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molecular exercise physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342901/the-sympathetic-neuro-adipose-connection-and-the-control-of-body-weight
#1
REVIEW
Inês Mahú, Ana I Domingos
In recent decades, obesity has become a global public health crisis irrespective of age or gender [21]. But according to historic records, concerns over appropriate maintenance of body size have been long established. For more than to 2 millennia, the main therapeutic approach to curb excess weight has been to recommend dietary restrictions and regular exercise (Haslam, 2016). Nevertheless, more contemporary studies indicate that the employment of such approaches in the treatment of severely obese patients causes metabolic adaptions which impair their long-term success in weight management [8]...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328535/the-assessment-of-labor-a-brief-history
#2
Wayne R Cohen, Emanuel A Friedman
In the 1930s, investigators in the US, Germany and Switzerland made the first attempts to quantify the course of labor in a clinically meaningful way. They emphasized the rupture of membranes as a pivotal event governing labor progress. Attention was also placed on the total number of contractions as a guide to normality. Beginning in the 1950s, Friedman determined that changes in cervical dilatation and fetal station over time were the most useful parameters for the assessment of labor progress. He showed all normal labors had similar patterns of dilatation and descent, differing only in the durations and slopes of their component parts...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322825/dissection-of-mechanoresponse-elements-in-promoter-sites-of-the-mechanoresponsive-cyr61-gene
#3
Lothar Seefried, Sigrid Mueller-Deubert, Melanie Krug, Almoatazbellah Youssef, Norbert Schuetze, Anita Ignatius, Franz Jakob, Regina Ebert
Mechanotransduction is important for mesenchymal regeneration and differentiation. Exaggerated high or very low impact yields pathological outcome resulting in fracture or tissue atrophy. Pathological strain in animal models was described but tools to dissect the respective stimuli and downstream pathways are limited. We expand the analytical tools to describe DNA strain response elements in a reporter gene approach. Deletion constructs of the human cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) promoter were cloned into luciferase vectors and stably transfected into human telomerase-immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT)...
March 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289716/muscular-dystrophy-in-ptfr-cavin-1-null-mice
#4
Shi-Ying Ding, Libin Liu, Paul F Pilch
ice and humans lacking the caveolae component polymerase I transcription release factor (PTRF, also known as cavin-1) exhibit lipo- and muscular dystrophy. Here we describe the molecular features underlying the muscle phenotype for PTRF/cavin-1 null mice. These animals had a decreased ability to exercise, and exhibited muscle hypertrophy with increased muscle fiber size and muscle mass due, in part, to constitutive activation of the Akt pathway. Their muscles were fibrotic and exhibited impaired membrane integrity accompanied by an apparent compensatory activation of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex along with elevated expression of proteins involved in muscle repair function...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286759/bioinformatics-analysis-reveals-micrornas-regulating-biological-pathways-in-exercise-induced-cardiac-physiological-hypertrophy
#5
REVIEW
Jiahong Xu, Yang Liu, Yuan Xie, Cuimei Zhao, Hongbao Wang
Exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy is generally considered to be a type of adaptive change after exercise training and is beneficial for cardiovascular diseases. This study aims at investigating exercise-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and their potential biological pathways. Here, we collected 23 miRNAs from 8 published studies. MirPath v.3 from the DIANA tools website was used to execute the analysis, and TargetScan was used to predict the target genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses were performed to identify potential pathways and functional annotations associated with exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266660/high-glucose-alters-tendon-homeostasis-through-downregulation-of-the-ampk-egr1-pathway
#6
Yu-Fu Wu, Hsing-Kuo Wang, Hong-Wei Chang, Jingyu Sun, Jui-Sheng Sun, Yuan-Hung Chao
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with higher risk of tendinopathy, which reduces tolerance to exercise and functional activities and affects lifestyle and glycemic control. Expression of tendon-related genes and matrix metabolism in tenocytes are essential for maintaining physiological functions of tendon. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in diabetic tendinopathy remain unclear. We hypothesized that high glucose (HG) alters the characteristics of tenocyte. Using in vitro 2-week culture of tenocytes, we found that expression of tendon-related genes, including Egr1, Mkx, TGF-β1, Col1a2, and Bgn, was significantly decreased in HG culture and that higher glucose consumption occurred...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216413/does-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-training-of-the-lower-limb-have-functional-effects-on-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Antoine Langeard, Lucile Bigot, Nathalie Chastan, Antoine Gauthier
The lower limb muscle functions of the elderly are known to be preferentially altered by ageing. Traditional training effectively counteracts some of these functional declines but is not always accessible due to its cost and to the accessibility of the training centers and to the incapacities of some seniors to practice some exercises. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) could provide an interesting alternative muscle training technique because it is inexpensive and transportable. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the current evidence on the effect of the use of lower limb NMES as a training technique for healthy elderly rehabilitation...
February 17, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212624/understanding-the-response-to-endurance-exercise-using-a-systems-biology-approach-combining-blood-metabolomics-transcriptomics-and-mirnomics-in-horses
#8
Núria Mach, Yuliaxis Ramayo-Caldas, Allison Clark, Marco Moroldo, Céline Robert, Eric Barrey, Jesús Maria López, Laurence Le Moyec
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise in horses requires adaptive processes involving physiological, biochemical, and cognitive-behavioral responses in an attempt to regain homeostasis. We hypothesized that the identification of the relationships between blood metabolome, transcriptome, and miRNome during endurance exercise in horses could provide significant insights into the molecular response to endurance exercise. For this reason, the serum metabolome and whole-blood transcriptome and miRNome data were obtained from ten horses before and after a 160 km endurance competition...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158895/mimicking-exercise-in-three-dimensional-bioengineered-skeletal-muscle-to-investigate-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-physiological-adaptation
#9
REVIEW
Andreas M Kasper, Daniel C Turner, Neil R W Martin, Adam P Sharples
Bioengineering of skeletal muscle in-vitro in order to produce highly aligned myofibres in relevant three dimensional (3D) matrices have allowed scientists to model the in-vivo skeletal muscle niche. This review discusses essential experimental considerations for developing bioengineered muscle in order to investigate exercise mimicking stimuli. We identify current knowledge in the use of electrical stimulation and co-culture with motor neurons to enhance skeletal muscle maturation and contractile function in bioengineered systems in-vitro...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153015/the-effects-of-short-term-high-fat-feeding-on-exercise-capacity-multi-tissue-transcriptome-changes-by-rna-sequencing-analysis
#10
Ya Xiao, Wanshan Wang, Liguo Chen, Jieyu Chen, Pingping Jiang, Xiuqiong Fu, Xiaoli Nie, Hiuyee Kwan, Yanyan Liu, Xiaoshan Zhao
BACKGROUND: The effects of short-term high fat diets on physiology are elusive and the molecular changes following fat overconsumption remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate exercise capacity in mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 3 days and investigate the molecular mechanisms in the early response to high-fat feeding. METHODS: Exercise capacity was assessed by weight-loaded swimming test in mice fed a control diet (10 kcal% fat) or a HFD (60 kcal% fat) for 3 days...
February 2, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027662/redox-control-of-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#11
Emmeran Le Moal, Vincent Pialoux, Gaëtan Juban, Carole Groussard, Hassan Zouhal, Bénédicte Chazaud, Rémi Mounier
Skeletal muscle shows high plasticity in response to external demand. Moreover, adult skeletal muscle is capable of complete regeneration after injury, due to the properties of Muscle Stem Cells (MuSCs), the satellite cells, which follow a tightly regulated myogenic program to generate both new myofibers and new MuSCs for further needs. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have long been associated with skeletal muscle physiology, their implication in the cell and molecular processes at work during muscle regeneration is more recent...
December 27, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007575/the-mechanism-of-formation-structure-and-physiological-relevance-of-covalent-hemoglobin-attachment-to-the-erythrocyte-membrane
#12
Elizabeth M Welbourn, Michael T Wilson, Ashril Yusof, Metodi V Metodiev, Chris E Cooper
Covalent hemoglobin binding to membranes leads to band 3 (AE1) clustering and the removal of erythrocytes from the circulation; it is also implicated in blood storage lesions. Damaged hemoglobin, with the heme being in a redox and oxygen-binding inactive hemichrome form, has been implicated as the binding species. However, previous studies used strong non-physiological oxidants. In vivo hemoglobin is constantly being oxidised to methemoglobin (ferric), with around 1% of hemoglobin being in this form at any one time...
February 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955950/resistive-training-and-molecular-regulators-of-vascular-metabolic-risk-in-chronic-stroke
#13
Alice S Ryan, Guoyan Li, Charlene Hafer-Macko, Frederick M Ivey
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator (PGC-1α) gene and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) respond to physiological stimuli and regulate insulin resistance. Inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the soluble forms of intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and vascular CAM-1 (sVCAM-1) are associated with increased risk of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Resistive training (RT) reduces hyperinsulinemia and improves insulin action in chronic stroke...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927764/circulating-microrna-are-predictive-of-aging-and-acute-adaptive-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-men
#14
Lee M Margolis, Sarah J Lessard, Yassine Ezzyat, Roger A Fielding, Donato A Rivas
Circulating microRNA (c-miRNA) have the potential to function as novel noninvasive markers of the underlying physiological state of skeletal muscle. This investigation sought to determine the influence of aging on c-miRNA expression at rest and following resistance exercise in male volunteers (Young: n = 9; Older: n = 9). Primary findings were that fasting c-miRNA expression profiles were significantly predictive of aging, with miR-19b-3p, miR-206, and miR-486 distinguishing between age groups. Following resistance exercise, principal component analysis revealed a divergent response in expression of 10 c-miRNA, where expression profiles were upregulated in younger and downregulated in older participants...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927026/modulation-of-local-and-systemic-heterocellular-communication-by-mechanical-forces-a-role-of-enos
#15
Ralf Erkens, Tatsiana Suvorava, Christian M Kramer, Lukas Diederich, Malte Kelm, Miriam Margherita Cortese-Krott
SIGNIFICANCE: In this review, we discuss the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a key physiological mechanotransducer modulating both local and systemic heterocellular communication, and contributing to the integrated (patho)physiology of the cardiovascular system. A deeper understanding of mechanotransduction-mediated local and systemic nodes controlling heterocellular communication between the endothelium, blood cells and other cell types (e.g. cardiomyocytes) may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease...
December 7, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#16
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891582/versatile-roles-of-intracellularly-located-trpv1-channel
#17
REVIEW
Rui Zhao, Suk Ying Tsang
The ubiquitous expression in many organs throughout the body and the ability to respond to a wide variety of physical and chemical stimuli have brought transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to the vanguards of our sensory systems. TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) is the founding member of the TRPV subfamily. TRPV1 can be activated by noxious heat, protons and vanilloids. Previous studies have shown that TRPV1 is located on the plasma membrane, serving to non-selectively permeate calcium ion from the extracellular region to the cytoplasm...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888580/biology-of-vo2-max-looking-under-the-physiology-lamp
#18
REVIEW
C Lundby, D Montero, M Joyner
In this review, we argue that several key features of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) should underpin discussions about the biological and reductionist determinants of its interindividual variability: (i) training-induced increases in VO2 max are largely facilitated by expansion of red blood cell volume and an associated improvement in stroke volume, which also adapts independent of changes in red blood cell volume. These general concepts are also informed by cross-sectional studies in athletes that have very high values for VO2 max...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882550/investigating-interactions-between-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-cardiac-myocytes-what-can-we-learn-from-different-approaches
#19
REVIEW
Katja Rietdorf, Hilary MacQueen
Heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Some cardiovascular conditions can be modulated by lifestyle factors such as increased exercise or a healthier diet, but many require surgical or pharmacological interventions for their management. More targeted and less invasive therapies would be beneficial. Recently it has become apparent that epicardial adipose tissue plays an important role in normal and pathological cardiac function, and it is now the focus of considerable research...
November 24, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852752/temperature-induced-cardiac-remodelling-in-fish
#20
REVIEW
Adam N Keen, Jordan M Klaiman, Holly A Shiels, Todd E Gillis
Thermal acclimation causes the heart of some fish species to undergo significant remodelling. This includes changes in electrical activity, energy utilization and structural properties at the gross and molecular level of organization. The purpose of this Review is to summarize the current state of knowledge of temperature-induced structural remodelling in the fish ventricle across different levels of biological organization, and to examine how such changes result in the modification of the functional properties of the heart...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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