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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746593/peroxisomes-support-human-herpesvirus-8-latency-by-stabilizing-the-viral-oncogenic-protein-vflip-via-the-mavs-traf-complex
#1
Young Bong Choi, Yeeun Choi, Edward William Harhaj
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is causally related to human malignancies. HHV-8 latent viral FLICE-inhibitory protein (vFLIP) is a viral oncoprotein that is linked to pathogenesis, but how its expression is regulated is largely unknown. In an attempt to understand the role of the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) adaptor in HHV-8 infection, we discovered that vFLIP expression was post-translationally up-regulated by the MAVS signaling complex on peroxisomes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that vFLIP could be targeted to the peroxisomes, where it was oncogenically active, in a PEX19-dependent manner...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732477/effectiveness-of-rituximab-containing-treatment-regimens-in-idiopathic-multicentric-castleman-disease
#2
Yujun Dong, Lu Zhang, Lin Nong, Lihong Wang, Zeyin Liang, Daobin Zhou, David C Fajgenbaum, Hanyun Ren, Jian Li
Human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8)-negative, idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disease often involving constitutional symptoms, cytopenias, and multiple organ system dysfunction. In China, the majority of MCD cases are HHV-8 negative. Given that siltuximab, the only FDA-approved treatment for iMCD is not available in China; rituximab- and cyclophosphamide-containing regimens are often used in the treatment of Chinese iMCD patients. To evaluate the efficacy of rituximab in this rare and heterogeneous disease, clinical and pathological data from 27 cases of iMCD were retrospectively analyzed from two large medical centers in China...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729120/autoimmune-bullous-diseases-in-non-hiv-kaposi-s-sarcoma-a-retrospective-study-in-a-large-cohort-of-patients
#3
A Tourlaki, G Genovese, E Guanziroli, B M Scoppio, E Berti, L Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a rare endothelial neoplasm caused by the human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8). Its risk is increased in immunocompromised patients, including those undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune bullous diseases. Conversely, HHV-8 infection has been hypothesized to be a triggering factor of bullous diseases, especially pemphigus. Given the fact that both KS and autoimmune bullous diseases have a low incidence in the general population, it could be expected that the association between these disorders would be exceptional...
May 5, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682404/possible-association-of-multicentric-castleman-s-disease-with-autoimmune-lymphoproliferative-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Minemura, Yoshinori Tanino, Kazuhiko Ikeda
Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) is lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by systemic inflammatory symptoms such as fever and weight loss. Human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) is thought to be a causable pathogen in all HIV-positive and some HIV-negative MCD patients. Furthermore, the term idiopathic MCD (iMCD) was recently proposed to represent a group of HIV-negative and HHV-8-negative patients with unknown etiologies. Although the international diagnostic criteria for iMCD require exclusion of infection-related disorders, autoimmune/autoinflammatory diseases and malignant/lymphoproliferative disorders to make an iMCD diagnosis, the relationships and differences between these disorders and MCD have not yet been clarified...
2018: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675946/plasma-proteomics-identifies-a-chemokine-storm-in-idiopathic-multicentric-castleman-disease
#5
Sheila K Pierson, Aaron J Stonestrom, Dustin Shilling, Jason Ruth, Christopher S Nabel, Amrit Singh, Yue Ren, Katie Stone, Hongzhe Li, Frits van Rhee, David C Fajgenbaum
Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)-negative/idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) is a poorly understood disease involving polyclonal lymphoproliferation with dysmorphic germinal centers, constitutional symptoms, and multi-organ failure. Patients can experience thrombocytopenia, anasarca, reticulin fibrosis, renal dysfunction, organomegaly, and normal immunoglobulin levels, - iMCD-TAFRO. Others experience thrombocytosis, milder effusions, and hypergammaglobulinemia, -iMCD-Not Otherwise Specified (iMCD-NOS)...
April 20, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673190/the-role-of-mirnas-in-virus-mediated-oncogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Zuzana Vojtechova, Ruth Tachezy
To date, viruses are reported to be responsible for more than 15% of all tumors worldwide. The oncogenesis could be influenced directly by the activity of viral oncoproteins or by the chronic infection or inflammation. The group of human oncoviruses includes Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) or polyomaviruses, and transregulating retroviruses such as HIV or HTLV-1. Most of these viruses express short noncoding RNAs called miRNAs to regulate their own gene expression or to influence host gene expression and thus contribute to the carcinogenic processes...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659614/kshv-induces-immunoglobulin-rearrangements-in-mature-b-lymphocytes
#7
Jennifer Totonchy, Jessica M Osborn, Amy Chadburn, Ramina Nabiee, Lissenya Argueta, Geoffrey Mikita, Ethel Cesarman
Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) is a B cell tropic human pathogen, which is present in vivo in monotypic immunoglobulin λ (Igλ) light chain but polyclonal B cells. In the current study, we use cell sorting to infect specific B cell lineages from human tonsil specimens in order to examine the immunophenotypic alterations associated with KSHV infection. We describe IL-6 dependent maturation of naïve B lymphocytes in response to KSHV infection and determine that the Igλ monotypic bias of KSHV infection in vivo is due to viral induction of BCR revision...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619259/primary-effusion-lymphoma-without-an-effusion-a-rare-case-of-solid-extracavitary-variant-of-primary-effusion-lymphoma-in-an-hiv-positive-patient
#8
Hamza Hashmi, Drew Murray, Samer Al-Quran, William Tse
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a unique form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, usually seen in severely immunocompromised, HIV-positive patients. PEL is related to human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection, and it usually presents as a lymphomatous body cavity effusion in the absence of a solid tumor mass. There have been very few case reports of HIV-positive patients with HHV-8-positive solid tissue lymphomas not associated with an effusion (a solid variant of PEL). In the absence of effusion, establishing an accurate diagnosis can be challenging, and a careful review of morphology, immunophenotype, and presence of HHV-8 is necessary to differentiate from other subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma...
2018: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610697/a-case-of-spondyloarthritis-in-patient-affected-by-unicentric-castleman-s-disease-effectively-managed-with-surgery-resection-and-tocilizumab-treatment
#9
M Filippini, S Cartella, O Bonzanini, E Morello, A Tincani
A 38-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for rheumatologic manifestations (migrant arthritis and tenosynovitis), without psoriasis or family history of psoriasis, gastroenteric manifestations, or recent genitourinary infections. The instrumental and laboratory tests have suggested a diagnosis of undifferentiated seronegative HLA-B27-positive spondyloarthritis with predominantly peripheral involvement. The symptoms were very severe and resistant to anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids. She had a history of hyaline-vascular unicentric Castleman's disease (HBV, HIV, and HHV-8 negative) treated with surgery resection...
2018: Case Reports in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596604/a-structurally-conserved-motif-in-%C3%AE-herpesvirus-uracil-dna-glycosylases-elicits-duplex-nucleotide-flipping
#10
Christopher Earl, Claire Bagnéris, Kara Zeman, Ambrose Cole, Tracey Barrett, Renos Savva
Efficient γ-herpesvirus lytic phase replication requires a virally encoded UNG-type uracil-DNA glycosylase as a structural element of the viral replisome. Uniquely, γ-herpesvirus UNGs carry a seven or eight residue insertion of variable sequence in the otherwise highly conserved minor-groove DNA binding loop. In Epstein-Barr Virus [HHV-4] UNG, this motif forms a disc-shaped loop structure of unclear significance. To ascertain the biological role of the loop insertion, we determined the crystal structure of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [HHV-8] UNG (kUNG) in its product complex with a uracil-containing dsDNA, as well as two structures of kUNG in its apo state...
March 27, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595344/seroepidemiology-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-human-herpesvirus-type-8-in-injection-drug-users-and-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-northern-taiwan
#11
Yuan-Ming Lee, Pei-Shih Hung, Cheng-Wen Lin
Objectives Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is transmissible and causes Kaposi's sarcoma and other malignancies. This study analyzed the seroepidemiology and phylogeny of HHV-8 among 515 injection drug users (IDUs) and 229 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Taiwan. Methods Blood and peripheral mononuclear cells were analyzed for HHV-8 seroprevalence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunofluorescence assays. Viral loads were measured using a real-time PCR assay. Phylogenetic analysis of the K1 gene was performed using nested PCR and DNA sequencing...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573302/human-herpesvirus-portal-proteins-structure-function-and-antiviral-prospects
#12
REVIEW
Ellyn M Kornfeind, Robert J Visalli
Herpesviruses (Herpesvirales) and tailed bacteriophages (Caudovirales) package their dsDNA genomes through an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. Much is known about the biochemistry and structural biology of phage portal proteins and the DNA encapsidation (viral genome cleavage and packaging) process. Although not at the same level of detail, studies on HSV-1, CMV, VZV, and HHV-8 have revealed important information on the function and structure of herpesvirus portal proteins. During dsDNA phage and herpesviral genome replication, concatamers of viral dsDNA are cleaved into single length units by a virus-encoded terminase and packaged into preformed procapsids through a channel located at a single capsid vertex (portal)...
March 24, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566944/hodgkin-lymphoma-with-an-interfollicular-growth-pattern-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-8-cases
#13
Badr AbdullGaffar, Rania M Seliem
Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) has four subtypes. Different morphologic variations can be seen in lymph nodes involved by CHL. Primary interfollicular (IF) involvement is not considered a separate subtype but an unusual diagnostically challenging morphologic variant. Our aim was to study the prevalence of IF growth pattern and coexistence of other morphologic variants in lymph nodes involved by CHL, to investigate the diagnostic challenges and clinical importance of this growth pattern, and to find helpful histologic clues in cases with subtle morphologic features to help avoid misinterpretation and missed diagnosis...
April 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558453/role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-kshv-infection
#14
REVIEW
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516667/effusion-based-lymphoma-with-morphological-regression-but-with-clonal-genetic-features-after-aspiration
#15
Meng-Chen Tsai, Chun-Chi Kuo, Ying-Zhen Su, Yen-Chuan Hsieh, Shih-Sung Chuang
Effusion-based lymphoma (EBL) is a rare but distinct entity of large B-cell lymphoma in effusion without association with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8). Spontaneous regression after pleurocentesis has been observed; but to our knowledge, there are no reports on the morphological and molecular features of subsequent aspirations in regressing cases. Here, we report the case of a 92-year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who presented with right pleural effusion. He had no human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, or hepatitis C virus infection, and CT scans revealed no mass lesion...
March 8, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516290/ebv-positive-pel-like-lymphoma-that-developed-in-the-course-of-antisynthetase-syndrome-treated-with-tacrolimus
#16
Kimi Okada, Shoji Asakura, Tomofumi Yano, Takumi Kishimoto
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare type of extranodal lymphoma, typically of a B-cell origin, which presents as lymphomatous effusion with no nodal enlargement or tumor masses. The development PEL is universally associated with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection. Cases of HHV-8-negative primary lymphomatous effusion have recently been reported and referred to as HHV-8-unrelated PEL-like lymphoma. Some cases of this disease have been reported in iatrogenic immunocompromised patients. The mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of the discontinuation of immunosuppressants other than methotrexate (MTX) against the disease, which have been demonstrated for MTX-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, have not yet been elucidated...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445567/an-unusual-lesion-on-the-nose-microvenular-hemangioma
#17
A Tulin Mansur, Gulsen Tukenmez Demirci, Eltaf A Ozbal Koc, Semsi Yildiz
Microvenular hemangioma (MVH) is an acquired, benign type of hemangioma that usually manifests itself as a solitary, slowly growing, red to violaceous, asymptomatic papule, plaque or nodule. It is typically located on the trunk or extremities of young adults. It can be difficult to differentiate MVH from other types of hemangioma and Kaposi sarcoma. Herein we report a case of MVH unusual for its location, age of onset, and morphologic features. A 62-year-old man complained of an asymptomatic, bluish-red discoloration on the tip of his nose that had been present for two years...
January 2018: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426719/safety-and-preliminary-efficacy-of-vorinostat-with-r-epoch-in-high-risk-hiv-associated-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-amc-075
#18
Juan C Ramos, Joseph A Sparano, Michelle A Rudek, Page C Moore, Ethel Cesarman, Erin G Reid, David Henry, Lee Ratner, David Aboulafia, Jeanette Y Lee, Richard F Ambinder, Ronald Mitsuyasu, Ariela Noy
INTRODUCTION: Vorinostat (VOR), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances the anti-tumor effects of rituximab (R) and cytotoxic chemotherapy, induces viral lytic expression and cell killing in Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV+ ) or human herpesvirus-8-positive (HHV-8+ ) tumors, and reactivates latent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for possible eradication by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a phase I trial of VOR given with R-based infusional EPOCH (etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin hydrochloride) (n = 12) and cART in aggressive HIV-associated B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in order to identify safe dosing and schedule...
March 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381560/omega-3-decreases-il-6-levels-in-hiv-and-human-herpesvirus-8-coinfected-patients-in-uganda
#19
Anna E Coghill, Jeannette M Schenk, Zeina Mahkoul, Jackson Orem, Warren Phipps, Corey Casper
OBJECTIVE: Kaposi sarcoma is a HIV-associated malignancy caused by human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) that occurs at highest incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Kaposi sarcoma patients often present with inflammatory symptoms associated with higher mortality. DESIGN: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Uganda to test whether omega-3 supplementation could reduce inflammation in HIV and HHV-8 coinfected adults. Patients with acute illness, AIDS, or advanced Kaposi sarcoma were ineligible, as were pregnant women...
February 20, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343584/human-herpesvirus-8-interferon-regulatory-factors-1-and-3-mediate-replication-and-latency-activities-via-interactions-with-usp7-deubiquitinase
#20
Qiwang Xiang, Hyunwoo Ju, Qian Li, Szu-Chieh Mei, Daming Chen, Young Bong Choi, John Nicholas
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) encodes four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs 1-4) that likely function to suppress innate immune and cellular stress responses through inhibitory interactions with various cellular proteins involved in these activities. It is notable that vIRFs 1 and 4 have been reported to interact with the deubiquitinase USP7, substrates of which include p53 and p53-targeting and destabilizing ubiquitin E3 ligase MDM2. Structural studies of vIRF-1 and vIRF-4 USP7-binding sequences in association with USP7 have been reported; both involve interactions with N-terminal domain residues of USP7, via EGPS and ASTS motifs in vIRF-1 and vIRF-4, respectively, but vIRF-4 residues also contact the catalytic site...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
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