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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236117/liquid-crystal-elastomer-foams-with-elastic-properties-specifically-engineered-as-biodegradable-brain-tissue-scaffolds
#1
M E Prévôt, H Andro, S L M Alexander, S Ustunel, C Zhu, Z Nikolov, S T Rafferty, M T Brannum, B Kinsel, L T J Korley, E J Freeman, J A McDonough, R J Clements, E Hegmann
Tissue regeneration requires 3-dimensional (3D) smart materials as scaffolds to promote transport of nutrients. To mimic mechanical properties of extracellular matrices, biocompatible polymers have been widely studied and a diverse range of 3D scaffolds have been produced. We propose the use of responsive polymeric materials to create dynamic substrates for cell culture, which goes beyond designing only a physical static 3D scaffold. Here, we demonstrated that lactone- and lactide-based star block-copolymers (SBCs), where a liquid crystal (LC) moiety has been attached as a side-group, can be crosslinked to obtain Liquid Crystal Elastomers (LCEs) with a porous architecture using a salt-leaching method to promote cell infiltration...
December 13, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236107/uncovering-the-impact-of-capsule-shaped-amine-type-ligands-on-am-iii-eu-iii-separation
#2
Pin-Wen Huang, Cong-Zhi Wang, Qun-Yan Wu, Jian-Hui Lan, Gang Song, Zhi-Fang Chai, Wei-Qun Shi
Separation of trivalent actinides (An(iii)) and lanthanides (Ln(iii)) in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing is extremely challenging mainly owing to their similar chemical properties. Two amine-type reagents, tetrakis(2-pyridyl-methyl)-1,2-ethylenediamine (TPEN) and its hydrophobic derivative N,N,N',N'-tetrakis((4-butoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-ethylenediamine (TBPEN), have been identified to possess a selectivity for Am(iii) over Eu(iii). In this work, the structures, bonding nature, and thermodynamic behaviors of the Am(iii) and Eu(iii) complexes with these two ligands have been systematically studied via scalar relativistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations...
December 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236104/a-precursor-method-for-the-synthesis-of-new-ce-iv-mofs-with-reactive-tetracarboxylate-linkers
#3
Simon Smolders, Arnaud Struyf, Helge Reinsch, Bart Bueken, Timo Rhauderwiek, Luise Mintrop, Philipp Kurz, Norbert Stock, Dirk E De Vos
A precursor method has been developed to synthesize Ce(iv) MOFs that could not be prepared directly from Ce(iv) salts. Starting from Ce6 clusters, two Ce-UiO-66 analogues and four tetracarboxylate-based Ce(iv) MOFs could be synthesized. The applied method facilitates framework formation by evading reactive individual Ce(iv)-ions thereby paving the way for further development of Ce-MOFs.
December 13, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235524/multibit-memory-operation-of-metal-oxide-bi-layer-memristors
#4
Spyros Stathopoulos, Ali Khiat, Maria Trapatseli, Simone Cortese, Alexantrou Serb, Ilia Valov, Themis Prodromakis
Emerging nanoionic memristive devices are considered as the memory technology of the future and have been winning a great deal of attention due to their ability to perform fast and at the expense of low-power and -space requirements. Their full potential is envisioned that can be fulfilled through their capacity to store multiple memory states per cell, which however has been constrained so far by issues affecting the long-term stability of independent states. Here, we introduce and evaluate a multitude of metal-oxide bi-layers and demonstrate the benefits from increased memory stability via multibit memory operation...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235355/facile-fabrication-of-electrically-conductive-low-density-polyethylene-carbon-fiber-tubes-for-novel-smart-materials-via-multi-axial-orientation
#5
Yijun Li, Min Nie, Qi Wang
Electromechanical sensors are indispensable components in functional devices and robotics application. However, the fabrication of the sensors still maintain a challenging issue that high percolation threshold and easy failure of conductive network are derived from uniaxial orientation of conductive fillers in practical melt processing. Herein, we reported a facile fabrication method to prepare multi-axial low density polyethylene (LDPE) /carbon fibers (CFs) tube with bidirectional controllable electrical conductivity and sensitive strain-responsive performance via rotation extrusion technology...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234066/programing-stimuli-responsiveness-of-gelatin-with-electron-beams-basic-effects-and-development-of-a-hydration-controlled-biocompatible-demonstrator
#6
Stefanie Riedel, Benedikt Heyart, Katharina S Apel, Stefan G Mayr
Biomimetic materials with programmable stimuli responsiveness constitute a highly attractive material class for building bioactuators, sensors and active control elements in future biomedical applications. With this background, we demonstrate how energetic electron beams can be utilized to construct tailored stimuli responsive actuators for biomedical applications. Composed of collagen-derived gelatin, they reveal a mechanical response to hydration and changes in pH-value and ion concentration, while maintaining their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234050/a-different-vision-of-dyslexia-local-precedence-on-global-perception
#7
Sandro Franceschini, Sara Bertoni, Tiziana Gianesini, Simone Gori, Andrea Facoetti
Individuals perceive the wor(l)d hierarchically. Firsty, the global visual scene is processed by the right hemisphere, and later, the local features are perceived by the left hemisphere. Based on this hierarchical analysis, humans evolved unique communication ability: reading. However, for about 10% of people reading acquisition is extremely difficult, they are affected by a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder called dyslexia. Differences in perceiving the wor(l)d might be one of the causes of reading disabilities...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234047/inhibition-of-nhej-repair-by-type-ii-a-crispr-cas-systems-in-bacteria
#8
Aude Bernheim, Alicia Calvo-Villamañán, Clovis Basier, Lun Cui, Eduardo P C Rocha, Marie Touchon, David Bikard
Type II CRISPR-Cas systems introduce double-strand breaks into DNA of invading genetic material and use DNA fragments to acquire novel spacers during adaptation. These breaks can be the substrate of several DNA repair pathways, paving the way for interactions. We report that non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and type II-A CRISPR-Cas systems only co-occur once among 5563 fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes. We investigated experimentally the possible molecular interactions using the NHEJ pathway from Bacillus subtilis and the type II-A CRISPR-Cas systems from Streptococcus thermophilus and Streptococcus pyogenes...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234039/forming-quasicrystals-by-monodisperse-soft-core-particles
#9
Mengjie Zu, Peng Tan, Ning Xu
In traditional approaches to form quasicrystals, multiple competing length scales involved in particle size, shape, or interaction potential are believed to be necessary. It is unexpected that quasicrystals can be formed by monodisperse, isotropic particles interacting via a simple potential that does not contain explicit multiple length scales to stabilize quasicrystals. Here, we report the surprising finding of the formation of such quasicrystals in high-density systems of soft-core particles. Although there are length scales naturally introduced in our model systems, they do not establish the quasicrystalline order...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233987/controlling-supercurrents-and-their-spatial-distribution-in-ferromagnets
#10
Kaveh Lahabi, Morten Amundsen, Jabir Ali Ouassou, Ewout Beukers, Menno Pleijster, Jacob Linder, Paul Alkemade, Jan Aarts
Spin-triplet Cooper pairs induced in ferromagnets form the centrepiece of the emerging field of superconducting spintronics. Usually the focus is on the spin-polarization of the triplets, potentially enabling low-dissipation magnetization switching. However, the magnetic texture which provides the fundamental mechanism for generating triplets also permits control over the spatial distribution of supercurrent. Here we demonstrate the tailoring of distinct supercurrent pathways in the ferromagnetic barrier of a Josephson junction...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233848/g-protein-coupled-receptors-targeting-insulin-resistance-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Darren M Riddy, Philippe Delerive, Roger J Summers, Patrick M Sexton, Christopher J Langmead
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) continue to be important discovery targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Many GPCRs are directly involved in the development of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, and in the etiology of inflammation that can lead to obesity-induced T2DM. This review summarizes the current literature describing a number of well-validated GPCR targets, but also outlines several new and promising targets for drug discovery. We highlight the importance of understanding the role of these receptors in the disease pathology, and their basic pharmacology, which will pave the way to the development of novel pharmacological probes that will enable these targets to fulfill their promise for the treatment of these metabolic disorders...
January 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232947/spin-control-induced-by-molecular-charging-in-a-transport-junction
#12
Sujoy Karan, Carlos Garcia, Michael Karolak, David Jacob, Nicolas Lorente, Richard Berndt
The ability of molecules to maintain magnetic multistability in nanoscale-junctions will determine their role in downsizing spintronic devices. While spin-injection from ferromagnetic leads gives rise to magnetoresistance in metallic nano-contacts, nonmagnetic leads probing the magnetic states of the junction itself have been considered as an alternative. Extending this experimental approach to molecular junctions, which are sensitive to chemical parameters, we demonstrate that the electron affinity of a molecule decisively influences its spin transport...
December 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232859/competitive-promoter-associated-matrix-attachment-region-binding-of-the-arid3a-and-cux1-transcription-factors
#13
Dongkyoon Kim, Christian Schmidt, Mark A Brown, Haley Tucker
Arid3a/Bright/Dril1 is a B cell-specific transactivator that regulates immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene transcription by binding promoter and enhancer-associated matrix attachment regions (MARs) within the IgH gene locus. Promoter MAR-mediated Arid3a transactivation is antagonized by direct competition of MAR binding by Cux1/CDP-a ubiquitously expressed repressor originally termed NF-μNR. We report that the NF-μNR complex includes Arid3a in B cells but not in non-B cells through mobility shift assays...
December 10, 2017: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232119/catalytic-mechanism-of-fungal-lytic-polysaccharide-monooxygenases-investigated-by-first-principles-calculations
#14
Luca Bertini, Raffaella Breglia, Matteo Lambrughi, Piercarlo Fantucci, Luca De Gioia, Marco Borsari, Marco Sola, Carlo Augusto Bortolotti, Maurizio Bruschi
Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are Cu-containing enzymes that facilitate the degradation of recalcitrant polysaccharides by the oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds. They are gaining rapidly increasing attention as key players in biomass conversion, especially for the production of second-generation biofuels. Elucidation of the detailed mechanism of the LPMO reaction is a major step toward the assessment and optimization of LPMO efficacy in industrial biotechnology, paving the way to utilization of sustainable fuel sources...
December 12, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232053/differential-diagnosis-of-otitis-media-with-effusion-using-label-free-raman-spectroscopy-a-pilot-study
#15
Rishikesh Pandey, Chi Zhang, Jeon Woong Kang, Parind M Desai, Ramachandra Rao Dasari, Ishan Barman, Tulio A Valdez
Otitis media with effusion (OME) is an important and common condition affecting hearing in pediatric patients characterized by the presence of fluid in the middle ear space. The fluid is normally described as serous or mucoid based on differences in the fluid viscosity. The differential diagnosis of two OMEs namely serous and mucoid is of significant clinical value because while the former is self-limiting, surgical procedure is commonly required for the latter. However, accurate identification of fluid types remains a challenging target unattainable with current clinical modalities due to unavailability of non-perturbative molecular tools...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231869/functional-characterization-of-the-versatile-myb-gene-family-uncovered-their-important-roles-in-plant-development-and-responses-to-drought-and-waterlogging-in-sesame
#16
Marie Ali Mmadi, Komivi Dossa, Linhai Wang, Rong Zhou, Yanyan Wang, Ndiaga Cisse, Mame Oureye Sy, Xiurong Zhang
The MYB gene family constitutes one of the largest transcription factors (TFs) modulating various biological processes in plants. Although genome-wide analysis of this gene family has been carried out in some species, only three MYB members have been functionally characterized heretofore in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Here, we identified a relatively high number (287) of sesame MYB genes (SIMYBs) with an uncommon overrepresentation of the 1R-subfamily. A total of 95% of SIMYBs was mapped unevenly onto the 16 linkage groups of the sesame genome with 55 SIMYBs tandemly duplicated...
December 12, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231145/learning-from-multiple-classifier-systems-perspectives-for-improving-decision-making-of-qsar-models-in-medicinal-chemistry
#17
Hai V Pham-The, Nguyen-Hai Nam, Doan-Viet Nga, Dang Thanh Hai, Karel Dieguez-Santana, Yovani Marrero-Poncee, Juan A Castillo-Garit, Gerardo M Casanola-Martin, Huong Le-Thi-Thu
Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling has been widely used in medicinal chemistry and computational toxicology for many years. Today, as the amount of data on chemicals is increasing dramatically, QSAR methods have become pivotal for the purpose of handling the data, identifying a decision, and gathering useful information from data processing. The advances in this field have paved a way for numerous alternative approaches that require deep mathematics in order to enhance the learning capability of QSAR models...
December 11, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230870/orchestrated-approaches-using-pure-shift-nmr-extraction-of-spectral-parameters-ultra-high-resolution-and-sensitivity-enhancement
#18
Sandeep Kumar Mishra, N Suryaprakash
The limited chemical shift range of protons and pairwise interaction among all the abundant nuclear spins of a molecule make 1 H spectrum too complicated. As a consequence the straightforward analysis and the accurate extraction of their interaction strengths from the 1 H spectrum of a complex spin system is formidably difficult or often impossible. This problem persists in the determination of scalar couplings be it between two abundant homonuclear spins or between 1 H and an abundant heteronuclear spin (viz...
December 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230463/real-time-two-photon-lithography-in-controlled-flow-to-create-a-single-microparticle-array-and-particle-cluster-array-for-optofluidic-imaging
#19
Bing Xu, Yang Shi, Zhaoxin Lao, Jincheng Ni, Guoqiang Li, Yanlei Hu, Jiawen Li, Jiaru Chu, Dong Wu, Koji Sugioka
Microarray technology provides an excellent platform for biomedical and biochemical research including basic scientific studies, drug discovery, and diagnostics. Here, we develop a novel method referred to as real-time two-photon lithography in a controlled flow in which femtosecond laser two-photon lithography is performed in situ in the sequential mode stopping and flowing the flow of liquid resin containing microparticles to achieve 100% trapping on a one-bead-to-one-trap basis. Polydisperse particles can be all trapped to form a desired array by freely designing trap structures, resulting in an unprecedentedly high capture efficiency of ∼100%...
December 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230434/compressive-3d-ultrasound-imaging-using-a-single-sensor
#20
Pieter Kruizinga, Pim van der Meulen, Andrejs Fedjajevs, Frits Mastik, Geert Springeling, Nico de Jong, Johannes G Bosch, Geert Leus
Three-dimensional ultrasound is a powerful imaging technique, but it requires thousands of sensors and complex hardware. Very recently, the discovery of compressive sensing has shown that the signal structure can be exploited to reduce the burden posed by traditional sensing requirements. In this spirit, we have designed a simple ultrasound imaging device that can perform three-dimensional imaging using just a single ultrasound sensor. Our device makes a compressed measurement of the spatial ultrasound field using a plastic aperture mask placed in front of the ultrasound sensor...
December 2017: Science Advances
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