prehabilitation-concept-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-narrative-review-about-current-preoperative-interventions-and-the-potential-impact-of-bfr
#13
Alexander Franz, Fina Pauline Queitsch, Michael Behringer, Constantin Mayer, Rüdiger Krauspe, Christoph Zilkens
Osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the most commonly diagnosed joint ailments and responsible for increased rates of total knee arthroplasty surgeries worldwide. Whereas the surgical approach is able to diminish the perceived knee pain of concerned patients', the postoperative recovery is often accompanied by persistent skeletal muscle dysfunctions and atrophy, which is responsible for functional deficits for up to several years. Recent findings indicate that surgery induced adverse effects on skeletal muscles are largely associated with the use of pneumatic tourniquets, wherefore several studies try to reduce tourniquet use in orthopedic surgery...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282613/regulation-of-pain-and-itch-by-trp-channels
#14
REVIEW
Carlene Moore, Rupali Gupta, Sven-Eric Jordt, Yong Chen, Wolfgang B Liedtke
Nociception is an important physiological process that detects harmful signals and results in pain perception. In this review, we discuss important experimental evidence involving some TRP ion channels as molecular sensors of chemical, thermal, and mechanical noxious stimuli to evoke the pain and itch sensations. Among them are the TRPA1 channel, members of the vanilloid subfamily (TRPV1, TRPV3, and TRPV4), and finally members of the melastatin group (TRPM2, TRPM3, and TRPM8). Given that pain and itch are pro-survival, evolutionarily-honed protective mechanisms, care has to be exercised when developing inhibitory/modulatory compounds targeting specific pain/itch-TRPs so that physiological protective mechanisms are not disabled to a degree that stimulus-mediated injury can occur...
February 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244243/metabolic-interaction-between-urea-cycle-and-citric-acid-cycle-shunt-a-guided-approach
#15
Rossana Pesi, Francesco Balestri, Piero L Ipata
This article is a guided pedagogical approach, devoted to postgraduate students specializing in biochemistry, aimed at presenting all single reactions and overall equations leading to the metabolic interaction between ureagenesis and citric acid cycle to be incorporated into a two-three lecture series about the interaction of urea cycle with other metabolic pathways. We emphasize that citrate synthetase, aconitase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, three enzymes of the citric acid cycle are not involved, thus creating a shunt in citric acid cycle...
December 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239310/micrornas-as-diagnostic-markers-and-therapeutic-targets-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
REVIEW
Bridget Martinez, Philip V Peplow
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by primary damage to the brain from the external mechanical force and by subsequent secondary injury due to various molecular and pathophysiological responses that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Secondary brain injury events may occur minutes, hours, or even days after the trauma, and provide valuable therapeutic targets to prevent further neuronal degeneration. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for TBI due, in part, to the widespread impact of numerous complex secondary biochemical and pathophysiological events occurring at different time points following the initial injury...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219231/laboratory-exercise-for-studying-the-morphology-of-heat-denatured-and-amyloid-aggregates-of-lysozyme-by-atomic-force-microscopy
#17
Sumeyra Gokalp, William Horton, Elfa B Jónsdóttir-Lewis, Michelle Foster, Marianna Török
To facilitate learning advanced instrumental techniques, essential tools for visualizing biomaterials, a simple and versatile laboratory exercise demonstrating the use of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in biomedical applications was developed. In this experiment, the morphology of heat-denatured and amyloid-type aggregates formed from a low-cost and well-characterized model protein, hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL), are compared. Structural differences between the amorphous and ordered particles are quantified using ImageJ for the analysis of AFM images as a postlaboratory assignment...
December 8, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202928/deciphering-caveolar-functions-by-syndapin-iii-ko-mediated-impairment-of-caveolar-invagination
#18
Eric Seemann, Minxuan Sun, Sarah Krueger, Jessica Tröger, Wenya Hou, Natja Haag, Susann Schüler, Martin Westermann, Christian A Huebner, Bernd Romeike, Michael M Kessels, Britta Qualmann
Several human diseases are associated with a lack of caveolae. Yet, the functions of caveolae and the molecular mechanisms critical for shaping them still are debated. We show that muscle cells of syndapin III KO mice show severe reductions of caveolae reminiscent of human caveolinopathies. Yet, different from other mouse models, the levels of the plasma membrane-associated caveolar coat proteins caveolin3 and cavin1 were both not reduced upon syndapin III KO. This allowed for dissecting bona fide caveolar functions from those supported by mere caveolin presence and also demonstrated that neither caveolin3 nor caveolin3 and cavin1 are sufficient to form caveolae...
December 5, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194424/functional-foods-and-lifestyle-approaches-for-diabetes-prevention-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Ahmad Alkhatib, Catherine Tsang, Ali Tiss, Theeshan Bahorun, Hossein Arefanian, Roula Barake, Abdelkrim Khadir, Jaakko Tuomilehto
Functional foods contain biologically active ingredients associated with physiological health benefits for preventing and managing chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A regular consumption of functional foods may be associated with enhanced anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, insulin sensitivity, and anti-cholesterol functions, which are considered integral to prevent and manage T2DM. Components of the Mediterranean diet (MD)-such as fruits, vegetables, oily fish, olive oil, and tree nuts-serve as a model for functional foods based on their natural contents of nutraceuticals, including polyphenols, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, pigments, and unsaturated fatty acids...
December 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188818/no-evidence-of-white-adipocyte-browning-after-endurance-exercise-training-in-obese-men
#20
T Tsiloulis, A L Carey, J Bayliss, B Canny, R C R Meex, M J Watt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The phenomenon of adipocyte 'beiging' involves the conversion of non-classic brown adipocytes to brown-like adipose tissue with thermogenic, fat-burning properties, and this phenomenon has been shown in rodents to slow the progression of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Rodent studies consistently report adipocyte beiging after endurance exercise training, indicating that increased thermogenic capacity in these adipocytes may underpin the improved health benefits of exercise training...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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