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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771780/biomarkers-of-aging-in-hiv-infected-children-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Stephanie Shiau, Renate Strehlau, Jing Shen, Avy Violari, Faeezah Patel, Afaaf Liberty, Marc Foca, Shuang Wang, Mary Beth Terry, Michael T Yin, Ashraf Coovadia, Elaine J Abrams, Stephen M Arpadi, Louise Kuhn
BACKGROUND: Data on accelerated aging in HIV-infected children are limited. In this study we assess two biomarkers of aging - telomere length and DNA methylation (DNAm) age - in a cohort of early-treated HIV-infected children and compare these aging biomarkers to HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children. SETTING: Cross-sectional study of 120 HIV-infected, 33 HEU, and 25 HUU children enrolled in a cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762690/intestinal-integrity-biomarkers-in-early-antiretroviral-treated-perinatally-hiv-1-infected-infants
#2
Wei Li A Koay, Jane C Lindsey, Priyanka Uprety, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Adriana Weinberg, Myron J Levin, Deborah Persaud
Biomarkers of intestinal integrity (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (iFABP) and zonulin), were compared in early antiretroviral-treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV+; n=56) African infants and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU; n=53) controls. Despite heightened inflammation and immune activation in HIV+ infants, iFABP and zonulin levels at three months of age were not different from those in HEU infants, and largely not correlated with inflammatory and immune activation biomarkers. However, zonulin levels increased, and became significantly higher in HIV+ compared to HEU infants by five months of age despite ART-suppression...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752892/high-vertical-hiv-transmission-rate-in-the-midwest-region-of-brazil
#3
Vanessa Terezinha Gubert de Matos, Fabiani de Morais Batista, Naiara Valera Versage, Clarice Souza Pinto, Vanessa Marcon de Oliveira, Érica Freire de Vasconcelos Pereira, Roberta Barbeta Dos Rios de Matos, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini Dal Fabbro, Ana Lúcia Lyrio de Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: To estimate vertical HIV transmission rate in a capital city of the Midwest region of Brazil and describe the factors related to transmission. METHODS: A descriptive epidemiological study based on the analysis of secondary data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN). The analysis considered all HIV-infected pregnant women with delivery in Campo Grande-MS in the years 2007-2013 and their HIV-exposed infants. RESULTS: A total of 218 births of 176 HIV-infected pregnant women were identified during the study period, of which 187 infants were exposed and uninfected, 19 seroconverted, and 12 were still inconclusive in July 2015...
May 9, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750766/infectious-morbidity-mortality-and-nutrition-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-formula-fed-infants-results-from-the-hptn-040-pactg-1043-trial
#4
Nava Yeganeh, D Heather Watts, Jiahong Xu, Tara Kerin, Esau C Joao, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Gerhard Theron, Glenda Gray, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Valdilea Veloso, Margaret Camarca, Lynne Mofenson, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population with potentially poor health outcomes. We evaluated morbidity and mortality in HEU formula-fed infants enrolled in the NICHD HPTN 040/PACTG 1043 trial. METHODS: Infectious morbidity, mortality, and undernutrition were evaluated within a cohort of 1,000 HEU infants enrolled between 4/2004 and 4/2010 in Brazil (N=766) and South Africa (N=234) as part of the NICHD/HPTN 040 trial of three different antiretroviral regimens to decrease intrapartum HIV vertical transmission...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746376/neruodevelopmental-outcomes-in-pre-school-children-living-with-hiv-1-subtypes-a-and-d-in-uganda
#5
Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Alla Sikorskii, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Deborah Persaud, Carrie Ziemniak, Noeline Nakasujja, Robert Opoka, Michael Boivin
BACKGROUND: HIV is a neuropathogenic virus that may result in detrimental neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes early in life. This is the first study to evaluate the effect of HIV-1 subtype on neurodevelopment of Ugandan pre-school children. METHODS: Neurodevelopment of 87 HIV-1 infected and 221 HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) Ugandan children aged 1.8 to 4.9 years was assessed using four scales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), two scales of the Color Object Association Test (COAT), and one score of the Early Childhood Vigilance Test (ECVT)...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732363/human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-associations-with-immune-mediated-disease-and-infection-in-childhood-a-systematic-review
#6
Alice M Doherty, Caroline J Lodge, Shyamali C Dharmage, Xin Dai, Lars Bode, Adrian J Lowe
Complex sugars found in breastmilk, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), may assist in early-life immune programming and prevention against infectious diseases. This study aimed to systematically review the associations between maternal levels of HMOs and development of immune-mediated or infectious diseases in the offspring. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched (last search on 22 February 2018) according to a predetermined search strategy. Original studies published in English examining the effect of HMOs on immune-mediated and infectious disease were eligible for inclusion...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722482/five-year-neurodevelopment-outcomes-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-on-early-limited-or-deferred-continuous-antiretroviral-therapy
#7
Barbara Laughton, Morna Cornell, Martin Kidd, Priscilla Estelle Springer, Els Françoise Marie-Thérèse Dobbels, Anita Janse Van Rensburg, Kennedy Otwombe, Abdel Babiker, Diana M Gibb, Avy Violari, Mariana Kruger, Mark Fredric Cotton
INTRODUCTION: Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-infected (HIV-positive) children; however, little is known about the longer term outcomes in infants commencing early ART or whether temporary ART interruption might have long-term consequences. In the children with HIV early antiretroviral treatment (CHER) trial, HIV-infected infants ≤12 weeks of age with CD4 ≥25% were randomized to deferred ART (ART-Def); immediate time-limited ART for 40 weeks (ART-40W) or 96 weeks (ART-96W)...
May 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703241/human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-hiv-1-mediated-neuroinflammation-dysregulates-neurogranin-and-induces-synaptodendritic-injury
#8
Debjani Guha, Marc C E Wagner, Velpandi Ayyavoo
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a common outcome of a majority of HIV-1-infected subjects and is associated with synaptodendritic damage. Neurogranin (Ng), a postsynaptic protein, and calmodulin (CaM) are two important players of synaptic integrity/functions. The biological role of Ng in the context of HAND is unknown. METHODS: We compared the expression of Ng in frontal cortex (FC) tissues from control and HIV-1-positive subjects with and without HAND by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and qRT-PCR...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692311/sulfamethoxazole-levels-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-ugandan-children
#9
Jingo Kasule, Erin E Gabriel, Aggrey Anok, Jillian Neal, Richard T Eastman, Scott Penzak, Kevin Newell, David Serwadda, Patrick E Duffy, Steven J Reynolds, Charlotte V Hobbs
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected, exposed (HUE) children variably reduces clinical malaria burden despite antifolate resistance, but data regarding achieved serum levels and adherence are lacking. Serum samples from 70 HUE children aged 3-12 months from Rakai, Uganda, enrolled in an observational study were assayed for random SMX levels using a colorimetric assay. Adherence with TMP-SMX prophylaxis data (yes/no) was also collected. Of 148 visits with concurrent SMX levels available, 56% had self-reported adherence with TMP-SMX therapy...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690575/natural-immunity-to-hiv-a-template-for-vaccine-strategies
#10
REVIEW
Lyvia Fourcade, Johanne Poudrier, Michel Roger
Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion...
April 23, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672222/macrophage-derived-extracellular-vesicles-mediates-smooth-muscle-hyperplasia-role-of-altered-mirna-cargo-in-response-to-hiv-infection-and-substance-abuse
#11
Himanshu Sharma, Mahendran Chinnappan, Stuti Agarwal, Pranjali Dalvi, Sumedha Gunewardena, Amy O'Brien-Ladner, Navneet K Dhillon
Our previous studies consistently demonstrate enhanced pulmonary vascular remodeling in HIV-infected intravenous drug users, and in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques or HIV-transgenic rats exposed to opioids or cocaine. Although we reported an associated increase in perivascular inflammation, the exact role of inflammatory cells in the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling remains unknown. In this study, HIV-infected and cocaine (H+C)-treated human monocyte derived macrophages released a higher number of extracellular vesicles (EVs), compared to HIV-infected or uninfected cocaine-treated macrophages, with a significant increase in the particle size range to 100-150 nm...
April 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667336/optimal-breastfeeding-durations-for-hiv-exposed-infants-the-impact-of-maternal-art-use-infant-mortality-and-replacement-feeding-risk
#12
Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Roger Shapiro, Francois Dabis, Barbara Engelsmann, Kenneth A Freedberg, Valeriane Leroy, Shahin Lockman, Rochelle Walensky, Nigel Rollins, Andrea Ciaranello
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. METHODS: Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666343/interleukin-gene-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-hiv-1-infection-a-meta-analysis
#13
Chrissa G Tsiara, Georgios K Nikolopoulos, Niki L Dimou, Katerina G Pantavou, Pantelis G Bagos, Benedicta Mensah, Michael Talias, Georgia G Braliou, Dimitra Paraskeva, Stefanos Bonovas, Angelos Hatzakis
Some subjects are repeatedly exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet they remain uninfected. This suggests the existence of host-resistance mechanisms. The current study synthesizes the evidence regarding the association between interleukin (IL) gene polymorphisms and HIV susceptibility. Medline, Scopus and the Web of Science databases were systematically searched, and a meta-analysis of case-control studies was conducted. Univariate and bivariate methods were used. The literature search identified 42 eligible studies involving 15,727 subjects...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663621/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-young-children-born-to-hiv-positive-mothers-in-rural-yunnan-china
#14
Jie Wu, Jing Li, Yan Li, Kek Khee Loo, Haixia Yang, Qiong Wang, Rufei Duan, Xia Xiao, Xiaoxiao Song, Siwei Yang, Lin Sun
BACKGROUND: Children born to HIV-infected mothers are at risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Little is known about neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants and toddlers who were born to HIV-positive mothers but were not themselves infected by HIV, especially in poor rural areas. This study was conducted to compare developmental outcomes between young children who were HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) and their HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) peers in rural Yunnan, China. METHODS: A total of 250 HEU children aged 6-36 months and 250 HUU children matched on age, gender and residency were recruited from rural Yunnan, China...
April 16, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625591/neurodevelopmental-assessment-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-early-treated-hiv-infected-children-study-protocol
#15
Renate Strehlau, Tamryn van Aswegen, Joanne Potterton
OBJECTIVE: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of children at risk of not achieving their developmental potential, attributable largely to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic coupled with negative environmental factors. Childhood developmental stimulation programmes can mitigate adverse outcomes. METHODS: Neonates testing HIV positive at birth will be initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and receive an age-appropriate stimulation program, updated at 3 monthly intervals through the first year of life...
April 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620934/factors-associated-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#16
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana R Amaral, Laura Freimanis, D Robert Harris, Christiana Smith, George Siberry
OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that predispose HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) to higher incidence of severe infections, hospitalization and death in the first 6 to 24 months of life compared with HEUs with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 6 months of life. DESIGN: Nested case-control study of 107 LRTI+ infants enrolled in the NISDI Perinatal and LILAC studies with and 140 LRTI- in the first 6 months of, matched by date and place of birth...
March 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596110/cardiac-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-and-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children
#17
James D Wilkinson, Paige L Williams, Wendy Yu, Steven D Colan, Armando Mendez, Justin P V Zachariah, Russell B Van Dyke, William T Shearer, Renee E Margossian, Steven E Lipshultz
OBJECTIVES: To compare distributions of serum cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers between perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) and perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) children, to evaluate their associations with echocardiographic measures, and among PHIV youth, with antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV disease severity measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of temporally paired serum samples for biomarkers and echocardiograms in a prospective multicenter cohort study of PHIV and PHEU youth...
March 28, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559570/uninfected-bystander-cells-impact-the-measurement-of-hiv-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-responses
#18
Jonathan Richard, Jérémie Prévost, Amy E Baxter, Benjamin von Bredow, Shilei Ding, Halima Medjahed, Gloria G Delgado, Nathalie Brassard, Christina M Stürzel, Frank Kirchhoff, Beatrice H Hahn, Matthew S Parsons, Daniel E Kaufmann, David T Evans, Andrés Finzi
The conformation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) substantially impacts antibody recognition and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses. In the absence of the CD4 receptor at the cell surface, primary Envs sample a "closed" conformation that occludes CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes. The virus controls CD4 expression through the actions of Nef and Vpu accessory proteins, thus protecting infected cells from ADCC responses. However, gp120 shed from infected cells can bind to CD4 present on uninfected bystander cells, sensitizing them to ADCC mediated by CD4i antibodies (Abs)...
March 20, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552009/the-effect-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-cytomegalovirus-infection-on-infant-responses-to-vaccines-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Olivia Falconer, Marie-Louise Newell, Christine E Jones
The success of prevention of mother to child transmission programs over the last two decades has led to an increasing number of infants who are exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but who are not themselves infected (HIV-exposed, uninfected infants). Although the morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants is considerably lower than that among HIV-infected infants, they may remain at increased risk of infections in the first 2 years of life compared with their HIV-unexposed peers, especially in the absence of breastfeeding...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547434/in-utero-exposure-to-antiretrovirals-and-neurodevelopment-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-botswana
#20
Sumona Chaudhury, Gloria K Mayondi, Paige L Williams, Jean Leidner, Roger Shapiro, Modiegi Diseko, Gbolahan Ajibola, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Joseph Makhema, Chipo Petlo, George R Seage, Shahin Lockman, Betsy Kammerer
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of in utero exposure to maternal combination antiretrovirals. We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes between HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) children exposed in utero to 3-drug combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy. DESIGN: Prospective study of child neurodevelopment, nested within two cohorts of HIV-infected mothers and their children in Botswana (one observational, one interventional)...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
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