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Anaesthesia for young children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725594/transperitoneal-mini-laparoscopic-pyeloplasty-in-flank-position-a-safe-method-for-infants-and-young-adults
#1
Beatriz Bañuelos Marco, Tom Florian Fuller, Frank Friedersdorff, Ricardo González, Anja Lingnau
Introduction and Objectives: Open dismembered pyeloplasty has been the gold standard treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children. Laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) is becoming a standard procedure, but its acceptance is slow. We report our method for minilaparoscopy (MLP) in children using a tansperitoneal approach with the patient in the lateral flank decubitus which we found technically advantageous. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of the records of 52 children and adolescents up to 18 years of age who underwent transperitoneal MLP at our institution during March 2012-October 2017 A 5 mm trocar is placed for the camera at the site of the umblicus by open technique, two 3 mm trocars placed in the upper and lower quadrants of the abdomen...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661412/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-for-propofol-for-broad-application-in-anaesthesia-and-sedation
#2
D J Eleveld, P Colin, A R Absalom, M M R F Struys
BACKGROUND: Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models are used in target-controlled-infusion (TCI) systems to determine the optimal drug administration to achieve a desired target concentration in a central or effect-site compartment. Our aim was to develop a PK-PD model for propofol that can predict the bispectral index (BIS) for a broad population, suitable for TCI applications. METHODS: Propofol PK data were obtained from 30 previously published studies, five of which also contained BIS observations...
May 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576117/a-neurosteroid-analogue-with-t-type-calcium-channel-blocking-properties-is-an-effective-hypnotic-but-is-not-harmful-to-neonatal-rat-brain
#3
N Atluri, S M Joksimovic, A Oklopcic, D Milanovic, J Klawitter, P Eggan, K Krishnan, D F Covey, S M Todorovic, V Jevtovic-Todorovic
BACKGROUND: More than 4 million children are exposed annually to sedatives and general anaesthetics (GAs) in the USA alone. Recent data suggest that common GAs can be detrimental to brain development causing neurodegeneration and long-term cognitive impairments. Challenged by a recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning about potentially neurotoxic effects of GAs in children, there is an urgent need to develop safer GAs. METHODS: Postnatal Day 7 (P7) rat pups of both sexes were exposed to six (repeated every 2 h) injections of equipotent hypnotic doses of ketamine or the neuroactive steroid (3β,5β,17β)-3-hydroxyandrostane-17-carbonitrile (3β-OH) for 12 h...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570481/intraoperative-blood-pressure-levels-in-young-and-anaesthetised-children-are-we-getting-any-closer-to-the-truth
#4
Jurgen C de Graaff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Blood pressure is a basic feature of monitoring during anaesthesia. However, it is very unclear what blood pressures are normal during anaesthesia in children. Furthermore, the clinical consequences of low blood pressure are also uncertain. Similarly, it is unclear when to initiate therapy for hypotension during anaesthesia. This review summarizes the most recent development on the interpretation of blood pressure measurements in children and the relation of low blood pressure to clinical outcome...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392429/minimally-invasive-surgery-mis-in-children-and-adolescents-with-pheochromocytomas-and-retroperitoneal-paragangliomas-experiences-in-42-patients
#5
Martin K Walz, Laura D Iova, Judith Deimel, Hartmut P H Neumann, Birke Bausch, Stefan Zschiedrich, Harald Groeben, Pier F Alesina
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas (PH) and paragangliomas (PGL) are rare tumours in children accounting for about 1% of the paediatric hypertension. While minimally invasive surgical techniques are well established in adult patients with PH, the experience in children is extremely limited. To the best of our knowledge, we herewith present the largest series of young patients operated on chromaffin tumours by minimally invasive access. MATERIALS: In the setting of a prospective study (1/2001-12/2016), 42 consecutive children and adolescents (33 m, 9 f) were operated on...
April 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307901/revisiting-the-applicability-of-adult-early-post-operative-nausea-and-vomiting-risk-factors-for-the-paediatric-patient-a-prospective-study-using-cotinine-levels-in-children-undergoing-adenotonsillectomies
#6
Destiny F Chau, Arundathi Reddy, Patrick Breheny, Anna Rebecca Young, Eric Ashford, Megan Song, Christina Zhang, Tammy Taylor, Abbas Younes, Turaj Vazifedan
Background and Aims: Post-operative vomiting (POV) in children remains a significant clinical problem. This prospective study aims to investigate the applicability of well-established adult early post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) risk factors on paediatric POV after adenotonsillectomies under regulated anaesthetic conditions. Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, 213 children aged 3-10-year-old were enrolled. The participants had pre-operative questionnaires completed, followed protocolised anaesthetic plans and had saliva analysed for cotinine...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120939/clinical-signs-and-electroencephalographic-patterns-of-emergence-from-sevoflurane-anaesthesia-in-children-an-observational-study
#7
Laura Cornelissen, Carolina Donado, Johanna M Lee, Norah E Liang, Ian Mills, Andrea Tou, Aykut Bilge, Charles B Berde
BACKGROUND: Few studies have systematically described relationships between clinical-behavioural signs, electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns and age during emergence from anaesthesia in young children. OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationships between end-tidal sevoflurane (ETsevoflurane) concentration, age and frontal EEG spectral properties in predicting recovery of clinical-behavioural signs during emergence from sevoflurane in children 0 to 3 years of age, with and without exposure to nitrous oxide...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969310/what-do-recent-human-studies-tell-us-about-the-association-between-anaesthesia-in-young-children-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#8
J D O'Leary, D O Warner
Anaesthetic and sedative drugs transiently disrupt normal neural activity to facilitate healthcare procedures in children, but they can also cause long-term brain injury in experimental animal models. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently advised that repeated or lengthy exposures to anaesthetic and sedative drugs prior to 3 yr of age have the potential to harm the development of children's brains and added warnings to these drug labels. Paediatric anaesthesia toxicity could represent a significant public health issue, and concern about this potential injury in children has become an important issue for families, paediatric clinicians and healthcare regulators...
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947504/medical-and-bioethical-considerations-in-elective-cochlear-implant-array-removal
#9
Maryanna S Owoc, Elliott D Kozin, Aaron Remenschneider, Maria J Duarte, Ariel Edward Hight, Marjorie Clay, Susanna E Meyer, Daniel J Lee, Selena Briggs
OBJECTIVE: Cochlear explantation for purely elective (e.g. psychological and emotional) reasons is not well studied. Herein, we aim to provide data and expert commentary about elective cochlear implant (CI) removal that may help to guide clinical decision-making and formulate guidelines related to CI explantation. DATA SOURCES: We address these objectives via three approaches: case report of a patient who desired elective CI removal; review of literature and expert discussion by surgeon, audiologist, bioethicist, CI user and member of Deaf community...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855231/inequalities-in-the-dental-health-needs-and-access-to-dental-services-among-looked-after-children-in-scotland-a-population-data-linkage-study
#10
Alex D McMahon, Lawrie Elliott, Lorna Md Macpherson, Katharine H Sharpe, Graham Connelly, Ian Milligan, Philip Wilson, David Clark, Albert King, Rachael Wood, David I Conway
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on the health needs and service access among children and young people who are looked after by the state. The aim of this study was to compare dental treatment needs and access to dental services (as an exemplar of wider health and well-being concerns) among children and young people who are looked after with the general child population. METHODS: Population data linkage study utilising national datasets of social work referrals for 'looked after' placements, the Scottish census of children in local authority schools, and national health service's dental health and service datasets...
August 30, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684927/immediate-postoperative-pain-and-recovery-time-after-pulpotomy-performed-under-general-anaesthesia-in-young-children
#11
Sultan Keles, Ozlem Kocaturk
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare immediate postoperative pain scores and need for rescue analgesia in children who underwent pulpotomies and restorative treatment and those who underwent restorative treatment only, all under general anaesthesia. METHODS: Ninety patients aged between 3 and 7 years who underwent full mouth dental rehabilitation under general anaesthesia were enrolled in the study and reviewed. The experimental group included patients who were treated with at least one pulpotomy, and the control group was treated with dental fillings only...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540807/technical-aspects-of-osteoid-osteoma-ablation-in-children-using-mr-guided-high-intensity-focussed-ultrasound
#12
Pavel S Yarmolenko, Avinash Eranki, Ari Partanen, Haydar Celik, AeRang Kim, Matthew Oetgen, Viktoriya Beskin, Domiciano Santos, Janish Patel, Peter C W Kim, Karun Sharma
BACKGROUND: Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a painful bone tumour occurring in children and young adults. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided high intensity focussed ultrasound (MR-HIFU) allows non-invasive treatment without ionising radiation exposure, in contrast to the current standard of care treatment with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). This report describes technical aspects of MR-HIFU ablation in the first 8 paediatric OO patients treated in a safety and feasibility clinical trial (total enrolment of up to 12 patients)...
February 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474809/use-of-anesthetics-in-young-children-consensus-statement-of-the-european-society-of-anaesthesiology-esa-the-european-society-for-paediatric-anaesthesiology-espa-the-european-association-of-cardiothoracic-anaesthesiology-eacta-and-the-european-safe-tots-anaesthesia
#13
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462639/can-laparoscopy-be-part-of-a-paediatric-surgery-outreach-service
#14
R Peeraully, R Hill, D Colliver, A Williams, S Motiwale, B Davies
INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to assess the outreach laparoscopic service delivered by four paediatric surgeons to a district general hospital (DGH). METHODS A retrospective review was carried out of all laparoscopic procedures performed in a single DGH between January 2004 and November 2014 by the four paediatric surgeons providing the outreach service. All operations were identified from the electronic theatre system and archived correspondence. Demographic and clinical details were obtained from contemporaneous records...
May 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358287/follow-up-of-children-s-oral-health-related-quality-of-life-after-dental-general-anaesthesia-treatment
#15
Biruté Jankauskiené, Jorma I Virtanen, Julija Narbutaité
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyze longitudinally the impact of young children's dental general anaesthesia (DGA) treatment on their OHRQoL and to determine their post-operative oral health status at the six-month follow-up together with parental ratings of their children's oral health. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective follow-up study of OHRQoL among Lithuanian child patients treated under general anaesthesia (n = 144). The study consisted of clinical dental examinations performed by two examiners at the time of DGA and at the six-month recall, along with OHRQoL surveys and data collected from the patients' files...
May 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095847/the-biomedical-piglet-establishing-reference-intervals-for-haematology-and-clinical-chemistry-parameters-of-two-age-groups-with-and-without-iron-supplementation
#16
Domenico Ventrella, Francesco Dondi, Francesca Barone, Federica Serafini, Alberto Elmi, Massimo Giunti, Noemi Romagnoli, Monica Forni, Maria L Bacci
BACKGROUND: The similarities between swine and humans in physiological and genomic patterns, and the great correlation in size and anatomy, make pigs extremely useful in preclinical studies. New-born piglets can represent a model for congenital and genetic diseases in new-born children. It is known that piglets may have significant differences in clinicopathological results compared to adult pigs. Therefore, adult laboratory reference intervals cannot be applied to piglets. The aim of this study was to compare haematological and chemical variables in piglets of two ages and determinate age-related reference intervals for commercial hybrid young pigs...
January 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005766/three-dimensional-handheld-scanning-to-quantify-head-shape-changes-in-spring-assisted-surgery-for-sagittal-craniosynostosis
#17
Maik Tenhagen, Jan L Bruse, Naiara Rodriguez-Florez, Freida Angullia, Alessandro Borghi, Maarten J Koudstaal, Silvia Schievano, Owase Jeelani, David Dunaway
Three-dimensional (3D) imaging is an important tool for diagnostics, surgical planning, and evaluation of surgical outcomes in craniofacial procedures. Gold standard for acquiring 3D imaging is computed tomography that entails ionizing radiations and, in young children, a general anaesthesia. Three-dimensional photographic imaging is an alternative method to assess patients who have undergone calvarial reconstructive surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of 3D handheld scanning photography in a cohort of patients who underwent spring-assisted correction surgery for scaphocephaly...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684707/development-of-a-decision-aid-for-children-faced-with-the-decision-to-undergo-dental-treatment-with-sedation-or-general-anaesthesia
#18
Joe Hulin, Sarah R Baker, Zoe Marshman, Sondos Albadri, Helen D Rodd
BACKGROUND: Decision aids are tools used to help individuals faced with difficult healthcare decisions. They help patients further understand the treatment options available and encourage the sharing of information between patients and clinicians. AIM: To develop a decision aid for young patients faced with the decision to undergo dental treatment with inhalation sedation, intravenous sedation, or general anaesthesia (GA). DESIGN: Qualitative interviews with dental patients (aged 10-16 years), and their parents/guardians were used to inform the content of a draft decision aid...
September 2017: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604388/high-dose-methylprednisolone-and-endothelial-glycocalyx-in-paediatric-heart-surgery
#19
E Pesonen, J Keski-Nisula, S Andersson, R Palo, J Salminen, P K Suominen
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are used in paediatric heart surgery to attenuate systemic inflammatory response. Glycocalyx regulates vascular permeability, shear stress and cell adhesion on the endothelium. Syndecan-1 serves as a biomarker of glycocalyx degradation. Hydrocortisone decreased endothelial glycocalyx degradation in an experimental model. Our hypothesis was that high-dose methylprednisolone decreases glycocalyx degradation as measured by plasma sydecan-1 concentration in children undergoing cardiac surgery...
November 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388563/the-microbiota-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-from-young-children-with-chronic-lung-disease-includes-taxa-present-in-both-the-oropharynx-and-nasopharynx
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
R L Marsh, M Kaestli, A B Chang, M J Binks, C E Pope, L R Hoffman, H C Smith-Vaughan
BACKGROUND: Invasive methods requiring general anaesthesia are needed to sample the lung microbiota in young children who do not expectorate. This poses substantial challenges to longitudinal study of paediatric airway microbiota. Non-invasive upper airway sampling is an alternative method for monitoring airway microbiota; however, there are limited data describing the relationship of such results with lung microbiota in young children. In this study, we compared the upper and lower airway microbiota in young children to determine whether non-invasive upper airway sampling procedures provide a reliable measure of either lung microbiota or clinically defined differences...
July 7, 2016: Microbiome
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