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HIV Exposed uninfected

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644368/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-not-associated-with-growth-or-the-incidence-of-common-morbidities-among-tanzanian-infants
#1
Christopher R Sudfeld, Karim P Manji, Emily R Smith, Said Aboud, Rodrick Kisenge, Wafaie W Fawzi, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and determine the association of vitamin D status with child growth and incidence of common morbidities among Tanzanian infants. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 581 Tanzanian infants born to HIV-uninfected mothers had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assessed at 6 weeks and 6 months of age. Infants were seen at monthly clinic visits for growth monitoring until 18 months of age...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633455/fetal-metabolic-stress-disrupts-immune-homeostasis-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-hiv-1-and-cart-exposed-infants
#2
Johannes C Schoeman, Gontse P Moutloatse, Amy C Harms, Rob J Vreeken, Henriette J Scherpbier, Liesbeth Van Leeuwen, Taco W Kuijpers, Carools J Reinecke, Ruud Berger, Thomas Hankemeier, Madeleine J Bunders
Increased morbidity and fetal growth restriction are reported in uninfected children born to HIV-1-infected women treated with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Viruses and/or pharmacological interventions such as ARVs can induce metabolic stress skewing the cell's immune response and restricting (cell) growth. Novel metabolomic techniques provided the opportunity to investigate the impact of fetal HIV-1 and combination ARV therapy (cART)-exposure on the infants' immune-metabolome. Peroxidized lipids, generated by reactive oxygen species, were increased in cART/HIV-1-exposed infants, indicating altered mitochondrial functioning...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609400/cytomegalovirus-viraemia-is-associated-with-poor-growth-and-t-cell-activation-with-an-increased-burden-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#3
Miguel A Garcia-Knight, Eunice Nduati, Amin S Hassan, Irene Nkumama, Timothy J Etyang, Naseem J Hajj, Faith Gambo, Denis Odera, James A Berkley, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Britta Urban
OBJECTIVE: Factors associated with poor health in HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) infants are poorly defined. We describe the prevalence and correlates of CMV viraemia in HEU and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) infants, and quantify associations with anthropometric, haematological and immunological outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, including HEU and HUU infants from rural coastal Kenya. METHODS: Infants aged 2-8 months were studied. The primary outcome was CMV viraemia and viral load, determined by quantitative PCR...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591258/immune-development-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-born-to-hiv-infected-women
#4
Maristela Miyamoto, Aída F T B Gouvêa, Erika Ono, Regina Célia M Succi, Savita Pahwa, Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
Immunological and clinical findings suggestive of some immune dysfunction have been reported among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and adolescents. Whether these defects are persistent or transitory is still unknown. HEU pediatric population at birth, 12 months, 6-12 years were evaluated in comparison to healthy age-matched HIV-unexposed controls. Plasma levels of LPS, sCD14, cytokines, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) were assessed. HEU and controls had similar LPS levels, which remained low from birth to 6-12 years; for plasma sCD14, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1, which increased from birth to 12 months and then decreased at 6-12 years; and for TREC/106 PBMC at birth in HEU and controls...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575201/birth-weight-and-preterm-delivery-outcomes-of-perinatally-vs-non-perinatally-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-in-the-u-s-results-from-the-phacs-smartt-study-and-impaact-p1025-protocol
#5
Jennifer Jao, Deborah Kacanek, Paige L Williams, Mitchell E Geffner, Elizabeth G Livingston, Rhoda S Sperling, Kunjal Patel, Arlene D Bardeguez, Sandra K Burchett, Nahida Chakhtoura, Gwendolyn B Scott, Russell B Van Dyke, Elaine J Abrams
Background: Pregnancy outcomes of perinatally HIV-infected women (PHIV) are poorly defined. Methods: We compared preterm delivery and birth weight (BW) outcomes [low BW (LBW, <2500 g), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and BW z-scores (BWZ)] in HIV-exposed uninfected infants of PHIV vs. non-perinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV) pregnant women in the PHACS SMARTT or IMPAACT P1025 studies. Mixed effects models were fit to assess the association of maternal PHIV status with infant BWZ; log binomial models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks (aRR) for dichotomous outcomes...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536264/exosomes-from-uninfected-cells-activate-transcription-of-latent-hiv-1
#6
Robert A Barclay, Angela Schwab, Catherine DeMarino, Yao Akpamagbo, Benjamin Lepene, Seble Kassaye, Sergey Iordanskiy, Fatah Kashanchi
HIV-1 infection causes AIDS, infecting millions worldwide. The virus can persist in a state of chronic infection due to its ability to become latent. We have previously shown a link between HIV-1 infection and exosome production. Specifically, we have reported that exosomes transport viral proteins and RNA from infected cells to neighboring uninfected cells. These viral products could then elicit an innate immune response, leading to activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and NF-κB pathways. In this study, we asked whether exosomes from uninfected cells could activate latent HIV-1 in infected cells...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534093/quality-of-life-among-perinatally-hiv-affected-and-hiv-unaffected-school-aged-and-adolescent-ugandan-children-a-multi-dimensional-assessment-of-wellbeing-in-the-post-haart-era
#7
A K Nkwata, S K Zalwango, F N Kizza, J N Sekandi, J Mutanga, M Zhang, P M Musoke, A E Ezeamama
OBJECTIVE: To examine quality of life (QOL) in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) or HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) vs. healthy HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children during school-age/adolescence. METHODS: PHIV infection was diagnosed via DNA PCR. Current HIV status was confirmed by HIV rapid diagnostic test. Three HIV groups were defined: PHIV, PHEU, and HUU. QOL was assessed with proxy and self-report versions of the PedsQL™ 4.0 instrument at 6-18 years of age...
May 22, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526680/decrease-in-numbers-of-naive-and-resting-b-cells-in-hiv-infected-kenyan-adults-leads-to-a-proportional-increase-in-total-and-plasmodium-falciparum-specific-atypical-memory-b-cells
#8
Anne E Frosch, Oludare A Odumade, Justin J Taylor, Kathleen Ireland, George Ayodo, Bartholomew Ondigo, David L Narum, John Vulule, Chandy C John
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with B cell activation and exhaustion, and hypergammaglobulinemia. How these changes influence B cell responses to coinfections such as malaria is poorly understood. To address this, we compared B cell phenotypes and Abs specific for the Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate apical membrane Ag-1 (AMA1) in HIV-infected and uninfected adults living in Kenya. Surprisingly, HIV-1 infection was not associated with a difference in serum AMA1-specific Ab levels...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484464/altered-natural-killer-cell-function-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#9
Christiana Smith, Emilie Jalbert, Volia de Almeida, Jennifer Canniff, Laurel L Lenz, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Rachel A Cohen, Qilu Yu, Fabiana R Amaral, Jorge Pinto, Jorge O Alarcon, George Siberry, Adriana Weinberg
OBJECTIVES: HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants have higher rates of severe and fatal infections compared with HIV-unexposed (HUU) infants, likely due to immune perturbations. We hypothesized that alterations in natural killer (NK) cell activity might occur in HEU infants and predispose them to severe infections. DESIGN: Case-control study using cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at birth and 6 months from HEU infants enrolled from 2002 to 2009 and HUU infants enrolled from 2011 to 2013...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482682/longitudinal-development-of-cognitive-visuomotor-and-adaptive-behavior-skills-in-hiv-uninfected-children-aged-3-5-years-of-age-exposed-pre-and-perinatally-to-anti-retroviral-medications
#10
Mary Lou Smith, Klajdi Puka, Ramandeep Sehra, Stanley E Read, Ari Bitnun
Little is known about the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children older than 3 years of age born to HIV infected mother but who are HIV-uninfected (HEU), and who have been exposed in utero and early in life to HIV and to antiretroviral medications (ARVs). We conducted a longitudinal study of cognitive, visuomotor and adaptive function of HEU children, who were assessed at two ages, 3.5 and 5.5 years. Sixty-four children (33 female) were assessed. In comparison with population norms for their age, at 3.5 years of age they had scores significantly below age expectations on aspects of adaptive behavior, but at age 5...
May 8, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481783/impact-of-perinatally-acquired-hiv-disease-upon-longitudinal-changes-in-memory-and-executive-functioning
#11
Kathleen M Malee, Miriam C Chernoff, Patricia A Sirois, Paige L Williams, Patricia A Garvie, Betsy L Kammerer, Lynnette L Harris, Molly L Nozyce, Cenk Yildirim, Sharon L Nichols
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding effects of perinatally-acquired HIV infection (PHIV) on longitudinal change in memory and executive functioning (EF) during adolescence, despite the importance of these skills for independence in adulthood. METHODS: PHIV (n=144) and perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected youth (PHEU, n=79), ages 12-17, completed standardized tests of memory and EF at baseline and two years later. Changes from baseline for each memory and EF outcome were compared between PHEU and PHIV youth with (PHIV/C, n=39) and without (PHIV/non-C, n=105) history of CDC Class C (AIDS-defining) diagnoses...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470110/growth-pattern-in-ethiopian-infants-the-impact-of-exposure-to-maternal-hiv-infection-in-relation-to-socio-economic-factors
#12
John König Walles, Taye Tolera Balcha, Niclas Winqvist, Per Björkman
BACKGROUND: Infants exposed to maternal HIV infection who remain HIV-uninfected (HIV-exposed/uninfected; HIV-EU) may be at increased risk of growth retardation, which could be due both to directly HIV-related effects and to socio-economic factors overrepresented among HIV-positive women. OBJECTIVE: To investigate growth development at 9-12 months of age in HIV-EU infants participating in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care compared to HIV unexposed (HIV-U) infants in relation to socio-economic conditions...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462827/prevalence-of-insulin-resistance-among-patients-attending-the-hiv-clinic-in-a-nigerian-tertiary-hospital
#13
Adeyemi O Dada, Temitope T Oshodi, Iwuchukwu O Ajie, Chinelo P Onyenekwu
BACKGROUND: Insulin Resistance(IR) is increasing in Africans as well as among the Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) infected population for several reasons which include the viral infection itself and the use of Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This present study assessed the prevalence of IR among HIV infected population and the imminent effect of the disease and therapy on patients. METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted in Lagos among 266 HIV infected participants and 130 HIV Negative controls aged 18-80 years...
April 12, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444232/co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-asymptomatic-malaria-parasitemia-and-infectious-morbidity-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants-in-malawi-the-ban-study
#14
Nicole L Davis, Jeffrey Wiener, Jonathan J Juliano, Linda Adair, Charles S Chasela, Dumbani Kayira, Michael G Hudgens, Charles van der Horst, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
Background: HIV-exposed infants are disproportionately at risk of morbidity and mortality compared with their HIV-unexposed counterparts. The role of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in reducing leading causes of infectious morbidity is unclear. Methods: We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial (conducted 2004-2010, Malawi) to assess the association of 1) CPT and 2) asymptomatic malaria parasitemia with respiratory and diarrheal morbidity in infants...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422809/associations-between-dietary-intake-prior-to-6-months-of-age-and-rapid-weight-gain-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#15
Daniela Neri, Fernanda C Oliveira, Aline M Carvalho, Gabriel A Somarriba, Gwendolyn B Scott, Tracie L Miller
INTRODUCTION: HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants are potentially at risk for cardiovascular disease due to in utero exposures. Feeding practices of the infant could compound this risk. However, few studies have evaluated dietary intake of HEU infants. We determined dietary factors associated with rapid weight gain (RWG) among HEU infants from birth to 6 months followed at the University of Miami HIV Screening Program. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, logistic regression was used to determine dietary factors associated with RWG defined as a greater than 0...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413739/genetic-modulation-therapy-through-stem-cell-transplantation-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#16
REVIEW
Varshil Mehta, Divya Chandramohan, Shivika Agarwal
Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic vaccination against HIV, there is a squeezing need to build a therapeutic treatment. Viral tropism for HIV includes CD4+ cells, macrophages, and microglial cells, and it is through binding with co-receptors C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)...
March 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398593/ccr5-expression-haplotype-and-immune-activation-in-protection-from-infection-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-individuals-in-hiv-serodiscordant-relationships
#17
Shameem Z Jaumdally, Anabela Picton, Caroline T Tiemessen, Maria Paximadis, Heather B Jaspan, Hoyam Gamieldien, Lindi Masson, David Coetzee, Anna-Lise Williamson, Francesca Little, Pamela P Gumbi, Jo-Ann S Passmore
Several host factors have been implicated in resistance to HIV infection in individuals who remain HIV-seronegative despite exposure. In a cohort of HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples, we investigated interactions between systemic inflammation and T-cell activation in resistance to HIV infection. Males and females in stable long-term relationships with either HIV-infected or uninfected partners were recruited, blood T-cell activation (CD38, HLA-DR, CCR5 and Ki67) and plasma cytokine concentrations were evaluated...
April 11, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395844/effect-of-co-trimoxazole-on-mortality-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-children-in-botswana-the-mpepu-study-a-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Shahin Lockman, Michael Hughes, Kate Powis, Gbolahan Ajibola, Kara Bennett, Sikhulile Moyo, Erik van Widenfelt, Jean Leidner, Kenneth McIntosh, Loeto Mazhani, Joseph Makhema, Max Essex, Roger Shapiro
BACKGROUND: Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis reduces mortality among HIV-infected children, but efficacy in HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children in a non-malarial, low-breastfeeding setting with a low risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is unclear. METHODS: HEU children in Botswana were randomly assigned to receive co-trimoxazole (100 mg/20 mg once daily until age 6 months and 200 mg/40 mg once daily thereafter) or placebo from age 14-34 days to age 15 months...
May 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395832/co-trimoxazole-for-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#19
Ceri Evans, Andrew J Prendergast
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381554/dna-mutagenic-activity-and-capacity-for-hiv-1-restriction-of-the-cytidine-deaminase-apobec3g-depend-on-whether-dna-or-rna-binds-to-tyrosine-315
#20
Bogdan Polevoda, Rebecca Joseph, Alan E Friedman, Ryan P Bennett, Rebecca Greiner, Thareendra De Zoysa, Ryan A Stewart, Harold C Smith
APOBEC3G (A3G) belongs to the AID/APOBEC protein family of cytidine deaminases (CDA) that bind to nucleic acids. A3G mutates the HIV genome by deamination of dC to dU, leading to accumulation of virus-inactivating mutations. Binding to cellular RNAs inhibits A3G binding to substrate single-stranded (ss) DNA and CDA activity. Bulk RNA and substrate ssDNA bind to the same three A3G tryptic peptides (amino acids 181-194, 314-320, and 345-374) that form parts of a continuously exposed protein surface extending from the catalytic domain in the C terminus of A3G to its N terminus...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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