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HIV Exposed uninfected

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301007/low-birth-weight-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-bronx-new-york
#1
Jasmeen S Dara, David B Hanna, Kathryn Anastos, Rodney Wright, Betsy C Herold
Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been highly successful. However, HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants might be at increased risk for low birth weight and/or preterm birth. We compared the birth weights and gestational ages of HIV-EU infants to those of HIV-unexposed control infants in Bronx, New York, an epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Methods: This study was performed with a retrospective cohort of HIV-EU infants born at Montefiore Medical Center between 2008 and 2012 and HIV-unexposed control infants...
December 30, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280758/changes-in-insulin-sensitivity-over-time-and-associated-factors-in-hiv-infected-adolescents
#2
Mitchell E Geffner, Kunjal Patel, Denise L Jacobson, Julia Wu, Tracie L Miller, Rohan Hazra, Mariana Gerschenson, Tanvi Sharma, Margarita Silio, Jennifer Jao, Jody K Takemoto, Russell B Van Dyke, Linda A Dimeglio
OBJECTIVE: To compare prevalence of IR between perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected adolescents (PHEU), determine incidence of and contributory factors to new and resolved cases of IR in PHIV+, and evaluate glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design for comparison of prevalence among PHIV+ and PHEU. Longitudinal design for incidence and resolution of IR among PHIV+ at risk for these outcomes. METHODS: The source population was adolescents from pediatric HIV clinics in the US and Puerto Rico participating in PHACS AMP, an ongoing prospective cohort study designed to evaluate impact of HIV infection and its treatment on multiple domains in preadolescents and adolescents...
December 26, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278615/risk-for-speech-and-language-impairments-in-pre-school-aged-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-with-in-utero-combination-antiretroviral-exposure
#3
Mabel L Rice, Jonathan S Russell, Toni Frederick, Murli Purswani, Paige L Williams, George K Siberry, Sean M Redmond, Howard J Hoffman, Tzy-Jyun Yao
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children have elevated risk of late language emergence at age 1 year, with possible links to in utero antiretroviral (ARV) exposure. We investigated possible risks for speech impairments (SI) and language impairments (LI) in preschool monolingual HEU children in the United States. METHODS: Speech and language assessments were conducted as part of the PHACS Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities (SMARTT) study at ages 3 (N= 208) and 5 (N = 429) years...
December 22, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278542/potential-kidney-toxicity-from-the-antiviral-drug-tenofovir-new-indications-new-formulations-and-a-new-prodrug
#4
Lili Chan, Benjamin Asriel, Ellen F Eaton, Christina M Wyatt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The antiviral agent tenofovir is highly effective for the treatment of HIV and hepatitis B virus infections, and the older prodrug tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is also a component of daily preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the risk of HIV infection in high-risk populations. Although TDF is well tolerated, the potential for kidney and bone toxicity has important implications for public health given the large number of individuals exposed to TDF worldwide...
December 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246361/neonatal-and-infant-mortality-risk-associated-with-preterm-and-small-for-gestational-age-births-in-tanzania-individual-level-pooled-analysis-using-the-intergrowth-standard
#5
Ayesha Sania, Emily R Smith, Karim Manji, Christopher Duggan, Honorati Masanja, Rodrick Kisenge, Gernard Msamanga, Willy Urassa, Wafaie Fawzi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of newborn and infant mortality associated with preterm, small for gestational age (SGA), and low birth weight (LBW) stratified by maternal HIV status and the location of birth. STUDY DESIGN: We created a prospective cohort by pooling 5 individually randomized trials. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the risk of mortality for SGA defined using the recently published Intergrowth standard, preterm, LBW, and gestational age and size for gestational age categories (preterm- appropriate for gestational age [AGA], term-SGA, and preterm-SGA)...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238342/breastfeeding-behaviors-and-the-innate-immune-system-of-human-milk-working-together-to-protect-infants-against-inflammation-hiv-1-and-other-infections
#6
REVIEW
Bethany M Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Laila Nasser, Ava Roozrogousheh, Kenneth L Rosenthal
The majority of infants' breastfeeding from their HIV-infected mothers do not acquire HIV-1 infection despite exposure to cell-free virus and cell-associated virus in HIV-infected breast milk. Paradoxically, exclusive breastfeeding regardless of the HIV status of the mother has led to a significant decrease in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) compared with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Although it remains unclear how these HIV-exposed infants remain uninfected despite repeated and prolonged exposure to HIV-1, the low rate of transmission is suggestive of a multitude of protective, short-lived bioactive innate immune factors in breast milk...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228317/leukocyte-telomere-length-at-birth-and-during-the-early-life-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-following-in-utero-exposure-to-antiretrovirals
#7
Abhinav Ajaykumar, Hugo Soudeyns, Fatima Kakkar, Jason Brophy, Ari Bitnun, Ariane Alimenti, Arianne Y K Albert, Deborah M Money, Hélène C F Côté
Background: Maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy could impact the health of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children, as some antiretrovirals cross the placenta and can inhibit telomerase. Our objective was to compare HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at birth and in early life, and investigate any relationship with cART exposure. Methods: HEU and HUU children's blood LTL was compared cross-sectionally at birth, and during the first three years of life...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219134/does-infant-feeding-method-influence-the-incidence-and-pattern-of-morbidities-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-uninfected-nigerian-infants
#8
Olusoga Babatunde Ogunfowora, Tinuade Adetutu Ogunlesi, Abiodun Folashade Adekanmbi, Victor Ayodeji Ayeni
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants enrolled into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program generally receive antiretroviral therapy (ARV), but the feeding methods differ based on several socioeconomic and cultural differences. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the incidence and pattern of morbidities among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) Nigerian infants and determine any relationship with infant feeding methods...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210832/quality-of-caregiving-is-positively-associated-with-neurodevelopment-during-the-first-year-of-life-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-uganda
#9
Itziar Familiar, Shalean M Collins, Alla Sikorskii, Horacio Ruisenor-Escudero, Barnabas Natamba, Paul Bangirana, Elizabeth M Widen, Daniel Achidri, Harriet Achola, Daniel Onen, Michael Boivin, Sera L Young
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate if maternal characteristics and infant developmental milieu were predictive of early cognitive development in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and un-exposed uninfected (HU) infants in Uganda. DESIGN: Longitudinal pregnancy study. METHODS: Ugandan women (n=228) were enrolled into the Postnatal Nutrition and Psychosocial Health Outcomes (PostNAPS) study with a 2:1 HIV-uninfected:infected ratio. Maternal socio-demographic, perceived social support, and depressive symptomatology were assessed...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206312/risk-of-cancer-in-children-exposed-to-antiretroviral-nucleoside-analogues-in-utero-the-french-experience
#10
Mira Hleyhel, Stéphanie Goujon, Jeanne Sibiude, Roland Tubiana, Catherine Dollfus, Albert Faye, Laurent Mandelbrot, Jacqueline Clavel, Josiane Warszawski, Stéphane Blanche
All nucleoside analogues for treating HIV infection, due to their capacity to integrate into and alter human DNA, are experimentally genotoxic to some extent. The long-term oncogenic risk after in utero exposure remains to be determined. Cancer incidence in uninfected children exposed to nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) was evaluated, by cross-checking against the National Cancer Registry, in the French perinatal study of children born to HIV+ mothers. Twenty-one cancers were identified in 15,163 children (median age: 9...
December 5, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170447/monocyte-derived-exosomes-upon-exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-condensate-alter-their-characteristics-and-show-protective-effect-against-cytotoxicity-and-hiv-1-replication
#11
Sanjana Haque, Namita Sinha, Sabina Ranjit, Narasimha M Midde, Fatah Kashanchi, Santosh Kumar
Smoking is known to exacerbate HIV-1 pathogenesis, especially in monocytes, through the oxidative stress pathway. Exosomes are known to alter HIV-1 pathogenesis through inter-cellular communication. However, the role of exosomes in smoking-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on the characteristics of monocyte-derived exosomes and their influence on HIV-1 replication. Initially, we demonstrated that CSC reduced total protein and antioxidant capacity in exosomes derived from HIV-1-infected and uninfected macrophages...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168068/predicting-arrest-in-a-sample-of-youth-perinatally-exposed-to-hiv-the-intersection-of-hiv-and-key-contextual-factors
#12
Katherine S Elkington, Zachary Peters, C Jean Choi, Amelia Bucek, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Elaine J Abrams, Claude A Mellins
We examined the role of youth HIV status and other key factors on past-year arrest in perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHIV-) and perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth using data from a multi-site study of psychosocial behaviors in PHIV-exposed urban youth (N = 340; 61% PHIV+; 51% female; ages 9-16 at baseline). Youth and caregivers were administered 5 interviews, spanning approximately 7.5 years. Using longitudinal logistic mixed-effect models, we explored the association between past year arrest, internal [e...
November 22, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165579/investigating-mediators-of-the-poor-pneumonia-outcomes-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-but-uninfected-children
#13
Matthew S Kelly, Jiayin Zheng, Sefelani Boiditswe, Andrew P Steenhoff, Kristen A Feemster, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Boitshepe Seme, Bakgaki Ratshaa, Ikanyeng Rulaganyang, Mohamed Z Patel, Savarra Mantzor, Samir S Shah, Coleen K Cunningham
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-exposed but uninfected (HIV-EU) children have a higher mortality rate than the children of HIV-negative mothers (HIV-unexposed). Causal mediators of the poor health outcomes of HIV-EU children remain poorly defined. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based prospective cohort study of children aged 1 to 23 months with clinically defined pneumonia. The children were recruited at a referral hospital in Gaborone, Botswana, between April 2012 and June 2016...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163468/the-role-of-natural-antibodies-to-cc-chemokine-receptor-5-in-hiv-infection
#14
REVIEW
Assunta Venuti, Claudia Pastori, Lucia Lopalco
The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is responsible for immune and inflammatory responses by mediation of chemotactic activity in leukocytes, although it is expressed on different cell types. It has been shown to act as co-receptor for the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV). Natural reactive antibodies (Abs) recognizing first loop (ECL1) of CCR5 have been detected in several pools of immunoglobulins from healthy donors and from several cohorts of either HIV-exposed but uninfected subjects (ESN) or HIV-infected individuals who control disease progression (LTNP) as well...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161262/the-value-of-confirmatory-testing-in-early-infant-hiv-diagnosis-programmes-in-south-africa-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#15
Lorna Dunning, Jordan A Francke, Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Martina Penazzato, Taige Hou, Landon Myer, Elaine J Abrams, Rochelle P Walensky, Valériane Leroy, Kenneth A Freedberg, Andrea Ciaranello
BACKGROUND: The specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) used for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV infection is <100%, leading some HIV-uninfected infants to be incorrectly identified as HIV-infected. The World Health Organization recommends that infants undergo a second NAAT to confirm any positive test result, but implementation is limited. Our objective was to determine the impact and cost-effectiveness of confirmatory HIV testing for EID programmes in South Africa...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140938/immunity-following-childhood-vaccinations-in-perinatally-hiv-exposed-children-with-and-without-hiv-infection-in-latin-america
#16
Regina Cm Succi, Margot R Krauss, D Robert Harris, Daisy M Machado, Maria I de Moraes-Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Noris Pavia Ruz, Russell B Pierre, Lenka A Kolevic Roca, Esaú Joao, Irene Foradori, Marcelo C Scotta, Rohan Hazra, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Full vaccination by age four years was defined as: three hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine doses; four tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine doses; three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine by age 12 months or ≥1 dose given after age 12 months; one measles-containing vaccine dose; one rubella-containing vaccine dose...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131457/neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-in-the-mother-and-infants-health-study-cape-town-south-africa
#17
Priscilla E Springer, Amy L Slogrove, Barbara Laughton, Julie A Bettinger, Henriëtte H Saunders, Christopher D Molteno, Mariana Kruger
OBJECTIVES: To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infants in a peri-urban South African population. HEU infants living in Africa face unique biological and environmental risks, but uncertainty remains regarding their neurodevelopmental outcome. This is partly due to lack of well-matched HUU comparison groups needed to adjust for confounding factors. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of infants enrolled at birth from a low-risk midwife obstetric facility...
November 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119726/cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis-was-associated-with-enteric-commensal-bacterial-resistance-among-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-botswana
#18
Kathleen M Powis, Sajini Souda, Shahin Lockman, Gbolahan Ajibola, Kara Bennett, Jean Leidner, Michael D Hughes, Sikhulile Moyo, Erik van Widenfelt, Haruna B Jibril, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Roger L Shapiro
INTRODUCTION: Despite declining risk of vertical HIV transmission, prophylactic cotrimoxazole (CTX) remains widely used to reduce morbidity and mortality in the event of HIV infection among exposed infants, with an inherent risk of conferring commensal antimicrobial resistance. Using data from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of infant CTX prophylaxis, we sought to quantify emergence of antibiotic resistance. METHODS: HIV-exposed uninfected infants enrolled in the Botswana Mpepu study were randomized to prophylactic CTX or placebo between 14 and 34 days of life and continued through 15 months...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112074/toll-like-receptor-tlr-9-polymorphism-is-associated-with-increased-epstein-barr-virus-and-cytomegalovirus-acquisition-in-hiv-exposed-infants
#19
Kristin Beima-Sofie, Dalton Wamalwa, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Jairam R Lingappa, Romel Mackelprang, Soren Gantt, Grace John-Stewart, Corey Casper, Jennifer A Slyker
Polymorphisms in the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR9) 1635 locus have been associated with HIV-1 acquisition and progression. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) acquisition were compared between Kenyan HIV-exposed infants by 1635 genotype. Having 1 or more copies of the 1635A allele was associated with increased CMV acquisition in HIV-infected infants (42% vs 11%, p = 0.03) and increased risk of EBV acquisition in HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HR = 4.2, p = 0.02) compared to 1635GG. Additionally, 1635A was associated with 0...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112069/neuropsychological-performance-in-african-children-with-hiv-enrolled-in-a-multi-site-anti-retroviral-clinical-trial
#20
Michael J Boivin, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Miriam Chernoff, Barbara Laughton, Bonnie Zimmer, Celeste Joyce, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mmule Ratswana, Nasreen Abrahams, Lee Fairlie, Hermien Gous, Portia Kamthunzi, Katie McCarthy, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Patrick Jean-Phillippe, Joan Coetzee, Avy Violari, Mark Cotton, Paul Palumbo
OBJECTIVE & DESIGN: Children with HIV infection (HIV+) are at neuropsychological risk, but few studies have evaluated this at multiple sites in low and middle income countries (LMICs). We compared neuropsychological outcomes at enrollment (>5 yrs age) among HIV+, HIV-uninfected perinatally-exposed (HEU), and HIV unexposed (HU) children from 4 sub-Saharan countries. METHODS: IMPAACT P1060 compared Nevirapine (NVP) versus Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPVr)-based ART in HIV-infected children 6 to 35 months of age...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
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