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Malorie Simons, Emmanuel Apor, James N Butera, Diana O Treaba
TAFRO syndrome is a rare constellation of symptoms: thrombocytopenia, anasarca, reticulin fibrosis of the bone marrow, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. Its pathogenesis involves an excessive and inappropriate cytokine storm, most notably from IL-6, causing multiorgan failure; however, its etiology is undetermined. Starting in 2012, TAFRO syndrome was first identified in Japan as an atypical variant of Castleman's disease. Previous reports include various different treatment protocols with inconsistent survival outcomes...
2016: Case Reports in Hematology
Jade Le
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) are γ herpesviruses associated with post-transplant malignancies in kidney transplant recipients. EBV is associated with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), with increased risk in EBV-seronegative patients on intensified immunosuppression. Human herpesvirus-8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), with an increased risk in certain patient populations. Diagnosis of PTLD and KS relies on tissue biopsy. The mainstay of therapy for both PTLD and Kaposi's sarcoma is a reduction of immunosuppression, and in the case of PTLD, consideration of rituximab...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
D Mantas, C Damaskos, P Dailiani, M Samarkos, P Korkolopoulou
INTRODUCTION: Castleman's disease (CD), also known as giant or angiofolicular lymphoid hyperplasia or lymphoid hamartoma, is a group of atypical lymphoproliferative disorders that share common lymph node histological features and may be localized either to a single lymph node (unicentric) or occur systemically (multicentric). PATIENT AND METHOD: Herein, we present a rare case of a of 75-year-old female patient who was referred to our department and after a thorough work-up, underwent splenectomy with synchronous resection of an accessory spleen, splenic artery lymph nodes, and splenic hilar lymph nodes due to splenic involvement in a multicentric CD...
October 24, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Suhair Al Salihi, Jamie Buryanek, Adan A Rios, Robert E Brown
A morphoproteomic analysis was performed to identify the proteins and corresponding molecular pathways activated for a case of non-HIV Kaposi's sarcoma. This analysis provides insight into the biology of the tumor and identifies etiopathogenetic correlates of HHV-8-Associated Kaposi's sarcoma that are useful in formulating therapeutic alternatives.
September 2016: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Hanane Rachadi, Youssef Zemmez, Kaoutar Znati, Nadia Ismaili, Badreddine Hassam
Kaposi disease (KD) is an angiogenetic tumor process, characterized by its various clinical aspects. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial and it was attributed to HHV-8 infection. We report an original case of disseminated KD revealed by solitary lesion of external ear in a patient treated by corticosteroids for bullous pemphigoid.
2016: Dermatology Online Journal
Ana Isabel Teixeira, Miguel Neno, Robert Badura, João Borges-Costa, Paulo Leal Filipe
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal systemic disease that originates in the vascular endothelium related to Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8). In the early 1980s the first series of cases of disseminated Kaposi Sarcoma in HIV infected patients were reported. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) since 1997, these cases are less frequently observed by clinicians. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman, presenting with two asymptomatic purpuric nodules localized in the superior and inferior left eyelids, occluding the palpebral fissure, which were present for 4 months prior to presentation...
2016: Dermatology Online Journal
Sven Grützmeier, Anna Porwit, Corinna Schmitt, Eric Sandström, Börje Åkerlund, Ingemar Ernberg
BACKGROUND: Most malignant lymphomas in HIV-patients are caused by reactivation of EBV-infection. Some lymphomas have a very rapid fulminant course. HHV-8 has also been reported to be a cause of lymphoma. The role of CMV in the development of lymphoma is not clear, though both CMV and HHV-8 have been reported in tissues adjacent to the tumour in Burkitt lymphoma patients. Here we present a patient with asymptomatic HIV infection, that contracted a primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) infection...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Tiejun Zhang, Linding Wang
Kaposi's sarcoma -associated herpes virus (KSHV) also referred to as human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), is a gamma herpes virus and recently discovered human virus. Since its discovery, a myriad of studies has been conducted to explore its pathogenesis mechanisms. However, despite our consistently increasing understanding of KSHV biology and its clinical manifestations, only little progress has been made in understanding of its epidemiology characteristics which in turn hampered the management of KSHV-associated diseases and public health...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Bizunesh Abere, Thomas F Schulz
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an unusual neoplasm characterized by extensive neoangiogenesis, infiltrates of inflammatory cells and atypically differentiated spindle cells of endothelial origin. KS is caused by an oncogenic γ-herpesvirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Several KSHV proteins can subvert multiple cellular angiogenic, mitogenic and inflammatory pathways. Here, we discuss the KSHV encoded membrane proteins vGPCR, K1 and K15, with a particular emphasis on their activation of cellular signaling pathways and their role in the development of specific features of KS...
August 9, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
Amitis Ramezani, Elham Saboori, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Minoo Mohraz, Monireh Kazemimanesh, Afsaneh Karami, Mohammad Banifazl, Hanieh Golchehregan, Arezoo Aghakhani
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular malignancy, which frequently occurs among immunocompromised individuals such as transplant recipients and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is considered the etiological agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma. Though some seroepidemiological studies conducted on the prevalence of HHV-8 in Iran, there are insufficient data on the prevalence of HHV-8 viremia in HIV infected patients. We therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of HHV-8 viremia in general population and HIV infected patients without Kaposi's sarcoma in Tehran, Iran...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Public Health
María Laura Hulaniuk, Oscar Torres, Sonia Bartoli, Lisandro Fortuny, Leandro Burgos Pratx, Félix Nuñez, Horacio Salamone, Daniel Corach, Julieta Trinks, Mariela Caputo
The prevalence of HHV-8 infection varies widely in South American populations, displaying geographical variations in its distribution. The heterogeneous genetic contributions provided by the transatlantic parental populations that modified the Native American genomes may explain this epidemiological observation. Aiming to determine the prevalence of HHV-8 genome among healthy South American blood donors and its potential association with genetic ancestry, 772 individuals were screened by a highly-sensitive PCR protocol and ancestry was assessed in 414 samples...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Sajad Varmazyar, Zabihollah Shoja, Rezvan Kakavand-Ghalehnoei, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Somayeh Jalilvand
It is still unclear whether different HHV-8 genotypes may have different pathogenic and tumorigenic properties associated with a diverse rate of disease progression. In some areas where genotype C was found to be prominent among classic KS patients, genotype A was shown to be more frequent among AIDS-associated KS patients. Genotype C was previously reported to be widespread in Iran, with genotype A being less frequent among patients with classic KS although no data are available with regards to the HHV-8 genotyping among Iranian HIV-infected patients...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Justin C Cikomola, Karl Vandepoele, Philippe B Katchunga, Antoine S Kishabongo, Elizaveta Y Padalko, Marijn M Speeckaert, Joris R Delanghe
Prevalences of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection and diabetes mellitus are very common in certain parts of Africa, containing iron-rich soils. We hypothesized that some genetic factors could have a link with susceptibility to HHV-8 infection. We focused on ferroportin Q248H mutation (rs11568350), transferrin (TF) polymorphism and fructosamine-3 kinase (FN3K) 900C/G polymorphism (rs1056534). The study population consisted of 210 type 2 diabetic adults and 125 healthy controls recruited in Bukavu (South Kivu)...
November 2016: Acta Tropica
Lika'a Fasih Y Al-Kzayer, Peter Keizer, Farah T Abdulraheem, Kenji Sano, Minoru Kamata, Kazuo Sakashita, Laith A Y Habbaba, Kenichi Koike
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an endothelial neoplasm, is associated with human herpes virus (HHV) -8 infection. KS has four clinical sub-types: Mediterranean/classic, African/endemic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -associated/epidemic, and transplantation-related/iatrogenic. Immunosuppression is an important cofactor in KS process. Classic KS (CKS) is exceedingly rare in children and when occurs, it is much more disseminated than adults. The epidemic, HIV-associated and the iatrogenic forms of childhood KS are a result of a profound and acquired T-cell deficiency...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Pravinkumar Purushothaman, Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Subhash C Verma
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a malignant human oncovirus belonging to the gamma herpesvirus family. HHV-8 is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and two other B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KS is an invasive tumor of endothelial cells most commonly found in untreated HIV-AIDS or immuno-compromised individuals. KS tumors are highly vascularized and have abnormal, excessive neo-angiogenesis, inflammation, and proliferation of infected endothelial cells...
2016: Viruses
Morichika Osa, Takuya Maeda, Kazuhisa Misawa, Kazuo Imai, Yuji Fujikura, Akihiko Kawana
We report a patient with HIV-associated multicentric Castleman's disease who had recurrent human herpesvirus-8 viremia associated with intermittent febrile exanthema and lymphadenopathy. Although the patient relapsed after single-agent treatment with liposomal doxorubicin, weekly infusions of rituximab led to complete remission even though the reactivation of the Kaposi's sarcoma was unfortunately observed. Rituximab could not only eliminate the accumulation of HHV-8 load but also play a part in the modulation of dysregulated CD20-positive B cells in HIV-associated multicentric Castleman's disease...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Natsuko Inazawa, Tsukasa Hori, Masanori Nojima, Makoto Saito, Keita Igarashi, Masaki Yamamoto, Norio Shimizu, Yuko Yoto, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi
Several studies have indicated that viral reactivations following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are frequent, but viral reactivations after autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) have not been investigated in detail. We performed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to examine multiple viral reactivations simultaneously in 24 patients undergoing auto-HSCT between September 2010 and December 2012. Weekly whole blood samples were collected from pre- to 42 days post-HSCT, and tested for the following 13 viruses; herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), HHV-7, HHV-8, adeno virus (ADV), BK virus (BKV), JC virus (JCV), parvovirus B19 (B19V) and hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Diogo Piedade, José Miguel Azevedo-Pereira
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs important in gene regulation. They are able to regulate mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity. Cellular miRNAs have been involved in the regulation of nearly all cellular pathways, and their deregulation has been associated with several diseases such as cancer. Given the importance of microRNAs to cell homeostasis, it is no surprise that viruses have evolved to take advantage of this cellular pathway. Viruses have been reported to be able to encode and express functional viral microRNAs that target both viral and cellular transcripts...
2016: Viruses
J-L Nguewa, E Lontchi-Yimagou, F Agbelika, M AitDjoudi, P Boudou, S Choukem, E Sobngwi, J-F Gautier
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Peripheral tissue resistance to insulin action is a characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has also been reported that some chronic viral infections can contribute to insulin resistance. Human herpesvirus (HHV)-8 infection has been detected in T2DM patients in previous studies. Our study investigated whether the presence of the virus is associated with insulin resistance in patients with ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes (KPD), as reported with other viruses...
June 1, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism
Hannah Linkhorn, Graeme van der Meer, Mayaan Gruber, Murali Mahadevan
We present a case report of a two year old child with an enlarging neck mass over a two year period. Her work-up included blood investigations, radiological imaging and fine needle aspirations which were non-diagnostic. At age 4 she had excision of her neck mass and histopathologic examination revealed unicentric Castleman's disease. This is one of the youngest reported cases in the literature and highlights the need to include CD in the differential diagnosis of neck masses in young children. Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare disease of benign lymph node enlargement which most commonly occurs in adults...
July 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
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