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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822868/preliminary-profiling-of-microrna-in-the-normal-and-regenerating-liver-of-chiloscyllium-plagiosum
#1
Dandan Cheng, Yanna Chen, Conger Lu, Yuezhong Qian, Zhengbing Lv
Liver is a vital organ present in animals for detoxification, protein synthesis, digestion and other functions and its powerful regenerative capacity is well known. C. plagiosum is an abundant fish that is representative of the cartilaginous class in the southeast coastal region of China and its liver accounts for >70% of the fish's visceral weight and contains many bioactive substances. MicroRNAs (microRNAs) play important roles in a wide range of biological processes in eukaryotes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis...
July 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821743/cherenkov-radiation-control-via-self-accelerating-wave-packets
#2
Yi Hu, Zhili Li, Benjamin Wetzel, Roberto Morandotti, Zhigang Chen, Jingjun Xu
Cherenkov radiation is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature. It describes electromagnetic radiation from a charged particle moving in a medium with a uniform velocity larger than the phase velocity of light in the same medium. Such a picture is typically adopted in the investigation of traditional Cherenkov radiation as well as its counterparts in different branches of physics, including nonlinear optics, spintronics and plasmonics. In these cases, the radiation emitted spreads along a "cone", making it impractical for most applications...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821739/ultrafast-photonic-reinforcement-learning-based-on-laser-chaos
#3
Makoto Naruse, Yuta Terashima, Atsushi Uchida, Song-Ju Kim
Reinforcement learning involves decision making in dynamic and uncertain environments and constitutes an important element of artificial intelligence (AI). In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that the ultrafast chaotic oscillatory dynamics of lasers efficiently solve the multi-armed bandit problem (MAB), which requires decision making concerning a class of difficult trade-offs called the exploration-exploitation dilemma. To solve the MAB, a certain degree of randomness is required for exploration purposes...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820902/from-hospitalization-records-to-surveillance-the-use-of-local-patient-profiles-to-characterize-cholera-in-vellore-india
#4
Melissa S Cruz, Tania M AlarconFalconi, Meghan A Hartwick, Aishwarya Venkat, Hanna Y Ehrlich, Shalini Anandan, Honorine D Ward, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Elena N Naumova
Despite availability of high quality medical records, health care systems often do not have the resources or tools to utilize these data efficiently. Yet, hospital-based, laboratory-confirmed records may pave the way for building reliable surveillance systems capable of monitoring temporal trends of emerging infections. In this communication, we present a new tool to compress and visualize medical records with a local population profile (LPP) approach, which transforms information into statistically comparable patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820333/protease-dead-separase-inhibits-chromosome-segregation-and-rab-11-vesicle-trafficking
#5
Xiaofei Bai, Joshua N Bembenek
Separase cleaves cohesin to allow chromosome segregation. Separase also regulates cortical granule exocytosis and vesicle trafficking during cytokinesis, both of which involve RAB-11. We investigated whether separase regulates exocytosis through a proteolytic or non-proteolytic mechanism. In C. elegans, protease-dead separase (SEP-1(PD)::GFP) is dominant negative. Consistent with its role in cohesin cleavage, SEP-1(PD)::GFP causes chromosome segregation defects. As expected, partial depletion of cohesin rescues this defect, confirming that SEP-1(PD)::GFP acts through a substrate trapping mechanism...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820255/discovery-of-a-potent-inhibitor-class-with-high-selectivity-towards-clostridial-collagenases
#6
Esther Schönauer, Andreas Martin Kany, Jörg Haupenthal, Kristina Hüsecken, Isabel Josephin Hoppe, Katrin Voos, Samir Yahiaoui, Brigitta Elsässer, Christian Ducho, Hans Brandstetter, Rolf W Hartmann
Secreted virulence factors like bacterial collagenases are conceptually attractive targets for fighting microbial infections. However, previous attempts to develop potent compounds against these metalloproteases failed to achieve selectivity against human metalloproteases such as MMPs. Using an SPR-based screening complemented with enzyme inhibition assays, we discovered an N-aryl mercaptoacetamide-based inhibitor scaffold that showed submicromolar affinities towards collagenase H (ColH) from the human pathogen Clostridium histolyticum...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820221/real-time-monitoring-of-plasmon-induced-proton-transfer-of-hypoxanthine-in-serum
#7
Binbin Zhou, Shaofei Li, Xianghu Tang, Pan Li, Xiaomin Cao, Borong Yu, Liangbao Yang, Jinhuai Liu
Intramolecular proton transfer of hypoxanthine, induced by application of a laser on the surface of a bare noble nanomaterial, was monitored in real time using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This monitoring demonstrated the dependence of the reaction on the identity of the nanomaterial and on the laser power density. The results pave the way for monitoring the proton transfer reaction in various relevant fields. In addition, we observed the presence of the proton transfer phenomenon of hypoxanthine in serum, providing a way to avoid the effect of proton transfer and hence achieve more reliable spectra of sera for clinical diagnosis...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820200/statistical-thermodynamics-unveils-the-dissolution-mechanism-of-cellobiose
#8
Thomas W J Nicol, Noriyuki Isobe, James H Clark, Seishi Shimizu
In the study of the cellulose dissolution mechanism opinion is still divided. Here, the solution interaction components of the most prominent hypotheses for the driving force of cellulose dissolution were evaluated quantitatively. Combining a rigorous statistical thermodynamic theory and cellobiose solubility data in the presence of chloride salts, whose cations progress in the Hofmeister series (KCl, NaCl, LiCl and ZnCl2), we have shown that cellobiose solubilization is driven by the preferential accumulation of salts around the solutes which is stronger than cellobiose hydration...
August 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818968/the-turbulent-cascade-in-five-dimensions
#9
José I Cardesa, Alberto Vela-Martín, Javier Jiménez
To the naked eye, turbulent flows exhibit whirls of many different sizes. To each size, or scale, corresponds a fraction of the total energy resulting from a cascade in five dimensions: scale, time, and three-dimensional space. Understanding this process is critical to strategies for modeling geophysical and industrial flows. By tracking the flow regions containing energy in different scales, we have detected the statistical predominance of a cross-scale link whereby fluid lumps of energy at scale Δ appear within lumps of scale 2Δ and die within those of scale Δ/2...
August 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818667/endoconduits-with-pave-and-crack-technique-avoid-open-ilio-femoral-conduits-with-sustainable-mid-term-results
#10
G Asciutto, M Aronici, T Resch, B Sonesson, T Kristmundsson, N V Dias
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The objective was to evaluate the feasibility and mid-term outcomes of endoconduits (EC) with the "pave and crack" technique during endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of varying complexity. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. All patients undergoing EC between July 2009 and October 2015 were included. The primary endpoint was technical success of the EC defined as the ability to successfully deliver the aortic stent graft through the EC without rupture, dissection, or thrombosis of the iliac or femoral arteries, and with the absence of haemodynamically significant blood loss related to the EC...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818341/harnessing-the-power-of-genomics-to-secure-the-future-of-seafood
#11
REVIEW
Louis Bernatchez, Maren Wellenreuther, Cristián Araneda, David T Ashton, Julia M I Barth, Terry D Beacham, Gregory E Maes, Jann T Martinsohn, Kristina M Miller, Kerry A Naish, Jennifer R Ovenden, Craig R Primmer, Young Suk Ho, Nina O Therkildsen, Ruth E Withler
Best use of scientific knowledge is required to maintain the fundamental role of seafood in human nutrition. While it is acknowledged that genomic-based methods allow the collection of powerful data, their value to inform fisheries management, aquaculture, and biosecurity applications remains underestimated. We review genomic applications of relevance to the sustainable management of seafood resources, illustrate the benefits of, and identify barriers to their integration. We conclude that the value of genomic information towards securing the future of seafood does not need to be further demonstrated...
August 14, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817730/new-approach-to-generating-insights-for-aging-research-based-on-literature-mining-and-knowledge-integration
#12
Yeondae Kwon, Yukikazu Natori, Masaru Tanokura
The proportion of the elderly population in most countries worldwide is increasing dramatically. Therefore, social interest in the fields of health, longevity, and anti-aging has been increasing as well. However, the basic research results obtained from a reductionist approach in biology and a bioinformatic approach in genome science have limited usefulness for generating insights on future health, longevity, and anti-aging-related research on a case by case basis. We propose a new approach that uses our literature mining technique and bioinformatics, which lead to a better perspective on research trends by providing an expanded knowledge base to work from...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817144/resonant-silicon-nanoparticles-for-enhancement-of-light-absorption-and-photoluminescence-from-hybrid-perovskite-films-and-metasurfaces
#13
E Tiguntseva, A Chebykin, A Ishteev, R Haroldson, B Balachandran, E Ushakova, F Komissarenko, H Wang, V Milichko, A Tsypkin, D Zuev, W Hu, S Makarov, A Zakhidov
Recently, hybrid halide perovskites have emerged as one of the most promising types of materials for thin-film photovoltaic and light-emitting devices because of their low-cost and potential for high efficiency. Further boosting their performance without detrimentally increasing the complexity of the architecture is critically important for commercialization. Despite a number of plasmonic nanoparticle based designs having been proposed for solar cell improvement, inherent optical losses of the nanoparticles reduce photoluminescence from perovskites...
August 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816043/electronic-muscles-and-skins-a-review-of-soft-sensors-and-actuators
#14
Dustin Chen, Qibing Pei
This article reviews several classes of compliant materials that can be utilized to fabricate electronic muscles and skins. Different classes of materials range from compliant conductors, semiconductors, to dielectrics, all of which play a vital and cohesive role in the development of next generation electronics. This paper covers recent advances in the development of new materials, as well as the engineering of well-characterized materials for the repurposing in applications of flexible and stretchable electronics...
August 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816011/lessons-learnt-from-incidents-involving-the-airway-and-breathing-reported-from-australasian-emergency-departments
#15
Carmel Crock, Kim Hansen, Toby Fogg, Angela Cahill, Anita Deakin, William B Runciman
OBJECTIVE: To review incident reports relating to problems encountered during the ED management of patients with 'airway or breathing' problems, with the aim of finding and highlighting common themes within these rare events, and making recommendations to further improve patient safety in the areas in which deficiencies have been identified. METHODS: Thematic analysis of 36 incidents reported from Australasian EDs, which were related to problems with airway and breathing...
August 16, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815586/differential-interference-contrast-photothermal-microscopy-in-nanospace-impacts-of-systematic-parameters
#16
M Liu
Differential interference contrast-photothermal microscopy (DIC-PTM), as a promising tool for trace analysis of nonfluorescent compounds, suffered low sensitivity in nanospace especially for aqueous samples, due to the poor thermophysical property of water and the unoptimised configuration. To improve its performance, a five-layer DIC-PTM model is built and influences of different parameters on the photothermal signal are investigated. The initial phase shift φ0 between two branches of the probe beam is found to be a key factor determining the detection sensitivity and response linearity: at a large φ0 (≤π/2) both a high sensitivity and a good linearity can be achieved, while a high signal-to-noise ratio occurs at a small φ0 ...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815581/th1-polarizing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-scavenger-receptors-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-pemphigus-vulgaris
#17
Dayasagar Das, Vivek Anand, Sujay Khandpur, V K Sharma, Alpana Sharma
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) and Scavenger receptors are key innate immune machinery playing significant role in regulating immune homeostasis at epithelial surface. The roles of these immune components are not yet characterized for the autoimmune skin disorder Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV). Phenotyping and frequency of γδ T cells estimated by Flowcytometry has shown increased frequency of γδ T cells (6.7% vs. 4.4%) producing IFN-γ (35.2% vs. 26.68%), in circulation of patients compared to controls. Dual cytokine (IFN-γ & IL-4) secreting γδ T cells indicate plasticity of these cells...
August 16, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815542/long-noncoding-rnas-in-pluripotency-of-stem-cells-and-cell-fate-specification
#18
Debosree Pal, M R S Rao
Since the annotation of the mouse genome (FANTOM project) [Kawai J et al (2001) Functional annotation of a full-length mouse cDNA collection. Nature 409(6821):685-690] or the human genome [An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome. (2012) Nature 489(7414):57-74; Harrow J et al (2012) GENCODE: the reference human genome annotation for the ENCODE project. Genome Res 22(9):1760-1774], the roles of long noncoding RNAs in coordinating specific signaling pathways have been established in a wide variety of model systems...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815387/image-guided-surgical-robotic-system-for-percutaneous-reduction-of-joint-fractures
#19
Giulio Dagnino, Ioannis Georgilas, Samir Morad, Peter Gibbons, Payam Tarassoli, Roger Atkins, Sanja Dogramadzi
Complex joint fractures often require an open surgical procedure, which is associated with extensive soft tissue damages and longer hospitalization and rehabilitation time. Percutaneous techniques can potentially mitigate these risks but their application to joint fractures is limited by the current sub-optimal 2D intra-operative imaging (fluoroscopy) and by the high forces involved in the fragment manipulation (due to the presence of soft tissue, e.g., muscles) which might result in fracture malreduction. Integration of robotic assistance and 3D image guidance can potentially overcome these issues...
August 16, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815278/phenotypic-genetic-and-molecular-characterization-of-7b-1-a-conditional-male-sterile-mutant-in-tomato
#20
Anna Pucci, Maurizio Enea Picarella, Andrea Mazzucato
We characterized the photoperiod-sensitive 7B - 1 male-sterile mutant in tomato, showing its allelism with stamenless - 2 . Mapping experiments indicated SlGLO2 , a B-class MADS-box family member, as a strong candidate to underlie the 7B - 1 mutation. The interest in male sterility (MS) dates back to a long time due to its perspective use in hybrid seed production. Here, we characterize 7B-1, a photoperiod-sensitive male-sterile (ms) mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), in which stamens are restored to fertility by permissive growth conditions in short days (SD)...
August 16, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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