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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228211/asymmetry-of-post-mortem-neuropathology-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#1
David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sharon X Xie, Katya Rascovsky, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, H Branch Coslett, Roy Hamilton, Geoffrey Aguirre, Edward B Lee, Virginia M Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman
Antemortem behavioural and anatomic abnormalities have largely been associated with right hemisphere disease in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, but post-mortem neuropathological examination of bilateral hemispheres remains to be defined. Here we measured the severity of post-mortem pathology in both grey and white matter using a validated digital image analysis method in four cortical regions sampled from each hemisphere in 26 patients with behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, including those with frontotemporal degeneration (i...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228203/in-vivo-cholinergic-basal-forebrain-atrophy-predicts-cognitive-decline-in-de-novo-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Nicola J Ray, Steven Bradburn, Christopher Murgatroyd, Umar Toseeb, Pablo Mir, George K Kountouriotis, Stefan J Teipel, Michel J Grothe
Cognitive impairments are a prevalent and disabling non-motor complication of Parkinson's disease, but with variable expression and progression. The onset of serious cognitive decline occurs alongside substantial cholinergic denervation, but imprecision of previously available techniques for in vivo measurement of cholinergic degeneration limit their use as predictive cognitive biomarkers. However, recent developments in stereotactic mapping of the cholinergic basal forebrain have been found useful for predicting cognitive decline in prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228201/widespread-brain-tau-and-its-association-with-ageing-braak-stage-and-alzheimer-s-dementia
#3
Val J Lowe, Heather J Wiste, Matthew L Senjem, Stephen D Weigand, Terry M Therneau, Bradley F Boeve, Keith A Josephs, Ping Fang, Mukesh K Pandey, Melissa E Murray, Kejal Kantarci, David T Jones, Prashanthi Vemuri, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Christopher G Schwarz, Mary M Machulda, Michelle M Mielke, Rosebud O Roberts, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
Autopsy data have proposed that a topographical pattern of tauopathy occurs in the brain with the development of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. We evaluated the findings of tau-PET to better understand neurofibrillary tangle development as it is seen in cognitively unimpaired and impaired individuals. The evolution of Alzheimer's disease tauopathy in cognitively unimpaired individuals needs to be examined to better understand disease pathogenesis. Tau-PET was performed in 86 cognitively impaired individuals who all had abnormal amyloid levels and 601 cognitively unimpaired individuals...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228071/associations-between-tau-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-cognition-in-parkinson-disease
#5
Joseph R Winer, Anne Maass, Peter Pressman, Jordan Stiver, Daniel R Schonhaut, Suzanne L Baker, Joel Kramer, Gil D Rabinovici, William J Jagust
Importance: Multiple disease processes are associated with cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease (PD), including Lewy bodies, cerebrovascular disease, and Alzheimer disease. It remains unknown whether tau pathology relates to cognition in patients with PD without dementia. Objective: To compare tau aggregation in patients with PD who are cognitively normal (PD-CN), patients with PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), and healthy control participants, and evaluate the relationships between β-amyloid (Aβ), tau, and cognition in patients with PD who did not have dementia...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225556/an-optimal-transportation-based-univariate-neuroimaging-index
#6
Liang Mi, Wen Zhang, Junwei Zhang, Yonghui Fan, Dhruman Goradia, Kewei Chen, Eric M Reiman, Xianfeng Gu, Yalin Wang
The alterations of brain structures and functions have been considered closely correlated to the change of cognitive performance due to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we introduce a variational framework to compute the optimal transformation (OT) in 3D space and propose a univariate neuroimaging index based on OT to measure such alterations. We compute the OT from each image to a template and measure the Wasserstein distance between them. By comparing the distances from all the images to the common template, we obtain a concise and informative index for each image...
2017: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225193/synthesis-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-a-p2%C3%A3-7-radioligand-123i-tz6019-and-its-response-to-neuroinflammatory-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease
#7
Hongjun Jin, Junbin Han, Derek Resing, Hui Liu, Xuyi Yue, Rebecca L Miller, Kathleen M Schoch, Timothy M Miller, Joel S Perlmutter, Terrance M Egan, Zhude Tu
The purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2×7 receptor) is a promising imaging target to detect neuroinflammation. Herein, we report development of a potent iodinated labeled radiotracer for P2×7 receptor, [123I]TZ6019. The radiosynthesis of [123I]TZ6019 was accomplished by allylic-tin precursor iodination using [123I]NaI with good radiochemical yield of 85% and high radiochemical purity of > 99%. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cell line stably transfected with the human P2×7 receptor was used to characterize the binding affinity of TZ6019 in fluorescence, radioactive competitive, and saturation binding assays...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223682/neocortical-origin-and-progression-of-gray-matter-atrophy-in-nonamnestic-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Jeffrey S Phillips, Fulvio Da Re, Laynie Dratch, Sharon X Xie, David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sanjeev N Vaishnavi, Carlo Ferrarese, Edward B Lee, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, David A Wolk, Murray Grossman
Amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by early atrophy of the hippocampus and medial temporal lobes before spreading to the neocortex. In contrast, nonamnestic Alzheimer's patients have relative sparing of the hippocampus, but the pattern in which the disease spreads is unclear. We examined spreading disease in nonamnestic AD using a novel magnetic resonance imaging-based analysis adapted from pathologic staging studies, applied here to cross-sectional imaging data. We selected 240 T1-weighted scans from 129 patients with pathology confirmed by autopsy or cerebrospinal fluid, and atrophy maps were computed relative to 238 scans from 115 elderly controls...
November 21, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221491/a-phase-iii-randomized-trial-of-gantenerumab-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Susanne Ostrowitzki, Robert A Lasser, Ernest Dorflinger, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Tania Nikolcheva, Elizabeth Ashford, Sylvie Retout, Carsten Hofmann, Paul Delmar, Gregory Klein, Mirjana Andjelkovic, Bruno Dubois, Mercè Boada, Kaj Blennow, Luca Santarelli, Paulo Fontoura
BACKGROUND: Gantenerumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) and removes Aβ plaques by Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. In the SCarlet RoAD trial, we assessed the efficacy and safety of gantenerumab in prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study, we investigated gantenerumab over 2 years. Patients were randomized to gantenerumab 105 mg or 225 mg or placebo every 4 weeks by subcutaneous injection...
December 8, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220823/patterns-of-progressive-atrophy-vary-with-age-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#10
Cassidy M Fiford, Gerard R Ridgway, David M Cash, Marc Modat, Jennifer Nicholas, Emily N Manning, Ian B Malone, Geert Jan Biessels, Sebastien Ourselin, Owen T Carmichael, M Jorge Cardoso, Josephine Barnes
Age is not only the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) but also a key modifier of disease presentation and progression. Here, we investigate how longitudinal atrophy patterns vary with age in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Data comprised serial longitudinal 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 153 AD, 339 MCI, and 191 control subjects. Voxel-wise maps of longitudinal volume change were obtained and aligned across subjects. Local volume change was then modeled in terms of diagnostic group and an interaction between group and age, adjusted for total intracranial volume, white-matter hyperintensity volume, and apolipoprotein E genotype...
November 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218897/codon-bias-among-synonymous-rare-variants-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-imaging-biomarker
#11
Jason E Miller, Manu K Shivakumar, Shannon L Risacher, Andrew J Saykin, Seunggeun Lee, Kwangsik Nho, Dokyoon Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with few biomarkers even though it impacts a relatively large portion of the population and is predicted to affect significantly more individuals in the future. Neuroimaging has been used in concert with genetic information to improve our understanding in relation to how AD arises and how it can be potentially diagnosed. Additionally, evidence suggests synonymous variants can have a functional impact on gene regulatory mechanisms, including those related to AD...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218458/evaluation-of-amyloid-status-in-a-cohort-of-elderly-individuals-with-memory-complaints-validation-of-the-method-of-quantification-and-determination-of-positivity-thresholds
#12
Marie-Odile Habert, Hugo Bertin, Mickael Labit, Mamadou Diallo, Sullivan Marie, Kelly Martineau, Aurélie Kas, Valérie Causse-Lemercier, Hovagim Bakardjian, Stéphane Epelbaum, Gael Chételat, Marion Houot, Harald Hampel, Bruno Dubois, Jean-François Mangin
OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to validate the process steps implemented by the French CATI platform to assess amyloid status, obtained from 18F-Florbetapir PET scans, in a cohort of 318 cognitively normal subjects participating in the INSIGHT-preAD study. Our objective was to develop a method with partial volume effect correction (PVEC) on untransformed PET images, using an automated pipeline ("RACHEL") adapted to large series of patients and including quality checks of results. METHODS: We compared RACHEL using different options (with and without PVEC, different sets of regions of interest), to two other methods validated in the literature, referred as the "AVID" and "CAEN" methods...
December 7, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217819/association-between-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-age-overweight-and-structural-mri-patterns-in-901-subjects
#13
Johanna Hoffmann, Deborah Janowitz, Sandra Van der Auwera, Katharina Wittfeld, Matthias Nauck, Nele Friedrich, Mohamad Habes, Christos Davatzikos, Jan Terock, Martin Bahls, Annemarie Goltz, Angela Kuhla, Henry Völzke, Hans Jörgen Grabe
Serum neuron-specific enolase (sNSE) is considered a marker for neuronal damage, related to gray matter structures. Previous studies indicated its potential as marker for structural and functional damage in conditions with adverse effects to the brain like obesity and dementia. In the present study, we investigated the putative association between sNSE levels, body mass index (BMI), total gray matter volume (GMV), and magnetic resonance imaging-based indices of aging as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like patterns...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217736/generation-of-structural-mr-images-from-amyloid-pet-application-to-mr-less-quantification
#14
Hongyoon Choi, Dong Soo Lee
Structural magnetic resonance (MR) images concomitantly acquired with PET images can provide crucial anatomical information for precise quantitative analysis. However, in the clinical setting, not all the subjects have corresponding MR. Here, we developed a model to generate structural MR images from amyloid PET using deep generative networks. We applied our model to quantification of cortical amyloid load without structural MR. Methods: We used florbetapir PET and structural MR data of Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214153/alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis-discrepancy-between-clinical-neuroimaging-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-criteria-in-an-italian-cohort-of-geriatric-outpatients-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#15
Giulia A M Dolci, Sarah Damanti, Valeria Scortichini, Alessandro Galli, Paolo D Rossi, Carlo Abbate, Beatrice Arosio, Daniela Mari, Andrea Arighi, Giorgio G Fumagalli, Elio Scarpini, Silvia Inglese, Maura Marcucci
Background: The role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, and neuroimaging in the diagnostic process of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is not clear, in particular in the older patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical diagnosis of AD with CSF biomarkers and with cerebrovascular damage at neuroimaging in a cohort of geriatric patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of ≥65-year-old patients with cognitive impairment referred to an Italian geriatric outpatient clinic, for whom the CSF concentration of amyloid-β (Aβ), total Tau (Tau), and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) was available...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213499/an-interdisciplinary-approach-aiding-the-diagnosis-of-primary-progressive-aphasia-a-case-report
#16
Nadia Shigaeff, Mayra Zanetti, Sibelle de Almeida Tierno, Ana Beatriz Galhardi Di Tommaso, Thais Cristina Marques, Fábio Gazelato de Mello Franco
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is one of the most common causes of early-onset dementia with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) being the second-most-frequent form of this degenerative disease. Despite the similarity with progressive dementia (especially in early stages of Alzheimer´s disease), three types of PPA can be differentiated: semantic, agrammatic and logopenic (subtype discussed in this study). To date, no medications have been shown to improve or stabilize cognitive deficits in patients with PPA. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with difficulty naming objects and planning...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#17
REVIEW
Yoshika Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209391/korean-brain-aging-study-for-the-early-diagnosis-and-prediction-of-alzheimer-s-disease-methodology-and-baseline-sample-characteristics
#18
Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Young Min Choe, Bo Kyung Sohn, Jun-Young Lee, Hyo Jung Choi, Hyewon Baek, Yu Kyeong Kim, Yun-Sang Lee, Chul-Ho Sohn, Inhee Mook-Jung, Murim Choi, Yu Jin Lee, Dong Woo Lee, Seung-Ho Ryu, Shin Gyeom Kim, Jee Wook Kim, Jong Inn Woo, Dong Young Lee
Objective: The Korean Brain Aging Study for the Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer's disease (KBASE) aimed to recruit 650 individuals, aged from 20 to 90 years, to search for new biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to investigate how multi-faceted lifetime experiences and bodily changes contribute to the brain changes or brain pathologies related to the AD process. Methods: All participants received comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluations, multi-modal brain imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, [11C]Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography (PET), and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, blood and genetic marker analyses at baseline, and a subset of participants underwent actigraph monitoring and completed a sleep diary...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209199/decreased-complexity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-resting-state-fmri-evidence-of-brain-entropy-mapping
#19
Bin Wang, Yan Niu, Liwen Miao, Rui Cao, Pengfei Yan, Hao Guo, Dandan Li, Yuxiang Guo, Tianyi Yan, Jinglong Wu, Jie Xiang, Hui Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a frequently observed, irreversible brain function disorder among elderly individuals. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been introduced as an alternative approach to assessing brain functional abnormalities in AD patients. However, alterations in the brain rs-fMRI signal complexities in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients remain unclear. Here, we described the novel application of permutation entropy (PE) to investigate the abnormal complexity of rs-fMRI signals in MCI and AD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209156/machine-learning-classification-combining-multiple-features-of-a-hyper-network-of-fmri-data-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Hao Guo, Fan Zhang, Junjie Chen, Yong Xu, Jie Xiang
Exploring functional interactions among various brain regions is helpful for understanding the pathological underpinnings of neurological disorders. Brain networks provide an important representation of those functional interactions, and thus are widely applied in the diagnosis and classification of neurodegenerative diseases. Many mental disorders involve a sharp decline in cognitive ability as a major symptom, which can be caused by abnormal connectivity patterns among several brain regions. However, conventional functional connectivity networks are usually constructed based on pairwise correlations among different brain regions...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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