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molecular exercise physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131507/the-disruptive-effect-of-lysozyme-on-the-bacterial-cell-wall-explored-by-an-in-silico-structural-outlook
#1
Emiliano D Primo, Lisandro H Otero, Francisco Ruiz, Sebastián Klinke, Walter Giordano
The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall and disrupt the bacterial life cycle by cleaving the linkage between the NAG and NAM carbohydrates. Lab exercises focused on the effects of lysozyme on the bacterial cell wall are frequently incorporated in biochemistry classes designed for undergraduate students in diverse fields as biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, medicine, and veterinary medicine...
November 13, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127518/identifying-molecular-mediators-of-environmentally-enhanced-neurogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Brian E Eisinger, Xinyu Zhao
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life and supports healthy brain functions. The production of new neurons decreases with age, and deficiencies in adult neurogenesis are associated with neurodevelopmental and degenerative disease. The rate of neurogenesis is dynamically sensitive to an individual's environmental conditions and experiences, and certain stimuli are known robustly to enhance neurogenesis in rodent models, including voluntary exercise, enriched environment, and electroconvulsive shock...
November 10, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104532/specific-physical-exercise-improves-energetic-metabolism-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-mice
#3
Céline Desseille, Séverine Deforges, Olivier Biondi, Léo Houdebine, Domenico D'amico, Antonin Lamazière, Cédric Caradeuc, Gildas Bertho, Gaëlle Bruneteau, Laure Weill, Jean Bastin, Fatima Djouadi, François Salachas, Philippe Lopes, Christophe Chanoine, Charbel Massaad, Frédéric Charbonnier
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the specific loss of motor neurons, leading to muscle paralysis and death. Although the cellular mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-induced toxicity for motor neurons remain poorly understood, growing evidence suggest a defective energetic metabolism in skeletal muscles participating in ALS-induced motor neuron death ultimately destabilizing neuromuscular junctions. In the present study, we report that a specific exercise paradigm, based on a high intensity and amplitude swimming exercise, significantly improves glucose metabolism in ALS mice...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098627/exercise-training-and-epigenetic-regulation-multilevel-modification-and-regulation-of-gene-expression
#4
Ursula Paula Renó Soci, Stephano Freitas Soares Melo, João Lucas Penteado Gomes, André Casanova Silveira, Clara Nóbrega, Edilamar Menezes de Oliveira
Exercise training elicits acute and adaptive long term changes in human physiology that mediate the improvement of performance and health state. The responses are integrative and orchestrated by several mechanisms, as gene expression. Gene expression is essential to construct the adaptation of the biological system to exercise training, since there are molecular processes mediating oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism, angiogenesis, cardiac and skeletal myofiber hypertrophy, and other processes that leads to a greater physiological status...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098624/no-signaling-in-the-cardiovascular-system-and-exercise
#5
Tiago Fernandes, Camila V Gomes-Gatto, Noemy P Pereira, Yahya R Alayafi, Vander J das Neves, Edilamar M Oliveira
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small molecule implicated in multiple signal transduction pathways thus contributing to the regulation of many cellular functions. The identification of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms and the subsequent characterization of the mechanisms of cell activation of the enzymes permitted the partial understanding of both the physiological and pathological processes. NO bioavailability plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease and its reduction in endothelial cells is strictly associated to endothelial dysfunction which, in turn, correlates with cardiovascular mortality...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073097/content-of-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-mcu-in-cardiomyocytes-is-regulated-by-microrna-1-in-physiologic-and-pathologic-hypertrophy
#6
Tania Zaglia, Paola Ceriotti, Antonio Campo, Giulia Borile, Andrea Armani, Pierluigi Carullo, Valentina Prando, Raffaele Coppini, Vladimiro Vida, Tomas O Stølen, Wisløff Ulrik, Elisabetta Cerbai, Giovanni Stellin, Giuseppe Faggian, Diego De Stefani, Marco Sandri, Rosario Rizzuto, Fabio Di Lisa, Tullio Pozzan, Daniele Catalucci, Marco Mongillo
The mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter complex (MCUC) is a multimeric ion channel which, by tuning Ca(2+) influx into the mitochondrial matrix, finely regulates metabolic energy production. In the heart, this dynamic control of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is fundamental for cardiomyocytes to adapt to either physiologic or pathologic stresses. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), which is the core channel subunit of MCUC, has been shown to play a critical role in the response to β-adrenoreceptor stimulation occurring during acute exercise...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050412/adaptive-response-to-exercise-of-fast-growing-and-slow-growing-chicken-strains-blood-oxidative-status-and-non-enzymatic-antioxidant-defense
#7
S Mattioli, A Dal Bosco, S Ruggeri, M Martino, L Moscati, C Pesca, C Castellini
The adaptation of chickens to free-range rearing systems mainly involves the locomotory behavior, which is very different in fast-growing (FG) and slow-growing (SG) strains. This study aimed to compare the effect of moderate locomotory activity (induced and prolonged) on the blood oxidative status in a slow-growing chicken strain with that in a fast-growing one. Thirty FG (Ross 308) birds and 30 SG (Hubbard) birds were divided into 2 groups for each strain and subjected to different treatments: no exercise (the control group [C]) and 1 h of walking at 4 km/h (the exercise group [E])...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032385/exercise-training-response-heterogeneity-physiological-and-molecular-insights
#8
REVIEW
Lauren M Sparks
The overall beneficial effects of exercise are well studied, but why some people do not respond favourably to exercise is less understood. The National Institutes of Health Common Fund has recently launched the large-scale discovery project 'Molecular Transducers of Physical Activity in Humans' to examine the physiological and molecular (i.e. genetic, epigenetic, lipidomic, metabolomic, proteomic, etc.) responses to exercise training. A nationwide, multicentre clinical trial such as this one also provides a unique opportunity to robustly investigate the non-response to exercise in thousands of individuals that have undergone supervised aerobic- and resistance-based exercise training interventions...
December 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982716/multiplexed-temporal-quantification-of-the-exercise-regulated-plasma-peptidome
#9
Benjamin L Parker, James G Burchfield, Daniel Clayton, Thomas A Geddes, Richard J Payne, Bente Kiens, Jørgen Wojtaszewski, Erik A Richter, David E James
Exercise is extremely beneficial to whole body health reducing the risk of a number of chronic human diseases. Some of these physiological benefits appear to be mediated via the secretion of peptide/protein hormones into the blood stream. The plasma peptidome contains the entire complement of low molecular weight endogenous peptides derived from secretion, protease activity and PTMs, and is a rich source of hormones. In the current study we have quantified the effects of intense exercise on the plasma peptidome to identify novel exercise regulated secretory factors in humans...
October 5, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966144/effects-of-exercise-training-on-excitation-contraction-coupling-calcium-dynamics-and-protein-expression-in-the-heart-of-the-neotropical-fish-brycon-amazonicus
#10
Rafael Zanelli Rissoli, Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos, Francisco Tadeu Rantin, Ana Lúcia Kalinin
Matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) is a great swimming performance teleost fish from the Amazon basin. However, the possible cardiac adaptations of this ability are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise (EX group - 60days under 0.4BL·s(-1)) on ventricular contractility by (i) in-vitro analysis of contractility comparing the relative roles of sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling and (ii) molecular analysis of NCX, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2) and phospholamban (PLB) expression and quantification...
September 29, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951250/combining-aerobic-exercise-and-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-improve-brain-function-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Joshua Hendrikse, Aaron Kandola, James Coxon, Nigel Rogasch, Murat Yücel
The aetiology of various psychiatric and neurological disorders may be partially attributable to impairments in neuroplasticity. Developing novel methods of stimulating neuroplasticity is a promising treatment approach to counterbalance these maladaptive influences and alleviate symptomologies. Two non-pharmacological approaches with significant and direct impacts on neuroplasticity are aerobic exercise and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Aerobic exercise is associated with the promotion of numerous neurotrophic mechanisms at a molecular and cellular level, which have a broad influence on neuroplasticity...
September 23, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927254/integrated-analysis-of-microrna-and-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-of-warmblood-horses-before-and-after-exercise
#12
Hang-Ah Kim, Myung-Chul Kim, Na-Yon Kim, Doug-Young Ryu, Hong-Seok Lee, Yongbaek Kim
Exercise capacity is a valuable trait in horses, and it has been used as one of their selection criteria. Although exercise affects molecular homeostasis and adaptation in horses, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. This study was carried out to identify changes in the blood profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs induced by exercise in horse leukocytes. Total RNAs isolated from the peripheral blood leukocytes of four Warmblood horses before and after exercise were subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS) and microarray analyses to determine the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles, respectively...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872110/a-protocol-for-the-administration-of-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-training
#13
Matthew S Sherwood, Emily E Diller, Elizabeth Ey, Subhashini Ganapathy, Jeremy T Nelson, Jason G Parker
Neurologic disorders are characterized by abnormal cellular-, molecular-, and circuit-level functions in the brain. New methods to induce and control neuroplastic processes and correct abnormal function, or even shift functions from damaged tissue to physiologically healthy brain regions, hold the potential to dramatically improve overall health. Of the current neuroplastic interventions in development, neurofeedback training (NFT) from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has the advantages of being completely non-invasive, non-pharmacologic, and spatially localized to target brain regions, as well as having no known side effects...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854781/molecular-analysis-of-alternative-transcripts-of-equine-axl-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-gene
#14
Jeong-Woong Park, Ki-Duk Song, Nam Young Kim, Jae-Young Choi, Seul A Hong, Jin Hyeog Oh, Si Won Kim, Jeong Hyo Lee, Tae Sub Park, Jin-Kyoo Kim, Jong Geun Kim, Byung-Wook Cho
OBJECTIVE: Since athletic performance is a most importance trait in horses, most research focused on physiological and physical studies of horse athletic abilities. In contrast, the molecular analysis as well as the regulatory pathway studies remain insufficient for evaluation and prediction of horse athletic abilities. In our previous study, we identified AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) gene which was expressed as alternative spliced isoforms in skeletal muscle during exercise. In the present study, we validated two AXL alternative splicing transcripts (named as AXLa for long form and AXLb for short form) in equine skeletal muscle to gain insight(s) into the role of each alternative transcript during exercise...
October 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845464/molecular-signatures-of-differential-responses-to-exercise-trainings-during-rehabilitation
#15
Yi-Wen Chen, Chris Gregory, Fan Ye, Naoe Harafuji, Donovan Lott, San-Huei Lai, Sunita Mathur, Mark Scarborough, Parker Gibbs, Celine Baligand, Krista Vandenborne
The loss and recovery of muscle mass and function following injury and during rehabilitation varies among individuals. While recent expression profiling studies have illustrated transcriptomic responses to muscle disuse and remodeling, how these changes contribute to the physiological responses are not clear. In this study, we quantified the effects of immobilization and subsequent rehabilitation training on muscle size and identified molecular pathways associated with muscle responsiveness in an orthopaedic patient cohort study...
2017: Biomedical genetics and genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842527/mechanisms-contributing-to-cardiac-remodelling
#16
REVIEW
Qing-Qing Wu, Yang Xiao, Yuan Yuan, Zhen-Guo Ma, Hai-Han Liao, Chen Liu, Jin-Xiu Zhu, Zheng Yang, Wei Deng, Qi-Zhu Tang
Cardiac remodelling is classified as physiological (in response to growth, exercise and pregnancy) or pathological (in response to inflammation, ischaemia, ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, biomechanical stress, excess neurohormonal activation and excess afterload). Physiological remodelling of the heart is characterized by a fine-tuned and orchestrated process of beneficial adaptations. Pathological cardiac remodelling is the process of structural and functional changes in the left ventricle (LV) in response to internal or external cardiovascular damage or influence by pathogenic risk factors, and is a precursor of clinical heart failure (HF)...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818559/to-boldly-go-where-one-has-gone-before
#17
REVIEW
Keith W Kelley
Americans are suffering from a culture of taking pills. Six out of ten Americans utilize at least one prescription drug, and more than one in ten use five or more prescription medicines. Although this torrent of taking pills is already high, drug use in the USA has not yet crested. Prescription drugs have specific targets, but often they adversely affect other tissues and organs. In keeping with the mission of the National Institutes of Health, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity searches for the underlying cause and potential efficacy of both drug and non-drug interventions...
November 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804461/the-effect-of-resistance-exercise-on-inflammatory-and-myogenic-markers-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Emma L Watson, Joao L Viana, David Wimbury, Naomi Martin, Neil J Greening, Jonathan Barratt, Alice C Smith
Background: Muscle wasting is a common complication of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and is clinically important given its strong association with morbidity and mortality in many other chronic conditions. Exercise provides physiological benefits for CKD patients, however the molecular response to exercise remains to be fully determined. We investigated the inflammatory and molecular response to resistance exercise before and after training in these patients. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that investigated the effect of 8 week progressive resistance training on muscle mass and strength compared to non-exercising controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777921/minimal-alteration-in-muscle-lipid-genes-following-stabilized-weight-loss
#19
Robert H Coker, Leizleigh Robinette, Philip A Kern
Variations in skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), carntine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), perilipin protein 2 (PLIN2), and adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) have been described as playing important roles in the metabolic regulation of lipid oxidation, and may influence intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and muscle lipid droplet size (LDS). While acute changes in caloric balance and/or aerobic capacity may affect lipid metabolism, the influence of sustained weight loss derived from caloric restriction with weight loss (CWL) compared with exercise training with weight loss (EWL) on the abovementioned parameters has not been fully elucidated...
August 4, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768746/oxygen-and-capacity-limited-thermal-tolerance-bridging-ecology-and-physiology
#20
REVIEW
Hans-O Pörtner, Christian Bock, Felix C Mark
Observations of climate impacts on ecosystems highlight the need for an understanding of organismal thermal ranges and their implications at the ecosystem level. Where changes in aquatic animal populations have been observed, the integrative concept of oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has successfully characterised the onset of thermal limits to performance and field abundance. The OCLTT concept addresses the molecular to whole-animal mechanisms that define thermal constraints on the capacity for oxygen supply to the organism in relation to oxygen demand...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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