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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435120/the-role-of-platelets-in-hemostasis-and-the-effects-of-snake-venom-toxins-on-platelet-function
#1
REVIEW
Mayara Ribeiro de Queiroz, Bruna Barbosa de Sousa, Déborah Fernanda da Cunha Pereira, Carla Cristine Neves Mamede, Mariana Santos Matias, Nadia Cristina Gomes de Morais, Júnia de Oliveira Costa, Fábio de Oliveira
The human body has a set of physiological processes, known as hemostasis, which keeps the blood fluid and free of clots in normal vessels; in the case of vascular injury, this process induces the local formation of a hemostatic plug, preventing hemorrhage. The hemostatic system in humans presents complex physiological interactions that involve platelets, plasma proteins, endothelial and subendothelial structures. Disequilibrium in the regulatory mechanisms that control the growth and the size of the thrombus is one of the factors that favors the development of diseases related to vascular disorders such as myocardial infarction and stroke, which are among the leading causes of death in the western world...
April 20, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384465/multicenter-retrospective-study-of-the-risk-factors-of-hemorrhage-after-tooth-extraction-in-patients-receiving-antiplatelet-therapy
#2
Souichi Yanamoto, Takumi Hasegawa, Satoshi Rokutanda, Sayaka Komori, Akira Tachibana, Yuka Kojima, Yoshito Koyama, Yasuyuki Shibuya, Hiroshi Kurita, Takahide Komori, Masahiro Umeda
PURPOSE: To identify the risk factors affecting hemorrhage after tooth extraction in patients receiving antiplatelet therapy, this study investigated the relation between various factors and hemorrhage events after tooth extraction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of 264 patients receiving antiplatelet therapy who underwent tooth extraction were retrospectively reviewed from 6 institutions belonging to the Japanese Study Group of Cooperative Dentistry with Medicine...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370369/independent-adjudicator-assessments-of-platelet-refractoriness-and-rfviia-efficacy-in-bleeding-episodes-and-surgeries-from-the-multinational-glanzmann-s-thrombasthenia-registry
#3
Michael Recht, Madhvi Rajpurkar, Meera Chitlur, Roseline d'Oiron, Rainer Zotz, Giovanni Di Minno, David L Cooper, Man-Chiu Poon
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare congenital bleeding disorder associated with decreased platelet aggregation due to qualitative/quantitative deficiencies of the fibrinogen receptor. Severe bleeding episodes and perioperative bleeding are typically managed with platelet transfusions, although patients can develop anti-platelet antibodies or experience clinical refractoriness. The GT Registry (GTR) was established to collect efficacy/safety data on hemostatic treatments for GT, including recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa)...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365976/new-anticoagulants-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-venous-thromboembolism
#4
REVIEW
Joo Hee Kim, Kyung-Min Lim, Hye Sun Gwak
Anticoagulant drugs, like vitamin K antagonists and heparin, have been the mainstay for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolic disease for many years. Although effective if appropriately used, traditional anticoagulants have several limitations such as unpredictable pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic responses and various adverse effects including serious bleeding complications. New oral anticoagulants have recently emerged as an alternative because of their rapid onset/offset of action, predictable linear dose-response relationships and fewer drug interactions...
April 6, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362649/rapid-and-well-tolerated-action-of-idarucizumab-for-antagonizing-dabigatran-in-a-patient-needing-urgent-thrombolysis-a-case-report
#5
Roberto Facchinetti, Giulia DeGuidi, Federica Pitoni, Giorgio Ricci, Giuseppe Lippi
Dabigatran is a direct oral anticoagulant drug exhibiting clinical benefits over vitamin K antagonists. A procedure for reversing the anticoagulant effect of direct oral anticoagulants may be needed in emergency clinical settings, and is traditionally accomplished by using plasma products or hemostatic physical interventions. Idarucizumab, a specific antidote for dabigatran, has recently become available. This compound can be rapidly administered by intravenous injection and is effective in reversing anticoagulation in few minutes...
March 30, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359136/point-of-care-testing-in-burn-patients
#6
Marion Wiegele, Sibylle Kozek-Langenecker, Eva Schaden
Severe burn injury has an impact on the coagulation system, but a unique definition regarding these changes is still missing. The results of conventional coagulation assays (CCAs) measured in daily clinical practice are often interpreted as coagulopathic, which implies a bleeding tendency. However, viscoelastic coagulation assays (VCA) like Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and Thromboelastography (TEG) depict a hypercoagulable state. Therefore, hemostatic interventions should not be indicated according to deranged CCA results, but only in case of clinically relevant bleeding plus indicative VCA results...
March 30, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346967/anticoagulation-therapy-in-children
#7
Vlad Calin Radulescu
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is very uncommon in children and adolescents compared with older adults, though its incidence has significantly increased over the past two decades. Given the rarity of the condition, the data on pediatric VTE lag behind the adult experience and consequently the management of VTE in children is, in large part, modeled on the adult strategies. This approach has certain limitations, given that young children have developmental particularities of the hemostatic system and differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of various anticoagulant agents...
March 27, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346965/point-of-care-coagulation-tests-monitoring-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-and-their-reversal-therapy-state-of-the-art
#8
Giacomo E Iapichino, Paolo Bianchi, Marco Ranucci, Ekaterina Baryshnikova
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) exert similar anticoagulant effects to vitamin K antagonists and are increasingly used worldwide. Nevertheless, an evidence-based approach to patients receiving DOACs when any unplanned urgent surgery or bleeding (either spontaneous or traumatic) occurs is still missing. In this review, we investigate the role of point-of-care coagulation tests when other, more specific tests are not available. Indeed, thromboelastography and activated clotting time can detect dabigatran-induced coagulopathy, while their accuracy is limited for apixaban and rivaroxaban, mostly in cases of low drug plasma concentrations...
March 27, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339551/anticoagulant-and-antiplatelet-management-for-spinal-procedures-a-prospective-descriptive-study-and-interpretation-of-guidelines
#9
Bradly S Goodman, L McLean House, Sridhar Vallabhaneni, Srinivas Mallempati, Matthew R Willey, Matthew Thomas Smith
Setting.:  Epidural hematoma rarely complicates interventional spine procedures. While anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs increase bleeding risk, cessation may precipitate serious thromboembolic events. The Spine Intervention Society (SIS) and American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) put forth guidelines that dissent with regard to management of hemostatically active agents during commonly performed spinal injections. Objective.:  To validate an antiplatelet/anticoagulant management table based on modifications of the SIS 2013 and ASRA 2015 guidelines...
October 6, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325889/hypofibrinogenemia-caused-by-hemocoagulase-after-colon-polyps-excision
#10
Hai-Bo Zhou
BACKGROUND In patients with large colon polyps, late-onset bleeding may be more likely to occur because of the larger cutting surface. In these patients, hemostatic agents may be applied to prevent the late-onset bleeding. A total of 7 patients developed hypofibrinogenemia caused by hemocoagulase following excision of colon polyps in our center from November to December 2015. CASE REPORT Seven patients underwent excision of colon polyps in our center from November to December 2015. The cutting face was large in these patients after surgery; therefore, hemocoagulase was used to prevent potential late-onset bleeding...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314136/platelet-microparticle-inspired-clot-responsive-nanomedicine-for-targeted-fibrinolysis
#11
Christa L Pawlowski, Wei Li, Michael Sun, Kavya Ravichandran, DaShawn Hickman, Clarissa Kos, Gurbani Kaur, Anirban Sen Gupta
Intravascular administration of plasminogen activators is a clinically important thrombolytic strategy to treat occlusive vascular conditions. A major issue with this strategy is the systemic off-target drug action, which affects hemostatic capabilities and causes substantial hemorrhagic risks. This issue can be potentially resolved by designing technologies that allow thrombus-targeted delivery and site-specific action of thrombolytic drugs. To this end, leveraging a liposomal platform, we have developed platelet microparticle (PMP)-inspired nanovesicles (PMINs), that can protect encapsulated thrombolytic drugs in circulation to prevent off-target uptake and action, anchor actively onto thrombus via PMP-relevant molecular mechanisms and allow drug release via thrombus-relevant enzymatic trigger...
June 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297572/safety-and-efficacy-of-megakaryocytes-induced-from-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-murine-and-nonhuman-primate-models
#12
Xin Guan, Meng Qin, Yu Zhang, Yanan Wang, Bin Shen, Zhihua Ren, Xinxin Ding, Wei Dai, Yongping Jiang
Because of a lack of platelet supply and a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved platelet growth factor, megakaryocytes have emerged as an effective substitute for alleviating thrombocytopenia. Here, we report the development of an efficient two-stage culture system that is free of stroma, animal components, and genetic manipulations for the production of functional megakaryocytes from hematopoietic stem cells. Safety and functional studies were performed in murine and nonhuman primate models. One human cryopreserved cord blood CD34(+) cell could be induced ex vivo to produce up to 1...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296287/bio-inspired-nanomedicine-strategies-for-artificial-blood-components
#13
REVIEW
Anirban Sen Gupta
Blood is a fluid connective tissue where living cells are suspended in noncellular liquid matrix. The cellular components of blood render gas exchange (RBCs), immune surveillance (WBCs) and hemostatic responses (platelets), and the noncellular components (salts, proteins, etc.) provide nutrition to various tissues in the body. Dysfunction and deficiencies in these blood components can lead to significant tissue morbidity and mortality. Consequently, transfusion of whole blood or its components is a clinical mainstay in the management of trauma, surgery, myelosuppression, and congenital blood disorders...
March 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293423/growth-inhibitory-activity-of-ankaferd-hemostat-on-primary-melanoma-cells-and-cell-lines
#14
Seyhan Turk, Umit Yavuz Malkan, Mehdi Ghasemi, Helin Hocaoglu, Duygu Mutlu, Gursel Gunes, Salih Aksu, Ibrahim Celalettin Haznedaroglu
OBJECTIVE: Ankaferd hemostat is the first topical hemostatic agent about the red blood cell-fibrinogen relations tested in the clinical trials. Ankaferd hemostat consists of standardized plant extracts including Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ankaferd hemostat on viability of melanoma cell lines. METHODS: Dissimilar melanoma cell lines and primary cells were used in this study...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286423/oligonucleotides-targeting-coagulation-factor-mrnas-use-in-thrombosis-and-hemophilia-research-and-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Marco Heestermans, Bart J M van Vlijmen
Small interfering (si) RNAs and antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs; here for simplicity reasons, both referred to as oligonucleotides) are small synthetic RNA or DNA molecules with a sequence complementary to a (pre)mRNA. Although the basic mechanisms of action between siRNAs and ASO are distinct, a sequence-specific interaction of the both oligonucleotides with the target (pre)mRNA alters the target's fate, which includes highly effective sequence-specific blockade of translation and consequently depletion of the corresponding protein...
2017: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258978/use-of-gelatin-sponge-affects-postoperative-morbidity-in-cesarean-section-patients
#16
Alev Özer, Bülent Köstü
BACKGROUND This study aimed to determine the effects of use of a local hemostatic gelatin sponge (GS) on postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing cesarean section (CS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The records of 318 patients who underwent CS surgery were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 consisted of 59 patients with gelatin sponge (GS) applied, and Group 2 consisted of 259 patients with no GS applied. The groups were compared for time to the first flatus, nausea and vomiting, requirement for anti-emetic drugs, development of postoperative ileus, and the length of hospitalization...
March 4, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249548/traditional-uses-chemical-constituents-and-biological-activities-of-plants-from-the-genus-sanguisorba-l
#17
Zefeng Zhao, Xirui He, Qiang Zhang, Xiaoyang Wei, Linhong Huang, Jia Cheng Fang, Xiaoxiao Wang, Meimei Zhao, Yajun Bai, Xiaohui Zheng
Plants from the genus Sanguisorba have been treated as medicinal ingredients for over 2000 years. This paper reviews advances in the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the genus. To date, more than 120 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from these plants, especially from S. officinalis and S. minor. Among these compounds, triterpenoids, phenols and flavonoids are the primary biologically active constituents. Triterpenoids can be used as quality control markers to determine the quality of medicinal materials and their preparations...
2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207269/biocompatible-injectable-hydrogel-with-potent-wound-healing-and-antibacterial-properties
#18
Jiaul Hoque, Relekar G Prakash, Krishnamoorthy Paramanandham, Bibek R Shome, Jayanta Haldar
Two component injectable hydrogels that cross-link in situ have been used as noninvasive wound-filling devices, i.e., sealants. These materials carry a variety of functions at the wound sites, such as sealing leaks, ceasing unwanted bleeding, binding tissues together, and assisting in wound healing processes. However, commonly used sealants typically lack antibacterial properties. Since bacterial infection at the wound site is very common, bioadhesive materials with intrinsic antibacterial properties are urgently required...
April 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203003/-bleeding-control-of-periodontal-mechanical-therapy-for-patients-taking-aspirin
#19
F Ding, Y L Lyu, W Xuan, D Y Liu, X Q Duan, X Han
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of periodontal mechanical therapy for chronic periodontitis and coronary heart disease patients with low dose of aspirin. METHODS: Sixty nine chronic periodontitis patients with coronary heart disease were randomly selected as the experimental group (medication group, group A), the control group (withdrawal group, group B) including 20 chronic periodontitis patients with coronary artery disease, stopping the drug for one week and another control group with 50 chronic periodontitis patients (group C)...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190562/a-combined-approach-to-early-detect-in-vitro-drug-induced-hemostatic-changes-in-preclinical-safety
#20
Myriam Defontis, Serge Côté, David Ledieu
Early detection of drug-induced alterations of hemostasis is challenging. Drugs can affect different components of the Virchow's triad and measurement of plasmatic coagulation times lacks sensitivity. New techniques for a more global assessment of the hemostasis are now available: the impedance platelet aggregometry, the thromboelastography and the thrombin generation measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate three techniques (i.e.: Multiplate(®), TEG(®) and CAT) for the in vitro detection of the effect of a drug known to induce hemostatic alterations in a preclinical safety environment...
February 9, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
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