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Maria Ferraiuolo, Claudio Pulito, Megan Finch-Edmondson, Etleva Korita, Anna Maidecchi, Sara Donzelli, Paola Muti, Massimo Serra, Marius Sudol, Sabrina Strano, Giovanni Blandino
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most aggressive type of primary solid tumor that develops in bone. Whilst conventional chemotherapy can improve survival rates, the outcome for patients with metastatic or recurrent OS remains poor, so novel treatment agents and strategies are required. Research into new anticancer therapies has paved the way for the utilisation of natural compounds as they are typically less expensive and less toxic compared to conventional chemotherapeutics. Previously published works indicate that Agave exhibits anticancer properties, however potential molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Letters
Giulia Cusin, Irina Dvorkin, Cyril Pitrou, Jean-Philippe Uzan
We present the first predictions for the angular power spectrum of the astrophysical gravitational wave background constituted of the radiation emitted by all resolved and unresolved astrophysical sources. Its shape and amplitude depend on both the astrophysical properties on galactic scales and on cosmological properties. We show that the angular power spectrum behaves as C_{ℓ}∝1/ℓ on large scales and that relative fluctuations of the signal are of order 30% at 100 Hz. We also present the correlations of the astrophysical gravitational wave background with weak lensing and galaxy distribution...
June 8, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Marianna Bolognesi, Gerard Steen
Our ability to deal with abstract concepts is one of the most intriguing faculties of human cognition. Still, we know little about how such concepts are formed, processed, and represented in mind. For example, because abstract concepts do not designate referents that can be experienced through our body, the role of perceptual experiences in shaping their content remains controversial. Current theories suggest a variety of alternative explanations to the question of "how abstract concepts are represented in the human mind...
June 22, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
Michal Assaf, Liron Rabany, Luis Zertuche, Laura Bragdon, David Tolin, John Goethe, Gretchen Diefenbach
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) might be effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Cognitive models of GAD highlight the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in precipitating and maintaining worry, and it has been hypothesized that patients with GAD exhibit decision-making deficits under uncertain conditions. Improving understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits associated with IU may lead to the identification of novel rTMS treatment targets and optimization of treatment parameters...
June 21, 2018: Brain and Behavior
L Santhosh, S Durgamma, Shekharappa, Vommina V Sureshbabu
A unified approach to access Nβ-protected amino alkyl isothiocyanates using Nβ-protected amino alkyl azides through a general strategy of Staudinger/aza-Wittig reaction is described. The type of protocol used to access isothiocyanates depends on the availability of precursors and also, especially in the amino acid chemistry, on the behavior of other labile groups towards the reagents used in the protocols; fortunately, we were not concerned about both these factors as precursor-azides were prepared easily by standard protocols, and the present protocol can pave the way for accessing title compounds without affecting Boc, Cbz and Fmoc protecting groups, and benzyl and tertiary butyl groups in the side chains...
June 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Young-Kyoung Park, Thierry Dulermo, Rodrigo Ledesma-Amaro, Jean-Marc Nicaud
Background: Odd chain fatty acids (odd FAs) have a wide range of applications in therapeutic and nutritional industries, as well as in chemical industries including biofuel. Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast considered a preferred microorganism for the production of lipid-derived biofuels and chemicals. However, it naturally produces negligible amounts of odd chain fatty acids. Results: The possibility of producing odd FAs using Y. lipolytica was investigated...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Xiaocui Han, Hong Cui, Bo Liu, Cunling Tian, Junzhong Wang, Hong Chen, Hongkuan Yuan
Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with ferromagnetic electrodes possessing the strong perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy (PMA) are of great interest as they have a potential for realizing next-generation high-density non-volatile memory and logic chips. To date, it is an urgent and critical issue to continuously promote the PMAs through feasible modifications such as the substitution of ferromagnetic layers as well as the overlayer coating on them. Here, we perform the relativistic first principles calculations of TM|L10 -FePt|MgO sandwich systems, and demonstrate that the changes in PMAs by capping TM layers are always giant and positive, e...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elizaveta Chervyachkova, Seraphine Valeska Wegner
Towards the bottom-up assembly of synthetic cells from molecular building blocks it is an ongoing challenge to assemble micrometer sized compartments that host different processes into precise multicompartmental assemblies, also called prototissues. The difficulty lies in controlling interactions between different compartments dynamically both in space and time, as these interactions determine how they organize with respect to each other and how they work together. In this study, we have been able to control the self-assembly and social self-sorting of four different types of colloids, which we use as a model for synthetic cells, into two separate families with visible light...
June 21, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Yubing Zheng, Yang Ma, Lixin Guo, Jianchuan Cheng, Yunlong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Illegal parking in emergency lanes (paved highway shoulders) is becoming a serious road safety issue in China. The aim of this study was: 1) to examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) extended with descriptive norm, past behavior, facilitating and deterring circumstances, sensation seeking and invulnerability in predicting Chinese drivers' intentions in illegal emergency lane parking; 2) to investigate whether respondents' demographic characteristics would impact their views towards the behavior and predictive patterns of intentions; 3) to identify significant predictors of intentions...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Z Chen, M Tang, D Huang, W Jiang, M Li, H Ji, J Park, B Xu, L J Atchison, G A Truskey, K W Leong
Human cell-based 3D tissue constructs play an increasing role in disease modeling and drug screening. Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and many autoimmune disorders involve the interactions between immune cells and blood vessels. However, it has been difficult to image and model these interactions under realistic conditions. In this study, we fabricated a perfusion and imaging chamber to allow the real-time visualization of leukocyte perfusion, adhesion, and migration inside a tissue-engineered blood vessel (TEBV)...
June 21, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Raya Sorkin, Giulia Bergamaschi, Douwe Kamsma, Guy Brand, Elya Dekel, Yifat Ofir-Birin, Ariel Rudik, Marta Gironella, Felix Ritort, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Wouter Roos, Gijs J L Wuite
A large number of studies demonstrate that cell mechanics and pathology are intimately linked. In particular, Red Blood Cell (RBC) deformability is key to their function, and is dramatically altered in the time course of diseases such as anemia and malaria. Due to the physiological importance of cell mechanics, many methods for cell mechanical probing have been developed. While single cell methods provide very valuable information, they are often technically challenging and lack high data throughput needed to distinguish differences in heterogeneous populations, while fluid flow high throughput methods miss the accuracy to detect subtle differences...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Long Tang, Jiajia Zhang, Lei Dong, Yunmei Pan, Chongyang Yang, Mengxiong Li, Yingbo Ruan, Jianhua Ma, Hongbin Lu
Silver nanowires (Ag NWs) based films are considered as a promising alternative for traditional indium tin oxide (ITO) but still suffer from some limitations, including insufficient conductivity, transparency and environmental instability. We here report a novel etching synthesis strategy to improve the performance of Ag NW films. Different from the traditional methods to synthesize high aspect ratios of NWs or employ electrically conductive coatings, we find it effective to reduce the high-reactivity defects of NWs for optimizing the comprehensive performance of Ag NW films...
June 21, 2018: Nanotechnology
Yatao Zou, Muyang Ban, Yingguo Yang, Sai Bai, Chen Wu, Yujie Han, Tian Wu, Yeshu Tan, Qi Huang, Xingyu Gao, Tao Song, Qiao Zhang, Baoquan Sun
Solution-processed perovskite light emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted wide attentions in the past several years. However, the overall efficiency and stability of perovskite-based LEDs remains inferior to those of organic or quantum dot LEDs. Non-radiative charge recombination and the unbalanced charge injection are two critical factors that limit the device efficiency and operational stability of perovskite LEDs. Here, we develop a strategy to modify the interface between hole transport layer and the perovskite emissive layer with an amphiphilic conjugated polymer of poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN)...
June 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kai Ma, Yunye Gong, Tangi Aubert, Melik Z Turker, Teresa Kao, Peter C Doerschuk, Ulrich Wiesner
Nanometre-sized objects with highly symmetrical, cage-like polyhedral shapes, often with icosahedral symmetry, have recently been assembled from DNA1-3 , RNA 4 or proteins5,6 for applications in biology and medicine. These achievements relied on advances in the development of programmable self-assembling biological materials7-10 , and on rapidly developing techniques for generating three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from cryo-electron microscopy images of single particles, which provide high-resolution structural characterization of biological complexes11-13 ...
June 20, 2018: Nature
Xubiao Wei, Rujuan Wu, Lulu Zhang, Baseer Ahmad, Dayong Si, Rijun Zhang
The hybrid peptide cecropin A (1⁻8)⁻LL37 (17⁻30) (C⁻L), derived from the sequence of cecropin A (C) and LL-37 (L), showed significantly increased antibacterial activity and minimized hemolytic activity than C and L alone. To obtain high-level production of C⁻L, the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence encoding C⁻L with preferred codons was cloned into pET-SUMO to construct a fusion expression vector, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) BL21 (DE3). The maximum fusion protein (92% purity) was obtained with the yield of 89...
June 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Qingshan Lin, Tingting Li, Yixin Chen, Siu-Ying Lau, Minxi Wei, Yuyun Zhang, Zhenyong Zhang, Qiaobin Yao, Jinjin Li, Zhihai Li, Daning Wang, Qingbing Zheng, Hai Yu, Ying Gu, Jun Zhang, Honglin Chen, Shaowei Li, Ningshao Xia
Human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses lead to cause severe diseases and fatalities. We previously identified a potent and broad-neutralizing antibody (bnAb), 13D4, against the H5N1 virus. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of 13D4 in complex with the hemagglutinin of A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1). We show that the heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) of 13D4 confers H5N1 broad yet specific neutralization against H5N1, undergoing conformational rearrangement to bind to the receptor-binding site (RBS)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Natalia Vapniarsky, Le W Huwe, Boaz Arzi, Meghan K Houghton, Mark E Wong, James W Wilson, David C Hatcher, Jerry C Hu, Kyriacos A Athanasiou
Treatments for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc thinning and perforation, conditions prevalent in TMJ pathologies, are palliative but not reparative. To address this, scaffold-free tissue-engineered implants were created using allogeneic, passaged costal chondrocytes. A combination of compressive and bioactive stimulation regimens produced implants with mechanical properties akin to those of the native disc. Efficacy in repairing disc thinning was examined in minipigs. Compared to empty controls, treatment with tissue-engineered implants restored disc integrity by inducing 4...
June 20, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Wenxin Hu, Zhiming Wang, Hongjin Zheng
Mitochondrial accumulation of intracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides is present in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as in related mouse models of AD. This accumulation is extremely toxic because Aβ disrupts the normal functions of many mitochondrial proteins, resulting in significant mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, understanding the mitochondrial accumulation of Aβ is useful for future pharmaceutical design of drugs to address mitochondrial dysfunction in AD. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of this accumulation process remains elusive...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Federico Rossari, Filippo Minutolo, Enrico Orciuolo
Bcr-Abl inhibitors paved the way of targeted therapy epoch. Imatinib was the first tyrosine kinase inhibitor to be discovered with high specificity for Bcr-Abl protein resulting from t(9, 22)-derived Philadelphia chromosome. Although the specific targeting of that oncoprotein, several Bcr-Abl-dependent and Bcr-Abl-independent mechanisms of resistance to imatinib arose after becoming first-line therapy in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) treatment.Consequently, new specific drugs, namely dasatinib, nilotinib, bosutinib, and ponatinib, were rationally designed and approved for clinic to override resistances...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Brice J Albert, Chukun Gao, Erika L Sesti, Edward P Saliba, Nicholas Alaniva, Faith J Scott, Snorri Th Sigurdsson, Alexander B Barnes
Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) enables atomic resolution characterization of molecular structure and dynamics within complex heterogeneous samples, but it is typically insensitive. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) increases NMR signal intensity by orders of magnitude and can be performed in combination with magic angle spinning (MAS) for sensitive, high-resolution spectroscopy. Here we report MAS DNP experiments, for the first time, within intact human cells with >40-fold DNP enhancement and a sample temperature below 6 K...
June 20, 2018: Biochemistry
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