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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535371/repression-of-interstitial-identity-in-nephron-progenitor-cells-by-pax2-establishes-the-nephron-interstitium-boundary-during-kidney-development
#1
Natalie Naiman, Kaoru Fujioka, Mari Fujino, M Todd Valerius, S Steven Potter, Andrew P McMahon, Akio Kobayashi
The kidney contains the functional units, the nephrons, surrounded by the renal interstitium. Previously we discovered that, once Six2-expressing nephron progenitor cells and Foxd1-expressing renal interstitial progenitor cells form at the onset of kidney development, descendant cells from these populations contribute exclusively to the main body of nephrons and renal interstitial tissues, respectively, indicating a lineage boundary between the nephron and renal interstitial compartments. Currently it is unclear how lineages are regulated during kidney organogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527565/-advancement-in-the-treatment-of-renal-carcinoma
#2
Arnaud Méjean
Partial nephrectomy is the gold standard for the renal tumours less than 7 to 10cm whenever feasible in order to preserve renal function. The extension of nephron-sparing surgery using a mini-invasive approach is possible by robotic surgery. Radical nephrectomy is mandatory in the other situations and especially in case of locally advanced renal carcinoma. The place of cytoreductive nephrectomy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma is the purpose of the CARMENA trial. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently the first line treatment; but in the near future new immunotherapy by checkpoints molecules could crucially change the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma...
May 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527294/activation-of-hypoxia-signaling-in-stromal-progenitors-impairs-kidney-development
#3
Katharina Gerl, Dominik Steppan, Michaela Fuchs, Charlotte Wagner, Carsten Willam, Armin Kurtz, Birgül Kurt
Intrauterine hypoxia is a reason for impaired kidney development. The cellular and molecular pathways along which hypoxia exerts effects on nephrogenesis are not well understood. They are likely triggered by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), and their effects appear to be dependent on the cell compartment contributing to kidney formation. In this study, we investigated the effects of HIF activation in the developing renal stroma, which also essentially modulates nephron development from the metanephric mesenchyme...
May 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516188/management-of-bilateral-wilms-tumours
#4
REVIEW
Alastair J W Millar, Sharon Cox, Alan Davidson
Wilms tumour is named after Max Wilms. It is an embryonal tumour derived from the metanephros. It is the commonest childhood renal tumour and the third commonest paediatric malignancy. Synchronous bilateral Wilms tumours (BWT) represent 4-7% of all Wilms tumours (WT) and present at a younger age than unilateral Wilms tumours. At least 10% of synchronous BWTs have unfavourable histology, and up to 22% are associated with genitourinary abnormalities, aniridia, WAGR syndrome, Denys-Drash syndrome, hemihypertrophy, or one of the other overgrowth syndromes...
May 17, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511675/comparing-adult-renal-stem-cell-identification-characterization-and-applications
#5
REVIEW
Jennifer Huling, James J Yoo
Despite growing interest and effort, a consensus has yet to be reached in regards to the identification of adult renal stem cells. Organ complexity and low turnover of renal cells has made stem cell identification difficult and lead to the investigation of multiple possible populations. In this review, we summarize the work that has been done toward finding and characterizing an adult renal stem cell population. In addition to giving a general overview of what has been done, we aim to highlight the variation in methods and outcomes...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507171/first-in-man-demonstration-of-direct-endothelin-mediated-natriuresis-and-diuresis
#6
Robert W Hunter, Rebecca Moorhouse, Tariq E Farrah, Iain M MacIntyre, Takae Asai, Peter J Gallacher, Debbie Kerr, Vanessa Melville, Alicja Czopek, Emma E Morrison, Jess R Ivy, James W Dear, Matthew A Bailey, Jane Goddard, David J Webb, Neeraj Dhaun
Endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists are potentially novel therapeutic agents in chronic kidney disease and resistant hypertension, but their use is complicated by sodium and water retention. In animal studies, this side effect arises from ETB receptor blockade in the renal tubule. Previous attempts to determine whether this mechanism operates in humans have been confounded by the hemodynamic consequences of ET receptor stimulation/blockade. We aimed to determine the effects of ET signaling on salt transport in the human nephron by administering subpressor doses of the ET-1 precursor, big ET-1...
May 15, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501304/speculations-on-salt-and-the-genesis-of-arterial-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Jens Titze, Friedrich C Luft
Blood pressure salt sensitivity and salt resistance are mechanistically imperfectly explained. A prescient systems medicine approach by Guyton and colleagues-more than 50 years ago-suggested how salt intake might influence blood pressure. They proposed that a high-salt diet engenders sodium accumulation, volume expansion, cardiac output adjustments, and then autoregulation for flow maintenance. The autoregulation in all vascular beds increases systemic vascular resistance, causing the kidneys to excrete more salt and water, thus reducing systems to normal and minimizing any changes in blood pressure...
June 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498320/chronic-kidney-disease-and-exposure-to-nephrotoxic-metals
#8
REVIEW
Sarah E Orr, Christy C Bridges
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common progressive disease that is typically characterized by the permanent loss of functional nephrons. As injured nephrons become sclerotic and die, the remaining healthy nephrons undergo numerous structural, molecular, and functional changes in an attempt to compensate for the loss of diseased nephrons. These compensatory changes enable the kidney to maintain fluid and solute homeostasis until approximately 75% of nephrons are lost. As CKD continues to progress, glomerular filtration rate decreases, and remaining nephrons are unable to effectively eliminate metabolic wastes and environmental toxicants from the body...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493961/aldosterone-signaling-regulates-the-over-expression-of-claudin-4-and-8-at-the-distal-nephron-from-type-1-diabetic-rats
#9
Eduardo Molina-Jijón, Rafael Rodríguez-Muñoz, Ricardo González-Ramírez, Carmen Namorado-Tónix, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Jose L Reyes
Hyperglycemia in diabetes alters tight junction (TJ) proteins in the kidney. We evaluated the participation of aldosterone (ALD), and the effect of spironolactone (SPL), a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, on the expressions of claudin-2, -4, -5 and -8, and occludin in glomeruli, proximal and distal tubules isolated from diabetic rats. Type 1 diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats by a single tail vein injection of streptozotocin (STZ), and SPL was administrated daily by gavage, from days 3-21. Twenty-one days after STZ injection the rats were sacrificed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491286/unwinding-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Vasil Peev, Eunsil Hahm, Jochen Reiser
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) represents the most common primary glomerular disease responsible for the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States (US). The disease progresses from podocyte injury to chronic kidney disease (CKD), ultimately leading to total nephron degeneration. Extensive basic science research has been conducted to unwind the mechanisms of FSGS and, with those insights, understand major contributors of CKD in general. As a result, several putative molecules and pathways have been studied, all implicated in the disease; some serve, in addition, as early biomarkers...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490528/combining-new-tools-to-assess-renal-function-and-morphology-a-holistic-approach-to-study-the-effects-of-aging-and-a-congenital-nephron-deficit
#11
Stefania Geraci, Jorge Chacón-Caldera, Luise Anne Cullen-McEwen, Lothar R Schad, Carsten Sticht, Victor G Puelles, John F Bertram, Norbert Gretz
Recently, new methods for assessing renal function in conscious mice (transcutaneous assessment) and for counting and sizing all glomeruli in whole kidneys (MRI) were described. In the present study, these methods were used to assess renal structure and function in aging mice, and in mice born with a congenital low nephron endowment. Age-related nephron loss was analysed in adult C57BL/6 mice (10-50 weeks of age) and congenital nephron deficit was assessed in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous (GDNF HET) null mutant mice...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483780/renal-functional-outcomes-after-surgery-ablation-and-active-surveillance-of-localized-renal-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Hiten D Patel, Phillip M Pierorazio, Michael H Johnson, Ritu Sharma, Emmanuel Iyoha, Mohamad E Allaf, Eric B Bass, Stephen M Sozio
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Management strategies for localized renal masses suspicious for renal cell carcinoma include radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, thermal ablation, and active surveillance. Given favorable survival outcomes across strategies, renal preservation is often of paramount concern. To inform clinical decision making, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing renal functional outcomes for radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, thermal ablation, and active surveillance...
May 8, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481398/evolutionary-trade-offs-in-kidney-injury-and-repair
#13
REVIEW
Yutian Lei, Hans-Joachim Anders
Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease...
May 8, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480774/endoscopic-management-of-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma
#14
Jay D Raman, Rosa Park
Radical nephroureterectomy with an ipsilateral bladder cuff is the referent standard for management of muscle-invasive, high-grade, or bulky upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Nonetheless, certain patients with UTUC have imperative or elective indications for kidney preservation thereby lending to more conservative strategies for management of this disease. Areas covered: A review of the PubMED and Medline databases was performed to identify original scientific and review articles discussing retrograde ureteroscopic or percutaneous antegrade resection of UTUC tumors published between 1995 and 2016...
May 15, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476763/plasma-biomarkers-and-kidney-function-decline-in-early-and-established-diabetic-kidney-disease
#15
Steven G Coca, Girish N Nadkarni, Yuan Huang, Dennis G Moledina, Veena Rao, Jane Zhang, Bart Ferket, Susan T Crowley, Linda F Fried, Chirag R Parikh
Biomarkers of diverse pathophysiologic mechanisms may improve risk stratification for incident or progressive diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in persons with type 2 diabetes. To evaluate such biomarkers, we performed a nested case-control study (n=190 cases of incident DKD and 190 matched controls) and a prospective cohort study (n=1156) using banked baseline plasma samples from participants of randomized, controlled trials of early (ACCORD) and advanced (VA NEPHRON-D) DKD. We assessed the association and discrimination obtained with baseline levels of plasma TNF receptor-1 (TNFR-1), TNFR-2, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) for the outcomes of incident DKD (ACCORD) and progressive DKD (VA-NEPHRON-D)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468963/coping-with-nephron-loss-transport-at-a-price
#16
Alan M Weinstein
EF - F-00018-2017.
May 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462169/managing-renal-cell-carcinoma-associated-paraneoplastic-syndrome-with-nephron-sparing-surgery-in-a-patient-with-von-hippel-lindau
#17
John M DiBianco, Julie Y An, Sally Tanakchi, Zachary Stanik, Aidan McGowan, Mahir Maruf, Abhinav Sidana, Amit Lodha Jain, Akhil Muthigi, Arvin K George, Christopher Bayne, W Marston Linehan, Shawna L Boyle, Adam R Metwalli
A patient with germline von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene alteration and history of multiple tumors present with classical paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS) associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). She underwent open nephron sparing surgery with resolution of symptoms. She remained without recurrence of RCC for the initial 2 years of her follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first in which PNS was specifically resolved using a partial nephrectomy in a patient with VHL. This case report provides initial evidence for the potential role of nephron sparing surgery in the management of paraneoplastic symptoms associated with hereditary RCC...
July 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460648/endothelial-dysfunction-in-individuals-born-after-fetal-growth-restriction-cardiovascular-and-renal-consequences-and-preventive-approaches
#18
C Yzydorczyk, J B Armengaud, A C Peyter, H Chehade, F Cachat, C Juvet, B Siddeek, S Simoncini, F Sabatier, F Dignat-George, D Mitanchez, U Simeoni
Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have an increased risk of perinatal morbidity/mortality, and those who survive face long-term consequences such as cardiovascular-related diseases, including systemic hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease. In addition to the demonstrated long-term effects of decreased nephron endowment and hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, individuals born after IUGR also exhibit early alterations in vascular structure and function, which have been identified as key factors of the development of cardiovascular-related diseases...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454724/protein-phosphatase-1%C3%AE-enhances-renal-aldosterone-signaling-via-mineralocorticoid-receptor-stabilization
#19
Shunmugam Nagarajan, Twinkle Vohra, Johannes Loffing, Nourdine Faresse
Stimulation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) by aldosterone controls several physiological parameters including blood pressure, inflammation or metabolism. We previously showed that MR turnover constitutes a crucial regulatory step in the responses of renal epithelial cells to aldosterone. Here, we identified Protein Phosphatase 1 alpha (PP1α), as a novel cytoplasmic binding partner of MR that promotes the receptor activity. The RT-PCR expression mapping of PP1α reveals a high expression in the kidney, particularly in the distal part of the nephron...
April 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452170/trends-in-the-surgical-management-of-stage-1-renal-cell-carcinoma-findings-from-a-population-based-study
#20
V White, D J T Marco, D Bolton, I D Davis, M Jefford, D Hill, H M Prince, J L Millar, I M Winship, M Coory, G G Giles
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether use of nephron sparing surgery (NSS) for treatment of stage 1 renal cell carcinomas changed between 2009 and end 2013 in Australia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All adult cases of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed in 2009, 2012, and 2013 were identified through the population-based Victorian Cancer Registry. For each identified patient, trained data-abstractors attended treating hospitals or clinician rooms to extract tumour and treatment data through medical record review...
April 28, 2017: BJU International
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