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Alzheimer imaging

Zhuqing Long, Bin Jing, Ru Guo, Bo Li, Feiyi Cui, Tingting Wang, Hongwen Chen
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which generally represents the transition state between normal aging and the early changes related to Alzheimer's disease (AD), has drawn increasing attention from neuroscientists due that efficient AD treatments need early initiation ahead of irreversible brain tissue damage. Thus effective MCI identification methods are desperately needed, which may be of great importance for the clinical intervention of AD. In this article, the range scaled analysis, which could effectively detect the temporal complexity of a time series, was utilized to calculate the Hurst exponent (HE) of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data at a voxel level from 64 MCI patients and 60 healthy controls (HCs)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Alan J Thomas, Paul Donaghy, Gemma Roberts, Sean J Colloby, Nicky A Barnett, George Petrides, Jim Lloyd, Kirsty Olsen, John-Paul Taylor, Ian McKeith, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Dopaminergic imaging has high diagnostic accuracy for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) at the dementia stage. We report the first investigation of dopaminergic imaging at the prodromal stage. METHODS: We recruited 75 patients over 60 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 33 with probable MCI with Lewy body disease (MCI-LB), 15 with possible MCI-LB and 27 with MCI with Alzheimer's disease. All underwent detailed clinical, neurological and neuropsychological assessments and FP-CIT [123I-N-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)] dopaminergic imaging...
April 25, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Bob Zigon, Huang Li, Xiaohui Yao, Shiaofen Fang, Mohammad Al Hasan, Jingwen Yan, Jason H Moore, Andrew J Saykin, Li Shen
Neuroimaging genomics is an emerging field that provides exciting opportunities to understand the genetic basis of brain structure and function. The unprecedented scale and complexity of the imaging and genomics data, however, have presented critical computational bottlenecks. In this work we present our initial efforts towards building an interactive visual exploratory system for mining big data in neuroimaging genomics. A GPU accelerated browsing tool for neuroimaging genomics is created that implements the ANOVA algorithm for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based analysis and the VEGAS algorithm for gene-based analysis, and executes them at interactive rates...
April 25, 2018: Neuroinformatics
Masataka Wada, Yoshihiro Noda, Shunichiro Shinagawa, Jun Ku Chung, Kyosuke Sawada, Kamiyu Ogyu, Ryosuke Tarumi, Sakiko Tsugawa, Takahiro Miyazaki, Bun Yamagata, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Masaru Mimura, Shinichiro Nakajima
BACKGROUND: Cognitive reserve is the acquired capacity reflecting a functional brain adaptability/flexibility in the context of aging. Educational attainment is thought to be among the most important factors that contribute to cognitive reserve. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships among duration of education and Alzheimer's disease (AD) related neuroimaging biomarkers such as amyloid-β deposition, glucose metabolism, and brain volumes in each stage of AD...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Enrico R Fantoni, Anastasia Chalkidou, John T O' Brien, Gill Farrar, Alexander Hammers
BACKGROUND: Amyloid PET (aPET) imaging could improve patient outcomes in clinical practice, but the extent of impact needs quantification. OBJECTIVE: To provide an aggregated quantitative analysis of the value added by aPET in cognitively impaired subjects. METHODS: Systematic literature searches were performed in Embase and Medline until January 2017. 1,531 cases over 12 studies were included (1,142 cases over seven studies in the primary analysis where aPET was the key biomarker; the remaining cases included as defined groups in the secondary analysis)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Elena Makovac, Laura Serra, Carlotta Di Domenico, Camillo Marra, Carlo Caltagirone, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have higher probability to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) than elderly controls. The detection of subtle changes in brain structure associated with disease progression and the development of tools to identify patients at high risk for dementia in a short time is crucial. Here, we used probabilistic white matter (WM) tractography to explore microstructural alterations within the main association, limbic, and commissural pathways in aMCI patients who converted to AD after 1 year follow-up (MCIconverters) and those who remained stable (MCIstable)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Jacob W Vogel, Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Alexa Pichet Binette, Angela Tam, Pierre Orban, Renaud La Joie, Mélissa Savard, Cynthia Picard, Judes Poirier, Pierre Bellec, John C S Breitner, Sylvia Villeneuve
Alzheimer's disease is preceded by a lengthy 'preclinical' stage spanning many years, during which subtle brain changes occur in the absence of overt cognitive symptoms. Predicting when the onset of disease symptoms will occur is an unsolved challenge in individuals with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. In individuals with autosomal dominant genetic Alzheimer's disease, the age of symptom onset is similar across generations, allowing the prediction of individual onset times with some accuracy. We extend this concept to persons with a parental history of sporadic Alzheimer's disease to test whether an individual's symptom onset age can be informed by the onset age of their affected parent, and whether this estimated onset age can be predicted using only MRI...
April 23, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Wei Hong, Zemin Wang, Wen Liu, Tiernan T O'Malley, Ming Jin, Michael Willem, Christian Haass, Matthew P Frosch, Dominic M Walsh
Significant data suggest that soluble Aβ oligomers play an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is great confusion over what exactly constitutes an Aβ oligomer and which oligomers are toxic. Most studies have utilized synthetic Aβ peptides, but the relevance of these test tube experiments to the conditions that prevail in AD is uncertain. A few groups have studied Aβ extracted from human brain, but they employed vigorous tissue homogenization which is likely to release insoluble Aβ that was sequestered in plaques during life...
April 23, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Camilla Beale, Samantha J Broyd, Yann Chye, Chao Suo, Mark Schira, Peter Galettis, Jennifer H Martin, Murat Yücel, Nadia Solowij
Introduction: Chronic cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While adverse impacts of cannabis use are generally attributed to Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, emerging naturalistic evidence suggests cannabidiol (CBD) is neuroprotective and may ameliorate brain harms associated with cannabis use, including protection from hippocampal volume loss. This study examined whether prolonged administration of CBD to regular cannabis users within the community could reverse or reduce the characteristic hippocampal harms associated with chronic cannabis use...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Ruiqing Ni, Markus Rudin, Jan Klohs
The effect of cerebral amyloidosis on cerebral hemodynamics was investigated with photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). First, the sensitivity and robustness of PAT for deriving metrics of vascular and tissue oxygenation in the murine brain was assessed in wild-type mice with a hyperoxia-normoxia challenge. Secondly, cerebral oxygenation was assessed in young and aged arcAβ mice and wild-type controls with PAT, while cerebral blood flow (CBF) was determined by perfusion MRI. The investigations revealed that PAT can sensitively and robustly detect physiological changes in vascular and tissue oxygenation...
June 2018: Photoacoustics
Yong Dae Park, Jeum-Jong Kim, Sungbeom Lee, Chul-Hong Park, Hyoung-Woo Bai, Seung Sik Lee
Accumulation of β -amyloid (A β ) plaques comprising A β 40 and A β 42 in the brain is the most significant factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, the detection of A β plaques has increasingly attracted interest in the context of AD diagnosis. In the present study, a fluorescent pyridazine-based dye that can detect and image A β plaques was designed and synthesized, and its optical properties in the presence of A β aggregates were evaluated. An approximately 34-fold increase in emission intensity was exhibited by the fluorescent probe after binding with A β aggregates, for which it showed high affinity ( K D  = 0...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Se Jong Oh, Hae-June Lee, Kyung Jun Kang, Sang Jin Han, Yong Jin Lee, Kyo Chul Lee, Sang Moo Lim, Dae Yoon Chi, Kyeong Min Kim, Ji-Ae Park, Jae Yong Choi
Purpose. 18 F-FC119S is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging β -amyloid (A β ) plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 18 F-FC119S in quantitating A β deposition in a mouse model of early amyloid deposition (5xFAD) by PET. Method . Dynamic 18 F-FC119S PET images were obtained in 5xFAD ( n = 5) and wild-type (WT) mice ( n = 7). The brain PET images were spatially normalized to the M. Mirrione T2-weighted mouse brain MR template, and the volumes of interest were then automatically drawn on the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Jie Xu, Cheng Deng, Xinbo Gao, Dinggang Shen, Heng Huang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with slow onset, which could result in the deterioration of the duration of persistent neurological dysfunction. How to identify the informative longitudinal phenotypic neuroimaging markers and predict cognitive measures are crucial to recognize AD at early stage. Many existing models related imaging measures to cognitive status using regression models, but they did not take full consideration of the interaction between cognitive scores. In this paper, we propose a robust low-rank structured sparse regression method (RLSR) to address this issue...
August 2017: IJCAI: Proceedings of the Conference
André Kleinridders, Heather A Ferris, Michelle L Reyzer, Michaela Rath, Marion Soto, M Lisa Manier, Jeffrey Spraggins, Zhihong Yang, Robert C Stanton, Richard M Caprioli, C Ronald Kahn
OBJECTIVE: Glucose is the major energy substrate of the brain and crucial for normal brain function. In diabetes, the brain is subject to episodes of hypo- and hyperglycemia resulting in acute outcomes ranging from confusion to seizures, while chronic metabolic dysregulation puts patients at increased risk for depression and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we aimed to determine how glucose is metabolized in different regions of the brain using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS)...
April 6, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Mustapha Bouhrara, David A Reiter, Christopher M Bergeron, Linda M Zukley, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick, Richard G Spencer
INTRODUCTION: We investigated brain demyelination in aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia using magnetic resonance imaging of myelin. METHODS: Brains of young and old controls and old subjects with MCI, Alzheimer's disease, or vascular dementia were scanned using our recently developed myelin water fraction (MWF) mapping technique, which provides greatly improved accuracy over previous comparable methods. Maps of MWF, a direct and specific myelin measure, and relaxation times and magnetization transfer ratio, indirect and nonspecific measures, were constructed...
April 18, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Jinhua Dong, Richi Fujita, Tamotsu Zako, Hiroshi Ueda
A quenchbody (Q-body) is an antibody-based biosensor that employs fluorescence quenching of the dye(s) attached to the antibody fragment, which are de-quenched upon antigen binding. In this study, we aimed to develop Fab type Q-bodies (UQ-bodies) to aid the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Characteristic senile plaques in AD consist of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) generated from the amyloid precursor protein. Aβ42, one of the major peptide forms, aggregates fast and manifests higher neurotoxicity. Recent studies showed that Aβ oligomers, such as Aβ-derived diffusible ligand (ADDL), are more toxic than fibrils...
April 17, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Xuanyu Li, Zhaojun Zhu, Weina Zhao, Yu Sun, Dong Wen, Yunyan Xie, Xiangyu Liu, Haijing Niu, Ying Han
Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis is a novel entropy-based analysis method for quantifying the complexity of dynamic neural signals and physiological systems across multiple temporal scales. This approach may assist in elucidating the pathophysiologic mechanisms of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using resting-state fNIRS imaging, we recorded spontaneous brain activity from 31 healthy controls (HC), 27 patients with aMCI, and 24 patients with AD. The quantitative analysis of MSE revealed that reduced brain signal complexity in AD patients in several networks, namely, the default, frontoparietal, ventral and dorsal attention networks...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Val J Lowe, Emily S Lundt, Matthew L Senjem, Christopher G Schwarz, Hoon-Ki Min, Scott A Przybelski, Kejal Kantarci, David Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition as seen on positron emission tomography (PET) using an Aβ binding agent is a critical diagnostic biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some reports suggest using white matter (WM) as a reference region for quantification of serial Aβ PET studies; however, nonspecific WM retention in Aβ PET in people with dementia or in cognitively unimpaired (CU) has been widely reported and is poorly understood. Methods: To investigate the suitability of WM as a reference region and the factors affecting WM 11 C-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) uptake variability, we conducted a retrospective study on two large data sets: 1) a longitudinal study of participants ( n = 577) who were CU, had mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or had dementia likely due to AD (ADD); and 2) a cross-sectional study of single-scan PET imaging in CU subjects ( n = 1349)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Nadra Bohli, Olivier Meilhac, Philippe Rondeau, Syrine Gueffrache, Laurence Mora, Adnane Abdelghani
In this paper we propose an easy way to detect the glycated form of human serum albumin which is biomarker for several diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer. The detection platform is a label free impedimetric immunosensor, in which we used a monoclonal human serum albumin antibody as a bioreceptor and electrochemical impedance as a transducing method. The antibody was deposited onto a gold surface by simple physisorption technique. Bovine serum albumin was used as a blocking agent for non-specific binding interactions...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Yuka Oishi, Toru Imamura, Tatsuo Shimomura, Kyoko Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging and some clinical studies have reported that the ventral visual pathway is relevant for visual texture recognition. Although a variety of visual deficits have been reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), visual material identification and texture recognition have not been thoroughly examined. OBJECTIVES: To investigate visual texture recognition in patients with AD and DLB and to clarify the relationship between visual texture recognition and various visuoperceptual functions...
March 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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