Read by QxMD icon Read

molecular exercise physiology

Sree Vamsee Chintapalli, Srinivas Jayanthi, Prema L Mallipeddi, Ravi Kumar Gundampati, Suresh Kumar Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy, Damian B van Rossum, Andriy Anishkin, Sean H Adams
Previous research has indicated that long-chain fatty acids can bind myoglobin (Mb) in an oxygen dependent manner. This suggests that Oxy-Mb may play an important role in fuel delivery in Mb-rich muscle fibers (e.g., type I fibers and cardiomyocytes), and raises the possibility that Mb also serves as an acylcarnitine binding protein. We report for the first time the putative interaction and affinity characteristics for different chain lengths of both fatty acids and acylcarnitines with Oxy-Mb using molecular dynamic simulations and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ludovic Giloteaux, Maureen R Hanson, Betsy A Keller
BACKGROUND Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) present with profound fatigue, flu-like symptoms, pain, cognitive impairment, orthostatic intolerance, and post-exertional malaise (PEM), and exacerbation of some or all of the baseline symptoms. CASE REPORT We report on a pair of 34-year-old monozygotic twins discordant for ME/CFS, with WELL, the non-affected twin, and ILL, the affected twin. Both twins performed a two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), pre- and post-exercise blood samples were drawn, and both provided stool samples for biochemical and molecular analysis...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Daniel Guerreiro Diniz, Marcus Augusto de Oliveira, Camila Mendes de Lima, César Augusto Raiol Fôro, Marcia Consentino Kronka Sosthenes, João Bento-Torres, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Daniel Clive Anthony, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço Diniz
BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the glial response to a standard environment and how the response may be associated with age-related cognitive decline in learning and memory. Here we investigated aging and environmental influences on hippocampal-dependent tasks and on the morphology of an unbiased selected population of astrocytes from the molecular layer of dentate gyrus, which is the main target of perforant pathway. RESULTS: Six and twenty-month-old female, albino Swiss mice were housed, from weaning, in a standard or enriched environment, including running wheels for exercise and tested for object recognition and contextual memories...
October 10, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Aneesa Ansari, Md Shahedur Rahman, Subbroto K Saha, Forhad K Saikot, Akash Deep, Ki-Hyun Kim
In mammals, seven members of the sirtuin protein family known as class III histone deacetylase have been identified for their characteristic features. These distinguished characteristics include the tissues where they are distributed or located, enzymatic activities, molecular functions, and involvement in diseases. Among the sirtuin members, SIRT3 has received much attention for its role in cancer genetics, aging, neurodegenerative disease, and stress resistance. SIRT3 controls energy demand during stress conditions such as fasting and exercise as well as metabolism through the deacetylation and acetylation of mitochondrial enzymes...
September 29, 2016: Aging Cell
Hyunseok Jee
Molecular chaperones are ubiquitous and abundant within cellular environments, functioning as a defense mechanism against outer environment. The range of molecular chaperones varies from 10 to over 100 kDa. Depending on the size, the specific locations and physiological roles of molecular chaperones vary within the cell. Multifunctionality of heat shock proteins (HSPs) expressed via various cyto-stress including heat shock have been spotlighted as a reliable prognostic target biomarker for therapeutic purpose in neuromuscular disease or cancer related studies...
August 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Jamie Douglas, Simon Pearson, Angus Ross, Mike McGuigan
An eccentric contraction involves the active lengthening of muscle under an external load. The molecular and neural mechanisms underpinning eccentric contractions differ from those of concentric and isometric contractions and remain less understood. A number of molecular theories have been put forth to explain the unexplained observations during eccentric contractions that deviate from the predictions of the established theories of muscle contraction. Postulated mechanisms include a strain-induced modulation of actin-myosin interactions at the level of the cross-bridge, the activation of the structural protein titin, and the winding of titin on actin...
September 15, 2016: Sports Medicine
Jan Martel, David M Ojcius, Chih-Jung Chang, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Chia-Chen Lu, Yun-Fei Ko, Shun-Fu Tseng, Hsin-Chih Lai, John D Young
Obesity is reaching global epidemic proportions as a result of factors such as high-calorie diets and lack of physical exercise. Obesity is now considered to be a medical condition, which not only contributes to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, but also negatively affects longevity and quality of life. To combat this epidemic, anti-obesogenic approaches are required that are safe, widely available and inexpensive. Several plants and mushrooms that are consumed in traditional Chinese medicine or as nutraceuticals contain antioxidants, fibre and other phytochemicals, and have anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects through the modulation of diverse cellular and physiological pathways...
September 16, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Christine Loyd, I Jack Magrisso, Michael Haas, Sowmya Balusu, Radha Krishna, Nobuyuki Itoh, Darleen A Sandoval, Diego Perez-Tilve, Silvana Obici, Kirk M Habegger
Exercise is an effective therapy against the metabolic syndrome. However, the molecular pathways underlying the advantageous effects of exercise are elusive. Glucagon receptor signaling is essential for exercise benefits, and recent evidence indicates that a downstream effector of glucagon, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), is implicated in this response. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that FGF21 action is necessary in mediating metabolic effects of exercise. We utilized acute exhaustive treadmill exercise in Wistar rats to identify a putative, concomitant increase in plasma glucagon and FGF21 with the increase in glucose and lactate following exercise...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Mrinmoy Ghosh, Hyun-Woo Cho, Jeong-Woong Park, Jae-Young Choi, Young-Hwa Chung, Neelesh Sharma, Amit Kumar Singh, Nam Eun Kim, Raj Kumar Mongre, Do Huynh, Zhang Jiao Jiao, Kyoung Tag Do, Hak-Kyo Lee, Ki-Duk Song, Byung-Wook Cho, DongKee Jeong
The athletic abilities of the horse serve as a valuable model to understand the physiology and molecular mechanisms of adaptive responses to exercise. We analyzed differentially expressed genes in triceps brachii muscle tissues collected from Eonjena Taeyang and Jigusang Seryeok Thoroughbred horses and their co-expression networks in a large-scale RNA-sequence dataset comparing expression before and after exercise. High-quality horse transcriptome data were generated, with over 22 million 90-bp pair-end reads...
June 28, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Paolo Moghetti, Elisabetta Bacchi, Corinna Brangani, Silvia Donà, Carlo Negri
Exercise has a powerful action on metabolism, and adaptation of the body to changes induced by exercise is fundamental to be able to provide the energy required for muscle contraction and physiological functions of vital tissues. Depending on the intensity and duration of exercise, different mechanisms are called on to make energy available, and under homeostatic control, this is guaranteed by rapid and coordinated changes in the secretion of several hormones. Molecular mechanisms controlling muscle function and fiber phenotype are related to the specific mode of muscle activation...
2016: Frontiers of Hormone Research
Gabriela Placoná Diniz, Da-Zhi Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs highly conserved across species. miRNAs regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing to complementary sequences mainly in the 3'-untranslated region of their target mRNAs to induce mRNA cleavage and translational repression. Thousands of miRNAs have been identified in human and their function has been linked to the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes. The skeletal muscle is the largest human organ responsible for locomotion, posture, and body metabolism...
2016: Comprehensive Physiology
James A Timmons, Iain J Gallagher
The purpose of an F1000 review is to reflect on the bigger picture, exploring controversies and new concepts as well as providing opinion as to what is limiting progress in a particular field. We reviewed about 200 titles published in 2015 that included reference to 'skeletal muscle, exercise, and ageing' with the aim of identifying key articles that help progress our understanding or research capacity while identifying methodological issues which represent, in our opinion, major barriers to progress. Loss of neuromuscular function with chronological age impacts on both health and quality of life...
2016: F1000Research
Adam R Wende, Martin E Young, John Chatham, Jianhua Zhang, Namakkal S Rajasekaran, Victor M Darley-Usmar
Understanding molecular mechanisms that underlie the recent emergence of metabolic diseases such as diabetes and heart failure has revealed the need for a multi-disciplinary research integrating the key metabolic pathways which change the susceptibility to environmental or pathologic stress. At the physiological level these include the circadian control of metabolism which aligns metabolism with temporal demand. The mitochondria play an important role in integrating the redox signals and metabolic flux in response to the changing activities associated with chronobiology, exercise and diet...
May 27, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Mark A Sarzynski, Sujoy Ghosh, Claude Bouchard
Predicting the responsiveness to regular exercise is a topic of great relevance due to its potential role in personalized exercise medicine applications. The present review focuses on cardiorespiratory fitness (commonly measured by maximal oxygen uptake, VO2 max), a trait with wide-ranging impact on health and performance indicators. Gains in VO2 max demonstrate large inter-individual variation even in response to standardized exercise training programs. The estimated delta VO2 max heritability of 47 % suggests that genomic-based predictors alone are insufficient to account for the total trainability variance...
May 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Adeel Safdar, Ayesha Saleem, Mark A Tarnopolsky
Endurance exercise-mediated multisystemic adaptations are known to mitigate metabolism-related disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms that promote crosstalk between organs and orchestrate the pro-metabolic effects of endurance exercise remain unclear. Exercise-induced release of peptides and nucleic acids from skeletal muscle and other organs (collectively termed 'exerkines') has been implicated in mediating these systemic adaptations. Given that the extracellular milieu is probably not a hospitable environment for labile exerkines, a lipid vehicle-based mode of delivery has originated over the course of evolution...
September 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Ayla O Sessions, Adam J Engler
Unlike diet and exercise, which individuals can modulate according to their lifestyle, aging is unavoidable. With normal or healthy aging, the heart undergoes extensive vascular, cellular, and interstitial molecular changes that result in stiffer less compliant hearts that experience a general decline in organ function. Although these molecular changes deemed cardiac remodeling were once thought to be concomitant with advanced cardiovascular disease, they can be found in patients without manifestation of clinical disease...
May 13, 2016: Circulation Research
Licht Miyamoto
The number of patients with metabolic disorders is dramatically increasing all over the world. The diseases often exhibit multiple metabolic disturbances including diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, and so on, recognized as a concept of metabolic syndrome. It is important to consider the common underlying pathophysiological bases of such metabolic diseases at the suggestion of the teachings of a parable, "The blind men and an elephant," whereby each blind man investigates a different part of the elephant...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Samira Salame, Priscila C Garcia, Caroline C Real, Juliana Borborema, Sandra R Mota-Ortiz, Luiz R G Britto, Raquel S Pires
Short and long-term physical exercise induce physiological and structural changes in brain motor areas. The relationship between changes of structural and synaptic proteins in brain motor areas and acrobatic exercise is less understood. Our aim was to evaluate the expression of synapsin I (SYS), synaptophysin (SYP), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), neurofilament (NF), and a marker for recent neuronal activity (Egr-1) in the motor cortex, striatum and cerebellum of adult rats subjected to acrobatic exercise (AE, for 1-4 weeks)...
July 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Iván Rodríguez-Núñez, Fernando Romero, María Javiera Saavedra
The physiological regulation of vascular function is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, where an imbalance between synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is one of its main mechanisms. In this context, the shear stress is one of the most important mechanical stimuli to improve vascular function, due to endothelial mechanotransduction, triggered by stimulation of various endothelial mechanosensors, induce signaling pathways culminating in increased bioavailability of vasodilators molecules such as nitric oxide, that finally trigger the angiogenic mechanisms...
July 2016: Archivos de Cardiología de México
John M Lawler, Dinah A Rodriguez, Jeffrey M Hord
Cellular and physiological adaptations to an atmosphere which became enriched in molecular oxygen spurred the development of a layered system of stress protection, including antioxidant and stress response proteins. At physiological levels reactive oxygen and nitrogen species regulate cell signalling as well as intracellular and intercellular communication. Exercise and physical activity confer a variety of stressors on skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system: mechanical, metabolic, oxidative. Transient increases of stressors during acute bouts of exercise or exercise training stimulate enhancement of cellular stress protection against future insults of oxidative, metabolic and mechanical stressors that could induce injury or disease...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"