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Haiyan Luan, Peng Wu, Mingxiao Wang, Hongyu Sui, Lili Fan, Ruimin Gu
Adenosine is a molecule produced by several organs within the body, including the kidneys, where it acts as an autoregulatory factor. It mediates ion transport in several nephron segments, including the proximal tubule and the thick ascending limb (TAL). Ion transport is dictated in part by anionic chloride channels, which regulate crucial kidney functions, including the reabsorption of Na+ and Cl‑, urine concentration, and establishing and maintaining the corticomedullary osmotic gradient. The present study investigated the effects of adenosine on the mRNA expression of chloride voltage‑gated channel Kb (CLCNKB), a candidate gene involved in hypertension, which encodes for the ClC‑Kb channel...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Renaud Snanoudj, Marc-Olivier Timsit, Marion Rabant, Claire Tinel, Hélène Lazareth, Lionel Lamhaut, Frank Martinez, Christophe Legendre
Use of expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys, which are associated with a reduced graft survival rate, has become widely adopted in elderly recipients in an old-to-old allocation system. However, the results are frequently unsatisfactory, and a high proportion of these ECD kidneys are discarded. Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) is an underutilized way to expand the pool of ECD kidneys and to rapidly transplant elderly patients with satisfactory results because of the transplantation of double the nephronic mass...
September 29, 2016: Transplantation
Selahattin Çaliskan, Emrah Özsoy, Selçuk Kaba, Orhan Koca, Metin Isak Öztürk
INTRODUCTION: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a chronic destructive granulomatous inflammation of the kidney. This pathology was firstly described in 1916 and a small number of patient series were reported in the literature. In this study, we aimed to report the patients with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in our nephrectomy cases. METHODS: The patients who underwent nephrectomy and were diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in our hospital database were reviewed retrospectively...
October 2016: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Shunsuke Tanigawa, Ryuichi Nishinakamura
With recent success in directed differentiation of nephron progenitors from mouse embryonic stem cells or human-induced pluripotent stem cells, the ability to expand these nephron progenitors is an important step toward regenerative medicine in nephrology. A recent publication reports the first successful attempt to propagate human nephron progenitors while retaining their potential to form both glomeruli and renal tubules.
November 2016: Kidney International
Michelle H T Ta, Kristina G Schwensen, Sheryl Foster, Mayuresh Korgaonkar, Justyna E Ozimek-Kulik, Jacqueline K Phillips, Anthony Peduto, Gopala K Rangan
The disease-modifying effects of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) inhibitors during different stages of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are not well defined. In this study, male Lewis Polycystic Kidney Disease (LPK) rats (a genetic ortholog of human NPHP9, phenotypically characterised by diffuse distal nephron cystic growth) and Lewis controls received either vehicle (V) or sirolimus (S, 0.2 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection 5 days per week) during the early (postnatal weeks 3 to 10) or late stages of disease (weeks 10 to 20)...
2016: PloS One
Roberto Iglesias Lopes, Jessica Ming, Martin A Koyle, Ronald Grant, Adriana Fonseca, Armando J Lorenzo
OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience and technique of zero-ischemia laparoscopic-assisted partial nephrectomy at The Hospital for Sick Children, as an alternative to the traditional open approach for nephron sparing surgery in selected children with Wilms' tumors (WT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with diagnosis of WT treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and who underwent laparoscopic-assisted nephron-sparing surgery at the Hospital for Sick Children from 2012-2016 were identified and charts reviewed retrospectively...
October 6, 2016: Urology
Keisuke Sugimoto, Tomoki Miyazawa, Hitomi Nishi, Kohei Miyazaki, Takuji Enya, Mitsuru Okada, Tsukasa Takemura
BACKGROUND: Several shared common gene networks participate in development of interstinal ganglia and also nephron formation; the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor/Ret/glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor gene network is particularly important. CASE PRESENTATION: We encountered a patient with total colonic aganglionosis as well as right renal agenesis and oligomeganephronia. Gene analysis in this patient disclosed a heterozygous p.S811F mutation was in Ret gene exon 14, resulting in a substitution of phenylalanine for serine...
October 7, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Anita T Layton, Kamel Laghmani, Volker Vallon, Aurélie Edwards
Sodium and its associated anions are the major determinant of extracellular fluid volume, and renal Na+ reabsorption plays a crucial role in long-term blood pressure control. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which inhibitors of transepithelial Na$^+$ transport (T$_{\rm Na}$) along the nephron alter urinary solute excretion and T$_{\rm Na}$ efficiency, and how those effects may vary along different nephron segments. We used the multi-nephron model developed in the companion study [28], which represents detailed transcellular and paracellular transport processes along the nephrons of a rat kidney...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Anita T Layton, Volker Vallon, Aurélie Edwards
The goal of this study was to investigate water and solute transport, with a focus on sodium transport (T$_{\rm Na}$) and metabolism along individual nephron segments under differing physiological and pathophysiological conditions. To accomplish this goal, we developed a computational model of solute transport and oxygen consumption (Q$_{\rm O2}$) along different nephron populations of a rat kidney. The model represents detailed epithelial and paracellular transport processes along both the superficial and juxtamedullary nephrons, with the loop of Henle of each model nephron extending to differing depths of the inner medulla...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Robyn F R Letts, Xiao-Yue Zhai, Charita Bhikha, Birgitte L Grann, Nicklas B Blom, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, David M Rubin, Erik Christensen, Arne Andreasen
The aim was to quantify the glomerular capillary surface area, the segmental tubular radius, length, and area of single nephrons in mouse and rat kidneys. Multiple 2.5-µm-thick serial Epon sections were obtained from three mouse and three rat kidneys for three-dimensional reconstruction of the nephron tubules. Micrographs were aligned for each kidney, and 359 nephrons were traced and their segments localized. 30 mouse and 30 rat nephrons were selected for further investigation. The luminal radius of each segment was determined by two methods...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Jeffery M Venner, Konrad S Famulski, Jeff Reeve, Jessica Chang, Philip F Halloran
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant biopsies offer an opportunity to understand the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. We studied the relationships between the time of biopsy after transplant (TxBx), histologic fibrosis, diseases, and transcript expression. METHODS: Expression microarrays from 681 kidney transplant indication biopsies taken either early (n = 282, <1 year) or late (n = 399, >1 year) after transplant were used to analyze the molecular landscape of fibrosis in relationship to histologic fibrosis and diseases...
January 21, 2016: JCI Insight
Annette Fenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Nature Reviews. Urology
Amie J Dirks-Naylor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Advances in Physiology Education
Natalija Filipovic, Katarina Vukojevic, Ivana Bocina, Marijan Saraga, Merica Glavina Durdov, Boris Kablar, Mirna Saraga-Babic
Differentiation of human podocytes starts with mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) of the metanephric mesenchyme into the S-shaped nephrons. During further development, differentiating podocytes regain mesenchyme-like cell characteristics by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to formation of the terminally differentiated, non-dividing cell. Both MET and EMT processes involve changes in content and organization of cytoskeletal and actin filaments, accompanied by the increased glomerular vascularization...
October 1, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Pierre Bigot, Jean-Christophe Bernhard, Vincent Flamand, Inderbir Gill, Grégory Verhoest, Jean Baptiste Beauval, François Xavier Nouhaud, Evren Suer, Guillaume Ploussard, Jean François Hetet, Jérôme Rigaud, Eduard Baco, Stéphane Larré, Philippe Sebe, Nicolas Koutlidis, Aurélien Descazeaud, Masatoshi Eto, Arnaud Doerfler, Morgan Roupret, Nam Son Vuong, Boris Reix, Toru Matsugasumi, Adnan El Bakri, Laurence Albiges, Michel Soulié, Jean-Jacques Patard, Arnaud Méjean, Karim Bensalah
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the oncologic outcomes of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) for localized chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (cRCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a multicenter international study involving the French Network for Research on Kidney Cancer (UroCCR) and 5 international teams. Data from 808 patients treated with NSS between 2004 and 2014 for non-clear cell RCCs were analyzed. RESULTS: We included 234 patients with cRCC...
September 27, 2016: Urologic Oncology
M Fähling, S Mathia, J Scheidl, R Abramovitch, Z Milman, A Paliege, H Peters, P B Persson, S N Heyman, C Rosenberger
AIM: Cyclosporin A (CsA) causes renal toxicity. The underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood, but may involve renal hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors (Hifs). We sought for hypoxia and Hif in mouse kidneys with CsA-induced toxicity, assessed their time course, Hif-mediated responses and the impact of interventional Hif upregulation. METHODS: Mice received CsA or its solvent cremophore for up to 6 weeks. Low salt diet (Na(+) ↓) was given in combination with CsA to enhance toxicity...
September 30, 2016: Acta Physiologica
X B Wu, G T Zhang, F Zhang, W D Gan, G X Liu, X G Li, S W Zhang, H Q Guo
Objective: To explore the safety and clinical efficacy of partial nephrectomy for solitary kidney tumor. Methods: Twenty patients with a functional or anatomic solitary kidney who underwent nephron-sparing surgery for one or more renal masses were retrospectively analyzed. There were 15 male and 5 female patients with mean age of 63 years.Patients were divided into open partial nephrectomy(OPN) group and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy(LPN) group, the two groups were followed up.Demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed using student t-test for continuous variables, and the χ(2) test for categorical variables...
October 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
C Z Kong, S Q Du
In recent years the incidence of small renal carcinoma is increasing, and nephron sparing surgery(NSS) becomes the mainstream to treat it. NSS is considered based on comprehensive analysis: the imaging examination, systemic evaluation of the patients, and the indications of NSS. There are three common surgical approaches: intraperitoneal approach, retroperitoneal approach and the joint approach. It is recommended to do intraoperative frozen pathology. If the edge is positive, it is better to cut a deeper layer of the tissue around the renal tumor or transform to radical nephrectomy...
October 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Kristýna Procházková, Michael Staehler, Ivan Trávníček, Tomáš Pitra, Viktor Eret, Tomáš Ürge, Lada Eberlová, Milena Roušarová, Petr Hošek, Zdeněk Chudáček, Jiří Ferda, Ondřej Hes, Milan Hora
AIM: Papillary renal cell carcinoma type 1 (pRCC1) represents the second most common type of malignant renal epithelial tumour. The origin of its characteristic appearance, its growth mechanism, and the long-term efficiency of its surgical treatment remain uncertain. Our aim was to determine typical characteristics of surgically treated pRCC1. METHODS: pRCC1 was verified in 83 of 1,629 (5.1%) kidney tumours surgically treated in the period of January 2007-January 2016...
September 30, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Toralf Melsom, Vidar Stefansson, Jørgen Schei, Marit Solbu, Trond Jenssen, Tom Wilsgaard, Bjørn O Eriksen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hyperfiltration at the single-nephron level has been proposed as an early stage of kidney dysfunction of different origins. Evidence supporting this hypothesis in humans is lacking, because there is no method of measuring single-nephron GFR in humans. However, increased whole-kidney GFR in the same individual implies an increased single-nephron GFR, because the number of nephrons does not increase with age. We hypothesized that an increase in GFR would be associated with an increased albumin-to-creatinine ratio in a cohort of the general population...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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