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Alzheimer imaging

L Raposo Rodríguez, D J Tovar Salazar, N Fernández García, L Pastor Hernández, Ó Fernández Guinea
OBJECTIVE: To describe and illustrate the key findings on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the most common dementias of neurodegenerative origin: Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, variants of frontotemporal dementia, progressive supranuclear palsy, variants of multiple system atrophy, Parkinson dementia, and corticobasal degeneration. CONCLUSION: Today the role of MRI is no longer limited to ruling out underlying causes of cognitive deterioration...
June 11, 2018: Radiología
Peng Cao, Xiaoli Liu, Hezi Liu, Jinzhu Yang, Dazhe Zhao, Min Huang, Osmar Zaiane
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by gradual neurodegeneration and loss of brain function, especially for memory during early stages. Regression analysis has been widely applied to AD research to relate clinical and biomarker data such as predicting cognitive outcomes from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measures. Recently, the multi-task feature learning (MTFL) methods have been widely studied to predict cognitive outcomes and select the discriminative feature subset from MRI features by incorporating inherent correlations among multiple clinical cognitive measures...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Peter Parbo, Rola Ismail, Michael Sommerauer, Morten G Stokholm, Allan K Hansen, Kim V Hansen, Ali Amidi, Jeppe L Schaldemose, Hanne Gottrup, Hans Brændgaard, Simon F Eskildsen, Per Borghammer, Rainer Hinz, Joel Aanerud, David J Brooks
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess with positron emission tomography (PET) the temporal and spatial inter-relationships between levels of cortical microglial activation and the aggregated amyloid-β and tau load in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Six clinically probable AD and 20 MCI subjects had inflammation (11 C-(R)-PK11195), amyloid (11 C-PiB) and tau (18 F-flortaucipir) PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a neuropsychological assessment...
June 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Nicholas Fimognari, Ashley Hollings, Virginie Lam, Rebecca J Tidy, Cameron M Kewish, Matthew A Albrecht, Ryu Takechi, John C L Mamo, Mark J Hackett
Western society is facing a health epidemic due to the increasing incidence of dementia in ageing populations, and there are still few effective diagnostic methods, minimal treatment options, and no cure. Ageing is the greatest risk factor for memory loss that occurs during the natural ageing process, as well as being the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, greater understanding of the biochemical pathways that drive a healthy ageing brain towards dementia (pathological ageing or Alzheimer's disease), is required to accelerate the development of improved diagnostics and therapies...
June 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Hema Santhakumar, Resmi V Nair, Divya Susan Philips, Sachin J Shenoy, Anoopkumar Thekkuveettil, Ayyappanpillai Ajayaghosh, Ramapurath S Jayasree
Zinc, the essential trace element in human body exists either in the bound or free state, for both structural and functional roles. Insights on Zn2+ distribution and its dynamics are essential in view of the fact that Zn2+ dyshomeostasis is a risk factor for epileptic seizures, Alzheimer's disease, depression, etc. Herein, a bipyridine bridged bispyrrole (BP) probe is used for ratiometric imaging and quantification of Zn2+ in hippocampal slices. The green fluorescence emission of BP shifts towards red in the presence of Zn2+ ...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Koji Kasanuki, Keith A Josephs, Tanis J Ferman, Melissa E Murray, Shunsuke Koga, Takuya Konno, Nobutaka Sakae, Adam Parks, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A Van Gerpen, Neill R Graff-Radford, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics of diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD) manifesting as corticobasal syndrome (CBS). METHODS: In 523 autopsy-confirmed cases of DLBD, we identified 11 patients diagnosed with CBS. For comparison, we studied 22 DLBD brains with antemortem presentation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Given previous studies suggesting the importance of pathology in peri-Rolandic cortices in CBS, we used digital pathology to count Lewy bodies and to quantify intracytoplasmic and neuritic α-synuclein and phospho-tau burden in the motor cortex...
June 13, 2018: Neurology
Yue Liu, Nady Braidy, Anne Poljak, Daniel Ky Chan, Perminder Sachdev
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) comprises a variety of disorders affecting small arteries and microvessels of the brain, manifesting as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and deep brain infarcts. In addition to its contribution to vascular dementia (VaD), it has also been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature available on Medline, Embase and Pubmed was undertaken, whereby CSVD was divided into WMHs, CMBs and deep brain infarcts...
June 10, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Jakob Meineke, Fabian Wenzel, Matteo de Marco, Annalena Venneri, Daniel J Blackburn, Kevin Teh, Iain D Wilkinson, Ulrich Katscher
As Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) is maturing, more clinical applications are being explored. With this comes the question whether QSM is sufficiently robust and reproducible to be directly used in a clinical setting where patients are possibly not cooperative and/or unable to suppress involuntary movements sufficiently.
 Subjects and Methods: Twenty-nine patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), 31 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and 41 healthy controls (HC) were scanned on a 3T scanner, including a multi-echo gradient-echo sequence for QSM and an inversion-prepared segmented gradient-echo sequence (T1-TFE, MPRAGE)...
June 13, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Radka Graf, Jami L Longo, Zoë A Hughes
Deficits in hippocampal-mediated pattern separation are one aspect of cognitive function affected in schizophrenia (SZ) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). To develop novel therapies, it is beneficial to explore this specific aspect of cognition preclinically. The location discrimination reversal (LDR) task is a hippocampal-dependent operant paradigm that evaluates spatial learning and cognitive flexibility using touchscreens. Here we assessed baseline performance as well as multimodal disease-relevant manipulations in mice...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Qiong Ding, Kitora Tanigawa, Jun Kaneko, Mamoru Totsuka, Yoshinori Katakura, Etsuko Imabayashi, Hiroshi Matsuda, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
In a previously reported double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT), we demonstrated that daily supplementation with anserine (750 mg) and carnosine (250 mg) improves brain blood flow and memory function in elderly people. Here, we conducted a sub-analysis of MRI data and test scores from the same RCT to determine whether anserine/carnosine supplementation specifically benefits elderly people carrying the APOE e4 allele, which is a risk gene for accelerated brain aging and for the onset of Alzheimer's Disease...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Yasser Iturria-Medina, Félix M Carbonell, Alan C Evans
Personalized Medicine (PM) seeks to assist the patients according to their specific treatment needs and potential intervention responses. However, in the neurological context, this approach is limited by crucial methodological challenges, such as the requirement for an understanding of the causal disease mechanisms and the inability to predict the brain's response to therapeutic interventions. Here, we introduce and validate the concept of the personalized Therapeutic Intervention Fingerprint (pTIF), which predicts the effectiveness of potential interventions for controlling a patient's disease evolution...
June 9, 2018: NeuroImage
Sarah Parisot, Sofia Ira Ktena, Enzo Ferrante, Matthew Lee, Ricardo Guerrero, Ben Glocker, Daniel Rueckert
Graphs are widely used as a natural framework that captures interactions between individual elements represented as nodes in a graph. In medical applications, specifically, nodes can represent individuals within a potentially large population (patients or healthy controls) accompanied by a set of features, while the graph edges incorporate associations between subjects in an intuitive manner. This representation allows to incorporate the wealth of imaging and non-imaging information as well as individual subject features simultaneously in disease classification tasks...
June 2, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Arno de Wilde, Wiesje M van der Flier, Wiesje Pelkmans, Femke Bouwman, Jurre Verwer, Colin Groot, Marieke M van Buchem, Marissa Zwan, Rik Ossenkoppele, Maqsood Yaqub, Marleen Kunneman, Ellen M A Smets, Frederik Barkhof, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Andrew Stephens, Erik van Lier, Geert Jan Biessels, Bart N van Berckel, Philip Scheltens
Importance: Previous studies have evaluated the diagnostic effect of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) in selected research cohorts. However, these research populations do not reflect daily practice, thus hampering clinical implementation of amyloid imaging. Objective: To evaluate the association of amyloid PET with changes in diagnosis, diagnostic confidence, treatment, and patients' experiences in an unselected memory clinic cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Amyloid PET using fluoride-18 florbetaben was offered to 866 patients who visited the tertiary memory clinic at the VU University Medical Center between January 2015 and December 2016 as part of their routine diagnostic dementia workup...
June 11, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Yat-Fung Shea, Warren Barker, Maria T Greig-Gusto, David A Loewenstein, Ranjan Duara, Steven T DeKosky
BACKGROUND: Patients with cognitive impairment or dementias of uncertain etiology are frequently referred to a memory disorders specialty clinic. The impact of and role for amyloid PET imaging (Aβ-PET) may be most appropriate in this clinical setting. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of Aβ-PET on etiological diagnosis and clinical management in the memory clinic setting. METHODS: A search of the literature on the impact of Aβ-PET in the memory clinic setting between 1 January 2004 and 12 February 2018 was conducted...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Senthilkumar Krishnaswamy, Qian Wu, Yan Lin, Wajitha J Rajamohamedsait, Hameetha B Rajamohamedsait, Einar M Sigurdsson
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau aggregates. Several β-sheet dyes are already in clinical use to detect amyloid-β plaques by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET), and related dye compounds are being developed for targeting pathological tau aggregates. In contrast to β-sheet binders, antibody-derived ligands should provide greater specificity for detecting tau lesions, and can be tailored to detect various pathological tau epitopes...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dov B Shamir, Yan Deng, Einar M Sigurdsson
Several tau antibody therapies are now in clinical trials and numerous other tau antibodies are in various stages of preclinical development to treat Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. This involves long-term studies in mouse models that are necessary but time consuming and typically provide only a limited mechanistic understanding of how the antibodies work and why some are not effective. Live cellular imaging with fluorescently tagged pathological tau proteins and tau antibodies provides a valuable insight into their dynamic interaction outside or within the cell...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lucía Núñez, María Calvo-Rodríguez, Erica Caballero, Mónica García-Durillo, Carlos Villalobos
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent dementia linked to aging, involves neurotoxic effects of amyloid β species and dishomeostasis of intracellular Ca2+ . To investigate mechanisms of AD, the effects of soluble species of amyloid β oligomers (Aβo) prepared in medium devoid of glutamate receptor agonists can be tested on intracellular Ca2+ in long-term cultures of rat hippocampal neurons that reflect aging neurons. Furthermore, changes in expression of proteins involved in oligomer responses and AD can be tested in the same neurons using quantitative immunofluorescence...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Christian Wachinger, Kwangsik Nho, Andrew J Saykin, Martin Reuter, Anna Rieckmann
BACKGROUND: Contralateral brain structures represent a unique, within-patient reference element for disease, and asymmetries can provide a personalized measure of the accumulation of past disease processes. Neuroanatomical shape asymmetries have recently been associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the biological basis of asymmetric brain changes in AD remains unknown. METHODS: We investigated genetic influences on brain asymmetry by identifying associations between magnetic resonance imaging-derived measures of asymmetry and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have previously been identified in genome-wide association studies for AD diagnosis and for brain subcortical volumes...
May 9, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Francis T Hane, Tao Li, Jennifer-Anne Plata, Ayman Hassan, Karl Granberg, Mitchell S Albert
Biomarkers have the potential to aid in the study of Alzheimer’s disease (AD); unfortunately, AD biomarker values often have a high degree of overlap between healthy and AD individuals. This study investigates the potential utility of a series of novel AD biomarkers, the sixty second 129 Xe retention time, and the xenon washout parameter, based on the washout of hyperpolarized 129 Xe from the brain of AD participants following inhalation. The xenon washout parameter is influenced by cerebral perfusion, T1 relaxation of xenon, and the xenon partition coefficient, all factors influenced by AD...
June 6, 2018: Diagnostics
Yinhui Li, Di Xu, Hei-Nga Chan, Chung-Yan Poon, See-Lok Ho, Hung-Wing Li, Man Shing Wong
Senile plaques, the extracellular deposit of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, are one of the neuropathological hallmarks found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. The current method of brain imaging of amyloid plaques based on positron emission tomography (PET) is expensive and invasive with low spatial resolution. Thus, the development of sensitive and nonradiative amyloid-β (Aβ)-specific contrast agents is highly important and beneficial to achieve early AD detection, monitor the disease progression, and evaluate the effectiveness of potential AD drugs...
June 7, 2018: Small
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