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Alzheimer imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731438/evidence-that-the-human-innate-immune-peptide-ll-37-may-be-a-binding-partner-of%C3%A2-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-inhibitor-of%C3%A2-fibril-assembly
#1
Ersilia De Lorenzi, Marcella Chiari, Raffaella Colombo, Marina Cretich, Laura Sola, Renzo Vanna, Paola Gagni, Federica Bisceglia, Carlo Morasso, Jennifer S Lin, Moonhee Lee, Patrick L McGeer, Annelise E Barron
BACKGROUND: Identifying physiologically relevant binding partners of amyloid-β (Aβ) that modulate in vivo fibril formation may yield new insights into Alzheimer's disease (AD) etiology. Human cathelicidin peptide, LL-37, is an innate immune effector and modulator, ubiquitous in human tissues and expressed in myriad cell types. OBJECTIVE: We present in vitro experimental evidence and discuss findings supporting a novel hypothesis that LL-37 binds to Aβ42 and can modulate Aβ fibril formation...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731435/identification-of-circulating-mir-125b-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mouse
#2
Honghai Hong, Yang Li, Baochang Su
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by progressive decline in cognitive abilities of the affected individuals. Biological markers are essential to identify individuals at early stages of the disease for timely therapeutic intervention. Currently, pathological biomarkers are detected either through cerebrospinal fluid analysis or brain imaging, or postmortem, all of which are expensive, invasive, or time consuming. Recently, some studies have shown that circulating miR-125b, miR-181c, miR-9, miR-191-5p, miR-26b-3p, and miR-28-3p may be biomarkers of AD...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731432/multivariate-approach-for-alzheimer-s-disease-detection-using-stationary-wavelet-entropy-and-predator-prey-particle-swarm-optimization
#3
Yudong Zhang, Shuihua Wang, Yuxiu Sui, Ming Yang, Bin Liu, Hong Cheng, Junding Sun, Wenjuan Jia, Preetha Phillips, Juan Manuel Gorriz
BACKGROUND: The number of patients with Alzheimer's disease is increasing rapidly every year. Scholars often use computer vision and machine learning methods to develop an automatic diagnosis system. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we developed a novel machine learning system that can make diagnoses automatically from brain magnetic resonance images. METHODS: First, the brain imaging was processed, including skull stripping and spatial normalization...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731430/neuroimaging-feature-terminology-a-controlled-terminology-for-the-annotation-of-brain-imaging-features
#4
Anandhi Iyappan, Erfan Younesi, Alberto Redolfi, Henri Vrooman, Shashank Khanna, Giovanni B Frisoni, Martin Hofmann-Apitius
Ontologies and terminologies are used for interoperability of knowledge and data in a standard manner among interdisciplinary research groups. Existing imaging ontologies capture general aspects of the imaging domain as a whole such as methodological concepts or calibrations of imaging instruments. However, none of the existing ontologies covers the diagnostic features measured by imaging technologies in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the Neuro-Imaging Feature Terminology (NIFT) was developed to organize the knowledge domain of measured brain features in association with neurodegenerative diseases by imaging technologies...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730955/itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-of-appsw-ind-mice-provides-insights-into-the-early-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Nan Li, Pinghong Hu, Tiantian Xu, Huan Chen, Xiaoying Chen, Jianwen Hu, Xifei Yang, Lei Shi, Jian-Hong Luo, Junyu Xu
BACKGROUND: Several proteins have been identified as potential diagnostic biomarkers in imaging, genetic, or proteomic studies in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and mouse models. However, biomarkers for presymptom diagnosis of AD are still under investigation, as are the presymptom molecular changes in AD pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to analyzed the early proteomic changes in APPSw,Ind mice and to conduct further functional studies on interesting proteins...
July 19, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729665/identification-of-proteins-that-specifically-recognize-and-bind-protofibrillar-aggregates-of-amyloid-%C3%AE
#6
Elisabet Wahlberg, M Mahafuzur Rahman, Hanna Lindberg, Elin Gunneriusson, Benjamin Schmuck, Christofer Lendel, Mats Sandgren, John Löfblom, Stefan Ståhl, Torleif Härd
Protofibrils of the 42 amino acids long amyloid-β peptide are transient pre-fibrillar intermediates in the process of peptide aggregation into amyloid plaques and are thought to play a critical role in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Hence, there is a need for research reagents and potential diagnostic reagents for detection and imaging of such aggregates. Here we describe an in vitro selection of Affibody molecules that bind to protofibrils of Aβ42cc, which is a stable engineered mimic of wild type Aβ42 protofibrils...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729192/butyrylcholinesterase-knockout-reduces-fibrillar-%C3%AE-amyloid-and-conserves-18-fdg-retention-in-5xfad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
D R DeBay, G A Reid, I R Macdonald, G Mawko, S Burrell, E Martin, C V Bowen, S Darvesh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder causing dementia. One hallmark of the AD brain is the deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques. AD is also a state of cholinergic dysfunction and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) associates with Aβ pathology. A transgenic mouse (5XFAD) is an aggressive amyloidosis model, producing Aβ plaques of which BChE also associates. A derived strain (5XFAD/BChE-KO), with the BChE gene knocked out, has significantly lower fibrillar Aβ than 5XFAD mice at the same age...
July 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729061/biomarkers-for-alzheimer-disease-classical-and-novel-candidates-review
#8
REVIEW
Nadia El Kadmiri, Nadia Said, Ilham Slassi, Bouchra El Moutawakil, Sellama Nadifi
The biomarkers may be useful for predictive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current challenge is to diagnose it in its preclinical phase. The combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and imaging has been investigated extensively for a number of years. It can provide an increased diagnostic accuracy. This review discusses the contribution of classical biomarkers to predict AD and highlightsnovel candidates identified as potential markers for AD. We referred to the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and Web of Science to search for articles that were published until February 2016...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729016/learning-based-structurally-guided-construction-of-resting-state-functional-correlation-tensors
#9
Lichi Zhang, Han Zhang, Xiaobo Chen, Qian Wang, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures changes in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals to detect brain activities. It has been recently reported that the spatial correlation patterns of resting-state BOLD signals in the white matter (WM) also give WM information often measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). These correlation patterns can be captured using functional correlation tensor (FCT), which is analogous to the diffusion tensor (DT) obtained from DTI. In this paper, we propose a noise-robust FCT method aiming at further improving its quality, and making it eligible for further neuroscience study...
July 17, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722437/surface-plasmon-resonance-clinical-biosensors-for-medical-diagnostics
#10
Jean-Francois Masson
The design and application of sensors for monitoring biomolecules in clinical samples is a common goal of the sensing research community. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and other plasmonic techniques such as localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and imaging SPR are reaching a maturity level sufficient for their application in monitoring biomolecules in clinical samples. In recent years, the first examples for monitoring antibodies, proteins, enzymes, drugs, small molecules, peptides, and nucleic acids in biofluids collected from patients afflicted with a series of medical conditions (Alzheimer's, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, and cancers such as prostate and breast cancers, among others) demonstrate the progress of SPR sensing in clinical chemistry...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721741/the-relevance-of-hippocampal-subfield-integrity-and-clock-drawing-test-performance-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Dusan Hirjak, Fabio Sambataro, Barbara Remmele, Katharina M Kubera, Johannes Schröder, Ulrich Seidl, Anne K Thomann, Klaus H Maier-Hein, Robert C Wolf, Philipp A Thomann
OBJECTIVES: The clock drawing test (CDT) is one of the worldwide most used screening tests for Alzheimer's disease (AD). MRI studies have identified temporo-parietal regions being involved in CDT impairment. However, the contributions of the hippocampal formation to CDT performance in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have not been investigated so far. It is unclear whether morphological alterations or CDT score, or a combination of both, are able to predict AD. METHODS: 38 AD patients, 38 MCI individuals and 31 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and MRI at 3 Tesla...
July 19, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721302/correlation-between-two-methods-of-florbetapir-pet-quantitative-analysis
#12
Christopher Breault, Jonathan Piper, Abhinay D Joshi, Sara D Pirozzi, Aaron S Nelson, Ming Lu, Michael J Pontecorvo, Mark A Mintun, Michael D Devous
This study evaluated performance of a commercially available standardized software program for calculation of florbetapir PET standard uptake value ratios (SUVr) in comparison with an established research method. Florbetapir PET images for 183 subjects clinically diagnosed as cognitively normal (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (45 AD, 60 MCI, and 78 CN) were evaluated using two software processing algorithms. The research method uses a single florbetapir PET template generated by averaging both amyloid positive and amyloid negative registered brains together...
2017: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721032/-11-c-pib-pet-imaging-reveals-that-amyloid-deposition-in-cases-with-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-absence-of-known-mutations-retains-higher-levels-of-pib-in-the-basal-ganglia
#13
Young Chul Youn, Jae-Won Jang, Su-Hyun Han, HyeRyoun Kim, Ju-Won Seok, Jun Soo Byun, Kwang-Yeol Park, Seong Soo A An, In Kook Chun, SangYun Kim
PURPOSE: Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) has a different pathologic burden and clinical features compared with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). We examined the effects of age at onset on the burden and distribution of β-amyloid in patients with EOAD, in whom well-characterized mutations associated with Alzheimer's disease were absent. METHODS: We genotyped ApoE, APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2 in the patients with Alzheimer's disease: 9 patients with EOAD (age <65), 11 with LOAD (age >70) and 8 normal controls (NCs), all of whom had undergone (11)C-labeled Pittsburgh compound B-positron emission tomography imaging...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719854/clinically-silent-alzheimer-s-and-vascular-pathologies-influence-brain-networks-supporting-executive-function-in-healthy-older-adults
#14
Brian T Gold, Christopher A Brown, Jonathan G Hakun, Leslie M Shaw, John Q Trojanowski, Charles D Smith
Aging is associated with declines in executive function. We examined how executive functional brain systems are influenced by clinically silent Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology and cerebral white-matter hyperintensities (WMHs). Twenty-nine younger adults and 34 cognitively normal older adults completed a working memory paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Older adults further underwent lumbar cerebrospinal fluid draw for the assessment of AD pathology and FLAIR imaging for the assessment of WMHs...
June 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718623/a-multimodal-spectroscopic-imaging-method-to-characterize-the-metal-and-macromolecular-content-of-proteinaceous-aggregates-amyloid-plaques
#15
Kelly L Summers, Nicholas Fimognari, Ashley Hollings, Mitchell Kiernan, Virginie Lam, Rebecca J Tidy, David Paterson, Mark J Tobin, Ryu Takechi, Graham N George, Ingrid J Pickering, John C Mamo, Hugh H Harris, Mark J Hackett
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major international health and economic concern. A key pathological feature of AD is so-called "amyloid-β-plaques", or "Aβ-plaques", which are deposits of aggregated protein, enriched with the Aβ fragment of amyloid precursor protein. Despite their name, the deposits are not pure Aβ and have a heterogeneous, chemically complex composition that can include multiple proteins, lipids, and metal ions (Fe, Cu, or Zn). Despite extensive research, it is still uncertain whether Aβ-plaques are a cause or a consequence of AD pathology...
July 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716886/clinical-neurology-and-epidemiology-of-the-major-neurodegenerative-diseases
#16
Michael G Erkkinen, Mee-Ohk Kim, Michael D Geschwind
Neurodegenerative diseases are a common cause of morbidity and cognitive impairment in older adults. Most clinicians who care for the elderly are not trained to diagnose these conditions, perhaps other than typical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Each of these disorders has varied epidemiology, clinical symptomatology, laboratory and neuroimaging features, neuropathology, and management. Thus, it is important that clinicians be able to differentiate and diagnose these conditions accurately. This review summarizes and highlights clinical aspects of several of the most commonly encountered neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and its variants, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and Huntington's disease (HD)...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715453/effects-of-glucose-insulin-and-insulin-resistance-on-cerebral-18f-fdg-distribution-in-cognitively-normal-older-subjects
#17
Kenji Ishibashi, Airin Onishi, Yoshinori Fujiwara, Kiichi Ishiwata, Kenji Ishii
BACKGROUND: Increasing plasma glucose levels and insulin resistance can alter the distribution pattern of fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the brain and relatively reduce 18F-FDG uptake in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related hypometabolic regions, leading to the appearance of an AD-like pattern. However, its relationship with plasma insulin levels is unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of plasma glucose levels, plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance on the appearance of the AD-like pattern in 18F-FDG images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714354/is-cerebral-microbleed-prevalence-relevant-as-a-biomarker-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-mild-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Ana Gb Rabelo, Camila Vl Teixeira, Thamires Nc Magalhães, Ana Flávia Mk Carletti-Cassani, Augusto Cs Amato Filho, Helena Pg Joaquim, Leda L Talib, Orestes Forlenza, Patrícia Ao Ribeiro, Rodrigo Secolin, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Fernando Cendes, Marcio Lf Balthazar
Introduction The search for a reliable neuroimaging biomarker in Alzheimer's disease is a matter of intense research. The presence of cerebral microbleeds seems to be a potential biomarker. However, it is not clear if the presence of microbleeds has clinical usefulness to differentiate mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal aging. We aimed to verify if microbleed prevalence differs among three groups: mild Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease, and normal controls...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713690/three-dimensional-stereotactic-surface-projection-in-the-statistical-analysis-of-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-data-for-distinguishing-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-depression
#19
Eiji Kirino
AIM: To evaluate usefulness of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) in distinguishing between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and depression. METHODS: We studied 43 patients who presented with both depressive symptoms and memory disturbance. Each subject was evaluated using the following: (1) the Minimal Mental State Examination; (2) the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; (3) Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S); and (4) SPECT imaging with 3D-SSP...
June 22, 2017: World Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713239/increased-white-matter-inflammation-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#20
Divya Raj, Zhuoran Yin, Marjolein Breur, Janine Doorduin, Inge R Holtman, Marta Olah, Ietje J Mantingh-Otter, Debby Van Dam, Peter P De Deyn, Wilfred den Dunnen, Bart J L Eggen, Sandra Amor, Erik Boddeke
Chronic neuroinflammation, which is primarily mediated by microglia, plays an essential role in aging and neurodegeneration. It is still unclear whether this microglia-induced neuroinflammation occurs globally or is confined to distinct brain regions. In this study, we investigated microglia activity in various brain regions upon healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology in both human and mouse samples. In purified microglia isolated from aging mouse brains, we found a profound gene expression pattern related to pro-inflammatory processes, phagocytosis, and lipid homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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