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clinical exercise physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433617/induced-and-controlled-dietary-ketosis-as-a-regulator-of-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-pathologies
#1
Madeline K Gibas, Kelly J Gibas
A worsening epidemic of diabetes and its precursor, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is engulfing America. A healthy individual, with proper glucose regulation has an ability to switch between burning fat and carbohydrates. It has been suggested that signaling errors within this homeostatic system, characterized by impaired switching of substrate oxidation from glucose to fat in response to insulin, can contribute to the etiology of metabolic syndrome and occurs before the development of type II diabetes. Glucose regulation with restored insulin sensitivity facilitated through clinically regulated, benign dietary ketosis (BDK), may significantly reduce, regulate and reverse the adverse pathologies common to MetS and obesity...
March 28, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433478/investigation-on-acute-effects-of-enzyme-replacement-therapy-and-influence-of-clinical-severity-on-physiological-variables-related-to-exercise-tolerance-in-patients-with-late-onset-pompe-disease
#2
Annalisa Sechi, Desy Salvadego, Alessandro Da Ponte, Nicole Bertin, Andrea Dardis, Silvia Cattarossi, Grazia Devigili, Federico Reccardini, Bruno Bembi, Bruno Grassi
Exercise intolerance is one of the clinical hallmarks of late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD). We studied the acute effects of ERT on the physiological variables associated with exercise tolerance in patients chronically ERT treated. Moreover, we assessed the influence of clinical severity on the investigated variables. The day before (B) and the day after (A) ERT injection, 11 LOPD patients performed on a cycle-ergometer an exercise tolerance test to voluntary exhaustion; VO2, HR, RPE, and GAA activity were determined in B and A...
March 10, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432115/effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-structure-and-health-in-humans
#3
Daniel J Green, Kurt J Smith
Physical activity has profound impacts on the vasculature in humans. Acute exercise induces immediate changes in artery function, whereas repeated episodic bouts of exercise induce chronic functional adaptation and, ultimately, structural arterial remodeling. The nature of these changes in function and structure are dependent on the characteristics of the training load and may be modulated by other factors such as exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress. The clinical implications of these physiological adaptations are profound...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426779/reference-standards-for-lean-mass-measures-using-ge-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-caucasian-adults
#4
Mary T Imboden, Ann M Swartz, Holmes W Finch, Matthew P Harber, Leonard A Kaminsky
OBJECTIVE: To develop reference values by age and sex for LM measures using GE-Healthcare DXA systems. METHODS: A de-identified sample was obtained from Ball State University's Clinical Exercise Physiology Laboratory and University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's Physical Activity & Health Research Laboratory. DXA scans of 2,076 women and 1,251 men were completed using a GE Lunar Prodigy or iDXA. Percentiles (%ile) were calculated for all variables of interest (LM, LMI, %LM, and ALMI) and a factorial ANOVA was used to assess differences for each variable between 10-year age groups and sex, as well as the interaction between age and sex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400247/quality-of-life-dyspnea-and-functional-exercise-capacity-following-a-first-episode-of-pulmonary-embolism-results-of-the-elope-cohort-study
#5
Susan R Kahn, Arash Akaberi, John T Granton, David R Anderson, Philip S Wells, Marc A Rodger, Susan Solymoss, Michael J Kovacs, Lawrence Rudski, Avi Shimony, Carole Dennie, Chris Rush, Paul Hernandez, Shawn D Aaron, Andrew M Hirsch
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate health-related quality of life (QOL), dyspnea and functional exercise capacity during the year following the diagnosis of a first episode of pulmonary embolism. METHODS: Prospective multicenter cohort study of 100 patients with acute pulmonary embolism recruited at 5 Canadian hospitals from 2010-2013. We measured the outcomes QOL (by SF-36 and PEmb-QOL measures), dyspnea (by the University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ)) and six-minute walk distance at Baseline, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after acute pulmonary embolism...
April 8, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400207/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-growth-hormone-secretagogues
#6
REVIEW
John T Sigalos, Alexander W Pastuszak
INTRODUCTION: Growth hormone (GH) increases lean body mass, decreases fat mass, increases exercise tolerance and maximum oxygen uptake, enhances muscle strength, and improves linear growth. Long-term studies of GH administration offer conflicting results on its safety, which has led to strict Food and Drug Administration criteria for GH use. The potential drawbacks of exogenous GH use are believed to be due in part to impaired regulatory feedback. AIM: To review the literature on GH secretagogues (GHSs), which include GH-releasing peptides and the orally available small-molecule drug ibutamoren mesylate...
April 8, 2017: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388669/reference-standards-for-body-fat-measures-using-ge-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-caucasian-adults
#7
Mary T Imboden, Whitney A Welch, Ann M Swartz, Alexander H K Montoye, Holmes W Finch, Matthew P Harber, Leonard A Kaminsky
BACKGROUND: Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established technique for the measurement of body composition. Reference values for these variables, particularly those related to fat mass, are necessary for interpretation and accurate classification of those at risk for obesity-related health complications and in need of lifestyle modifications (diet, physical activity, etc.). Currently, there are no reference values available for GE-Healthcare DXA systems and it is known that whole-body and regional fat mass measures differ by DXA manufacturer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385614/review-of-hypoxaemia-in-anaesthetized-horses-predisposing-factors-consequences-and-management
#8
REVIEW
Adam Auckburally, Görel Nyman
OBJECTIVE: To discuss how hypoxaemia might be harmful and why horses are particularly predisposed to developing it, to review the strategies that are used to manage hypoxaemia in anaesthetized horses, and to describe how successful these strategies are and the adverse effects associated with them. DATABASES USED: Google Scholar and PubMed, using the search terms horse, pony, exercise, anaesthesia, hypoxaemia, oxygen, mortality, morbidity and ventilation perfusion mismatch...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382529/a-comparison-of-methods-for-determining-the-ventilatory-threshold-implications-for-surgical-risk-stratification
#9
Baruch Vainshelboim, Shravan Rao, Khin Chan, Ricardo M Lima, Euan A Ashley, Jonathan Myers
PURPOSE: The ventilatory threshold (VT) is an objective physiological marker of the capacity of aerobic endurance that has good prognostic applications in preoperative settings. Nevertheless, determining the VT can be challenging due to physiological and methodological issues, especially in evaluating surgical risk. The purpose of the current study was to compare different methods of determining VT and to highlight the implications for assessing perioperative risk. METHODS: Our study entailed analysis of 445 treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise tests from 140 presurgical candidates with an aortic abdominal aneurysm (≥3...
April 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380304/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-heart-failure-patients-with-specific-comorbidities
#10
Massimo F Piepoli, Ugo Corrà, Piergiuseppe Agostoni
Exercise capacity is one of the most powerful predicting factors of life expectancy, both in patients with and without cardiac disease. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides a global assessment of the integrative exercise responses involving the pulmonary, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, neuropsychological, and skeletal muscle systems, which are not adequately reflected through the measurement of individual organ system function. This relatively noninvasive, dynamic, physiologic overview allows the evaluation of both submaximal and peak exercise responses, providing the physician with relevant information for clinical decision making...
April 5, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379571/safety-and-feasibility-of-a-protocolized-approach-to-in-bed-cycling-exercise-in-the-intensive-care-unit-quality-improvement-project
#11
Ibtehal Kimawi, Bryanna Lamberjack, Archana Nelliot, Amy Lee Toonstra, Jennifer Zanni, Minxuan Huang, Earl Mantheiy, Michelle E Kho, Dale M Needham
Background: : In-bed, supine cycle ergometry as a part of early rehabilitation in the intensive care unit (ICU) appears to be safe, feasible, and beneficial, but no standardized protocol exists. A standardized protocol may help guide use of cycle ergometry in the ICU. Objective: We investigated whether a standardized protocol for in-bed cycling is safe and feasible, and results in cycling for a longer duration and achieves a higher resistance. Design: A quality improvement (QI) project was conducted...
March 31, 2017: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368706/resting-physiological-correlates-of-reduced-exercise-capacity-in-smokers-with-mild-airway-obstruction
#12
Amany F Elbehairy, Azmy Faisal, Jordan A Guenette, Dennis Jensen, Katherine A Webb, Rashid Ahmed, J Alberto Neder, Denis E O'Donnell
Smokers with minor spirometric abnormalities can experience persistent activity-related dyspnea and exercise intolerance. Additional resting tests can expose heterogeneous physiological abnormalities, but their relevance and association with clinical outcomes remain uncertain. Subjects included sixty-two smokers (≥20 pack-years), with cough and/or dyspnea and minor airway obstruction [forced expiratory volume in one-second (FEV1) ≥80% predicted and >5th percentile lower limit of normal (LLN) (i.e., z-score >-1...
April 3, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342901/the-sympathetic-neuro-adipose-connection-and-the-control-of-body-weight
#13
REVIEW
Inês Mahú, Ana I Domingos
In recent decades, obesity has become a global public health crisis irrespective of age or gender [20]. But according to historic records, concerns over appropriate maintenance of body size have been long established. For more than to 2 millennia, the main therapeutic approach to curb excess weight has been to recommend dietary restrictions and regular exercise (Haslam, 2016). Nevertheless, more contemporary studies indicate that the employment of such approaches in the treatment of severely obese patients causes metabolic adaptions which impair their long-term success in weight management [8]...
March 22, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330522/passive-range-of-motion-exercise-to-enhance-growth-in-infants-following-the-norwood-procedure-a-safety-and-feasibility-trial
#14
Linda M Lambert, Felicia L Trachtenberg, Victoria L Pemberton, Janine Wood, Shelley Andreas, Robin Schlosser, Teresa Barnard, Kaitlyn Daniels, Ann T Harrington, Nicholas Dagincourt, Thomas A Miller
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a passive range of motion exercise programme for infants with CHD. Study design This non-randomised pilot study enrolled 20 neonates following Stage I palliation for single-ventricle physiology. Trained physical therapists administered standardised 15-20-minute passive range of motion protocol, for up to 21 days or until hospital discharge. Safety assessments included vital signs measured before, during, and after the exercise as well as adverse events recorded through the pre-Stage II follow-up...
March 23, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329750/optoelectronic-plethysmography-in-clinical-practice-and-research-a-review
#15
Carlo Massaroni, Elena Carraro, Andrea Vianello, Sandra Miccinilli, Michelangelo Morrone, Irisz K Levai, Emiliano Schena, Paola Saccomandi, Silvia Sterzi, John W Dickinson, Samantha Winter, Sergio Silvestri
BACKGROUND: Optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) is a non-invasive motion capture method to measure chest wall movements and estimate lung volumes. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the clinical findings and research applications of OEP in the assessment of breathing mechanics across populations of healthy and diseased individuals. METHODS: A bibliographic research was performed with the terms "opto-electronic plethysmography," "optoelectronic plethysmography," and "optoelectronic plethysmograph" in 50 digital library and bibliographic search databases resulting in the selection of 170 studies...
2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328535/the-assessment-of-labor-a-brief-history
#16
Wayne R Cohen, Emanuel A Friedman
In the 1930s, investigators in the US, Germany and Switzerland made the first attempts to quantify the course of labor in a clinically meaningful way. They emphasized the rupture of membranes as a pivotal event governing labor progress. Attention was also placed on the total number of contractions as a guide to normality. Beginning in the 1950s, Friedman determined that changes in cervical dilatation and fetal station over time were the most useful parameters for the assessment of labor progress. He showed all normal labors had similar patterns of dilatation and descent, differing only in the durations and slopes of their component parts...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322825/dissection-of-mechanoresponse-elements-in-promoter-sites-of-the-mechanoresponsive-cyr61-gene
#17
Lothar Seefried, Sigrid Müller-Deubert, Melanie Krug, Almoatazbellah Youssef, Norbert Schütze, Anita Ignatius, Franz Jakob, Regina Ebert
Mechanotransduction is important for mesenchymal regeneration and differentiation. Exaggerated high or very low impact yields pathological outcome resulting in fracture or tissue atrophy. Pathological strain in animal models was described but tools to dissect the respective stimuli and downstream pathways are limited. We expand the analytical tools to describe DNA strain response elements in a reporter gene approach. Deletion constructs of the human cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) promoter were cloned into luciferase vectors and stably transfected into human telomerase-immortalised mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT)...
March 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320488/the-effect-of-rider-weight-and-additional-weight-in-icelandic-horses-in-t%C3%A3-lt-part-i-physiological-responses
#18
G J Stefánsdóttir, V Gunnarsson, L Roepstorff, S Ragnarsson, A Jansson
This study examined the effect of increasing BW ratio (BWR) between rider and horse, in the BWR range common for Icelandic horses (20% to 35%), on heart rate (HR), plasma lactate concentration (Lac), BWR at Lac 4 mmol/l (W4), breathing frequency (BF), rectal temperature (RT) and hematocrit (Hct) in Icelandic horses. In total, eight experienced school-horses were used in an incremental exercise test performed outdoors on an oval riding track and one rider rode all horses. The exercise test consisted of five phases (each 642 m) in tölt, a four-beat symmetrical gait, at a speed of 5...
March 21, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301436/the-effects-of-recovery-duration-during-high-intensity-interval-exercise-on-time-spent-at-high-rates-of-oxygen-consumption-oxygen-kinetics-and-blood-lactate
#19
Ilias Smilios, Aristides Myrkos, Andreas Zafeiridis, Argyris Toubekis, Apostolos Spassis, Savas P Tokmakidis
The recovery duration and the work to recovery ratio are important aspects to consider when designing a high-intensity aerobic interval exercise (HIIE). This study examined the effects of recovery duration on total exercise time performed above 80, 90 and 95% of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) and heart rate (HRmax) during a single-bout HIIE. We also evaluated the effects on VO2 and HR kinetics, blood lactate concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Eleven moderately trained males (22.1±1 yrs...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294413/acute-effect-of-running-exercise-on-physiological-achilles-tendon-blood-flow
#20
L Risch, M Cassel, F Mayer
Sonographically detectable intratendinous blood flow (IBF) is found in 50%-88% of Achilles tendinopathy patients as well as in up to 35% of asymptomatic Achilles tendons (AT). Although IBF is frequently associated with tendon pathology, it may also represent a physiological regulation, for example, due to increased blood flow in response to exercise. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a standardized running exercise protocol on IBF assessed with Doppler ultrasound (DU) "Advanced dynamic flow" in healthy ATs...
March 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
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