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Hideaki Nakajima
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are not only a valuable resource for regenerative medicine, but also a promising tool for disease modeling and drug discovery. Patient-specific iPSCs harboring disease-specific mutations are extremely useful for investigating disease mechanisms and novel treatment approaches. In the field of hematology, attempts to establish iPSCs from tumor cells such as those of leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were largely unsuccessful because proper reprogramming processes were hampered by their extensive genetic alterations...
August 2016: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Xiaoyu Liu, Ning Quan
The bone marrow is the site of hematopoesis and contains mixed population of blood cells including erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and hematopoietic stem cells. The following protocol provides a simple and fast method for isolation of bone marrow immune cells (no erythrocytes) from mouse femurs with a yield of approximate 8 × 10(7) cells in 5 ml culture media (1.6 × 10(4) cells/μl). Further isolation or flow cytometric analysis might be required for study of specific immune cell types...
October 20, 2015: Bio-protocol
Joerg U Schmohl, Christiane Groh, Christoph Faul, Wichard Vogel, Robert Möhle, Stefan Wirths, Dominik Schneidawind, Lothar Kanz, Wolfgang A Bethge
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a rare disease responsible for an increasing ineffective hematopoesis by a progressive fibrosing process in the bone marrow. The only curative treatment option is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this single-center analysis, we evaluated retrospectively 54 consecutive patients suffering from primary or secondary MF which underwent HCT from 1997 to 2014 after either myeloablative (MAC, n = 19) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC, n = 35). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after 3 years was 54/53 % for RIC versus 63/58 % for MAC (p = 0...
May 2016: Annals of Hematology
J Małaczewska
During the last few decades, owing to their unique properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have found numerous biomedical applications. Studies on rodents prove that AuNPs entering an organism easily reach the bloodstream and undergo wide tissue distribution. The presence of nanoparticles inside blood and bone marrow cells of exposed animals may implicate its influence on hematopoesis and the functions of peripheral blood leukocytes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral administration of commercial gold nanocolloid, recommended by the producer as a dietary supplement, on the percentage of lymphocyte populations and proliferative response, as well as the activity of phagocytes in the peripheral blood of mice...
2015: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Loïc Peter, Diana Mateus, Pierre Chatelain, Noemi Schworm, Stefan Stangl, Gabriele Multhoff, Nassir Navab
The large size of histological images combined with their very challenging appearance are two main difficulties which considerably complicate their analysis. In this paper, we introduce an interactive strategy leveraging the output of a supervised random forest classifier to guide a user through such large visual data. Starting from a forest-based pixelwise estimate, subregions of the images at hand are automatically ranked and sequentially displayed according to their expected interest. After each region suggestion, the user selects among several options a rough estimate of the true amount of foreground pixels in this region...
2014: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
Anton V Gorbachev, Robert L Fairchild
Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines critical for homeostatic and inflammation-induced trafficking of leukocytes during immune responses, hematopoesis, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Despite three decades of intensive study of the chemokine network, the molecular mechanisms regulating chemokine expression during tumor growth are not well understood. In this review, we focus on the role of chemokines in both tumor growth and anti-tumor immune responses and on molecular mechanisms employed by tumor cells to regulate chemokine expression in the tumor microenvironment...
2014: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Ivan Marković, Ana Gudelj-Gracanin, Melanie-Ivana Culo, Tajana Stoos-Veić, Ninoslava Vicković, Bosko Desnica, Jadranka Morović-Vergles
Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a systemic infectious vector-borne disease caused by protozoa Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum that are transmitted to mammalian hosts by sand flies. It occurrs sporadically in endemic areas, including Mediterranean basin. Southern coastal territories of Croatia have been recognized as the foci of the disease. Dogs are the main reservoir of human infection. Clinical features include prolonged fever, malaise, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia and inversion of albumin-globulin ratio...
January 2014: Lijec̆nic̆ki Vjesnik
Rafal M Kaminski, Michael A Rogawski, Henrik Klitgaard
A major goal of contemporary epilepsy research is the identification of therapies to prevent the development of recurrent seizures in individuals at risk, including those with brain injuries, infections, or neoplasms; status epilepticus; cortical dysplasias; or genetic epilepsy susceptibility. In this review we consider the evidence largely from preclinical models for the antiepileptogenic activity of a diverse range of potential therapies, including some marketed antiseizure drugs, as well as agents that act by immune and inflammatory mechanisms; reduction of oxidative stress; activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ pathways; effects on factors related to thrombolysis, hematopoesis, and angiogenesis; inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reducatase; brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling; and blockade of α2 adrenergic and cannabinoid receptors...
April 2014: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Behrooz Farhadi, Mahmoud Shekari Khaniani, Sima Mansoori Derakhshan
PURPOSE: Various cytokine regulates hematopoesis; they promote number of stages in stem cells biology such as proliferation, differentiation and endurance. Biological effects of SCF, as a hematopoietic cytokine; is triggered by binding to its ligand c-kit. Potential therapeutic applications of SCF include hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, exvivo stem/progenitor cell expansion, gene therapy, and immunotherapy. In this study we tried to construct of pPIC9 recombinant vector containing human SCF...
2013: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Dawn Sijin Nin, Azhar Bin Ali, Koichi Okumura, Norio Asou, Chien-Shing Chen, Wee Joo Chng, Matiullah Khan
The nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) is a key component of the generic co-repressor complex that plays an important role in the control of cellular growth and differentiation. As shown by us recently, the growth suppressive function of N-CoR largely relies on its capacity to repress Flt3, a key regulator of cellular gorwth during normal and malignant hematopoesis. We further demonstrated how de-repression of Flt3 due to the misfolded conformation dependent loss (MCDL) of N-CoR contributed to malignant growth in acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
2013: PloS One
John Samuel Banerji, Ramani Manoj Kumar, Antony Devasia
Extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) is common in the spleen, liver and lymph nodes, or in para osseus sites. EMH in the adrenal is rare, with fewer than 10 cases reported. We report the case of a 40-year-old male who underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy for an incidentally detected adrenal mass. The histology showed extramedullary hematopoesis. In patients with a known history of haemolytic anaemia, an enlarged adrenal gland in an asymptomatic individual could represent extramedullary haematopoesis. A confirmatory biopsy would be all that is necessary to avoid adrenalectomy...
May 2013: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Roby Joehanes, Saixia Ying, Tianxiao Huan, Andrew D Johnson, Nalini Raghavachari, Richard Wang, Poching Liu, Kimberly A Woodhouse, Shurjo K Sen, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Paul Courchesne, Jane E Freedman, Christopher J O'Donnell, Daniel Levy, Peter J Munson
OBJECTIVE: To identify transcriptomic biomarkers of coronary heart disease (CHD) in 188 cases with CHD and 188 age- and sex-matched controls who were participants in the Framingham Heart Study. APPROACH AND RESULTS: A total of 35 genes were differentially expressed in cases with CHD versus controls at false discovery rate<0.5, including GZMB, TMEM56, and GUK1. Cluster analysis revealed 3 gene clusters associated with CHD, 2 linked to increased erythrocyte production and a third to reduced natural killer and T cell activity in cases with CHD...
June 2013: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Žiga Jakopin
Despite the great efforts put into their development, the list of clinically approved immunological adjuvants is still very short. Evolution of the knowledge of the immune system has enabled for rational design of novel adjuvants and has led to the conclusion that more than one type of adjuvant will be required. Derivatives of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal immunomodulatory structure of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, have gained considerable attention in the past decades, because of their potent adjuvant effects...
2013: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Yordanka Gluhcheva, Juliana Ivanova, Sonja Ganeva, Mariana Mitewa
This study investigated the effects of cadmium (Cd) and monensin on spleen function in mice, subjected to subacute Cd-intoxication. Adult male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 6 per group) as follows: control group (received distilled water and food ad libitum); Cd-treated (20 mg/kg/b.w./day Cd(II) acetate for the first 2 weeks of the experimental protocol); monensin-treated mice (20 mg/kg/day Cd(II) acetate for the first 2 weeks followed by treatment with 16 mg/kg b.w./day monensin from days 15 to 28...
2013: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Catharine H Duman, Samuel S Newton
The cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) is an important regulator of hematopoesis and has well-known tissue protective properties. Neurotrophic action is implicated as mechanistically important in the treatment of depression, and neurotrophic actions of EPO suggest potential therapeutic utility of an EPO-like mechanism in depressive disorder. Rodent behavioral models that are responsive to clinically used antidepressants as well as to neurotrophic compounds can be used to assess potential antidepressant properties of EPO and EPO-like compounds...
2013: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lindsay M Williams, Todd M Skeen
CASE DESCRIPTION: An 11-year-old spayed female Siberian Husky was evaluated because of a 2-week history of progressive paraparesis. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Results of neurologic examination were consistent with a T3-L3 myelopathy. There were no abnormalities on CBC, and hypercalcemia was noted on serum biochemical analysis. Several hypoechoic splenic nodules were evident on abdominal ultrasonography, and results of fine-needle aspiration cytology were consistent with splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH)...
March 15, 2013: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Michael Sklar, Carmen Rotaru, David Grynspan, Matthew Bromwich
Sickle cell disease is a common hematologic disorder with some uncommon clinical manifestations. While there are an abundance of described disease manifestations of the head and neck, extramedullary hematopoesis within the paranasal sinuses is exceedingly rare. Here, we present a case of a young boy with known sickle cell disease who presented to hospital with headaches of new onset. Imaging demonstrated an expansile mass lesion occupying the sphenoid sinus and on biopsy was found to be active hematopoetic bone marrow...
February 2013: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Christiane Dobbelstein, Arnold Ganser
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by bone marrow failure, marrow dysplasia, and a tendency to evolve to acute leukemia. Pathophysiologically, low risk MDS are separated from the high risk category by an increased rate of apoptosis of the bone marrow cells which causes the morphological paradoxon of a peripheral cytopenia and hypercellular bone marrow known as ineffective hematopoesis. Laboratory findings and clinical evidence suggest that some patients with myelodysplastic syndrome have immunologically mediated disease...
2012: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Masayoshi Ishida, Omar El-Mounayri, Steven Kattman, Peter Zandstra, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Minetaro Ogawa, Gordon Keller, Mansoor Husain
RATIONALE: c-myb null (knockout) embryonic stem cells (ESC) can differentiate into cardiomyocytes but not contractile smooth muscle cells (SMC) in embryoid bodies (EB). OBJECTIVE: To define the role of c-Myb in SMC differentiation from ESC. METHODS AND RESULTS: In wild-type (WT) EB, high c-Myb levels on days 0-2 of differentiation undergo ubiquitin-mediated proteosomal degradation on days 2.5-3, resurging on days 4-6, without changing c-myb mRNA levels...
January 20, 2012: Circulation Research
U Korsten-Reck, J Seufert, H-H Dickhuth, Y O Schumacher, D König
We report the case of a highly trained endurance athlete (22-year-old) who developed anemia (Hb 9.5 mg/dl) over a period of 6 months. Iron deficient or haemolytic anemia, as well as chronic loss of blood, were excluded. Further, laboratory analyses revealed that this athlete exhibited very low levels of testosterone due to a partial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Following testosterone supplementation, red blood cell indices improved. Although hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is well known to be associated with reduced hematopoesis, it rarely causes anemia in athletes...
February 2012: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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