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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052963/deficiency-of-p38%C3%AE-in-macrophage-ameliorates-d-galactosamine-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#1
Jiao Liu, Shengjie Zhang, Hongchao Cao, Hui Wang, Chao Sun, Shengnan Liu, Shuxian Yu, Yan Li, Wei Liu, Hui Wang, Jingjing Jiang, Hao Ying
Growing evidence suggests that hepatic macrophages play an important role in tissue repair after liver injury by coordinating the induction and resolution of inflammation, removing apoptotic cells and promoting hepatocyte proliferation. Understanding the role of macrophage in the pathogenesis of liver injury will help pave the way to future therapeutics. Here we investigated whether macrophage p38α plays a regulatory role in the tissue repair following a GalN/TNF-α-induced acute liver injury. We found that macrophage p38α deficient mice displayed decreased mortality and relieved liver injury as evident from less apoptosis, accelerated regeneration, decreased granulocytes recruitment, monocytes infiltration, and cytokine production after GalN/TNF-α treatment...
October 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052934/the-contribution-of-alternative-splicing-to-genetic-risk-for-psychiatric-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Emma Reble, Aidan Dineen, Cathy L Barr
A genetic contribution to psychiatric disorders has clearly been established and genome-wide association studies now provide the location of risk genes and genetic variants associated with risk. However, the mechanism by which these genes and variants contribute to psychiatric disorders is mostly undetermined. This is in part because non-synonymous protein coding changes cannot explain the majority of variants associated with complex genetic traits. Based on this, it is predicted that these variants are causing gene expression changes, including changes to alternative splicing...
October 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052926/platinum-based-nanowires-as-active-catalysts-toward-oxygen-reduction-reaction-in-situ-observation-of-surface-diffusion-assisted-solid-state-oriented-attachment
#3
Yanling Ma, Wenpei Gao, Hao Shan, Wenlong Chen, Wen Shang, Peng Tao, Chengyi Song, Chris Addiego, Tao Deng, Xiaoqing Pan, Jianbo Wu
Facile fabrication of advanced catalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction with improving activity and stability is significant for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. Based on a generic solid-state reaction, this study reports a modified hydrogen-assisted, gas-phase synthesis for facile, scalable production of surfactant-free, thin, platinum-based nanowire-network electrocatalysts. The free-standing platinum and platinum-nickel alloy nanowires show improvements of up to 5.1 times and 10.9 times for mass activity with a minimum 2...
October 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052822/separate-and-synergistic-effects-of-taurolidine-and-icodextrin-in-intra-abdominal-adhesion-prevention
#4
Necmi Kurt, Hasan Ediz Sıkar, Levent Kaptanoğlu, Hasan Fehmi Küçük
BACKGROUND: In our present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of taurolidine, a blocking agent of fibrin deposition, and icodextrin, a colloid osmotic material that also inhibits fibrin accumulation, and the effect of their application separately and concomittantly in intra-abdominal adhesion prevention. METHODS: Forty BALB/c male mice, weighing 30-35 g and 11-12 weeks old were divided into four groups as follows: group 1: control group, group 2: taurolidine group, group 3: icodextrin group, and group 4: taurolidine and icodextrin group...
September 2017: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051859/nanoscale-heterogeneity-of-multilayered-si-anodes-with-embedded-nanoparticle-scaffolds-for-li-ion-batteries
#5
Marta Haro, Vidyadhar Singh, Stephan Steinhauer, Evropi Toulkeridou, Panagiotis Grammatikopoulos, Mukhles Sowwan
A new approach on the synthesis of Si anodes for Li-ion batteries is reported, combining advantages of both nanoparticulated and continuous Si films. A multilayered configuration prototype is proposed, comprising amorphous Si arranged in nanostructured, mechanically heterogeneous films, interspersed with Ta nanoparticle scaffolds. Particular structural features such as increased surface roughness, nanogranularity, and porosity are dictated by the nanoparticle scaffolds, boosting the lithiation process due to fast Li diffusion and low electrode polarization...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051849/chemically-engineering-magnetic-anisotropy-of-2d-metalloporphyrin
#6
Peng Wang, Xue Jiang, Jun Hu, Jijun Zhao
Continuous miniaturization of magnetic units in spintronics devices inspires efforts to search for novel 2D magnetic materials with giant magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE). Through systematic first-principles calculations, large MAE of 24 meV in W or Re embedded 2D polyporphyrin frameworks is found. Interestingly, the MAE can be enhanced up to 60 meV, through replacing the hydrogen atoms on the edges of the Re based 2D polyporphyrin framework by hydroxyl and amino radicals. Analysis of the electronic structures reveals that the enhancement of MAE is mainly attributed to charge redistributions and energy shifts of Re 5d orbitals induced by the functional radicals...
October 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051762/specific-pathogen-recognition-by-multiple-innate-immune-sensors-in-an-invertebrate
#7
Guillaume Tetreau, Silvain Pinaud, Anaïs Portet, Richard Galinier, Benjamin Gourbal, David Duval
Detection of pathogens by all living organisms is the primary step needed to implement a coherent and efficient immune response. This implies a mediation by different soluble and/or membrane-anchored proteins related to innate immune receptors called PRRs (pattern-recognition receptors) to trigger immune signaling pathways. In most invertebrates, their roles have been inferred by analogy to those already characterized in vertebrate homologs. Despite the induction of their gene expression upon challenge and the presence of structural domains associated with the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns in their sequence, their exact role in the induction of immune response and their binding capacity still remain to be demonstrated...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051596/quantifying-quantum-mechanical-processes
#8
Jen-Hsiang Hsieh, Shih-Hsuan Chen, Che-Ming Li
The act of describing how a physical process changes a system is the basis for understanding observed phenomena. For quantum-mechanical processes in particular, the affect of processes on quantum states profoundly advances our knowledge of the natural world, from understanding counter-intuitive concepts to the development of wholly quantum-mechanical technology. Here, we show that quantum-mechanical processes can be quantified using a generic classical-process model through which any classical strategies of mimicry can be ruled out...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051526/arginase-structure-and-inhibition-catalytic-site-plasticity-reveals-new-modulation-possibilities
#9
Jérémie Mortier, Julien R C Prévost, Dominique Sydow, Sabine Teuchert, Christian Omieczynski, Marcel Bermudez, Raphaël Frédérick, Gerhard Wolber
Metalloenzyme arginase is a therapeutically relevant target associated with tumor growth. To fight cancer immunosuppression, arginase activity can be modulated by small chemical inhibitors binding to its catalytic center. To better understand molecular mechanisms of arginase inhibition, a careful computer-aided mechanistic structural investigation of this enzyme was conducted. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the microsecond range, key regions of the protein active site were identified and their flexibility was evaluated and compared...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050909/bold-fmri-in-the-mouse-auditory-pathway
#10
Guilherme Blazquez Freches, Cristina Chavarrias, Noam Shemesh
The auditory pathway is widely distributed throughout the brain, and is perhaps one of the most interesting networks in the context of neuroplasticity. Accurate mapping of neural activity in the entire pathway, preferably noninvasively, and with high resolution, could be instrumental for understanding such longitudinal processes. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has clear advantages for such characterizations, as it is noninvasive, provides relatively high spatial resolution and lends itself for repetitive studies, albeit relying on an indirect neurovascular coupling to deliver its information...
October 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050655/healthy-by-design-using-a-gender-focus-to-influence-complete-streets-policy
#11
April Ennis Keippel, Melissa A Henderson, Amanda L Golbeck, TommiLee Gallup, Diane K Duin, Stephen Hayes, Stephanie Alexander, Elizabeth L Ciemins
BACKGROUND: Public health leaders in Yellowstone County, Montana, formed an alliance to address community-wide issues. One such issue is Complete Streets, with its vision of safe streets for all. This case study focuses on development and adoption of a Complete Streets policy. It examines how a community coalition, Healthy By Design, infused a gender focus into the policymaking process. METHODS: An incremental and nonlinear policymaking process was aided by a focus on gender and health equity...
October 17, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050467/sequence-effect-on-the-formation-of-dna-minidumbbells
#12
Yuan Liu, Sik Lok Lam
The DNA minidumbbell (MDB) is a recently identified non-B structure. The reported MDBs contain two TTTA, CCTG, or CTTG type II loops. At present, the knowledge and understanding of the sequence criteria for MDB formation are still limited. In this study, we performed a systematic high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and native gel study to investigate the effect of sequence variations in tandem repeats on the formation of MDBs. Our NMR results reveal the importance of hydrogen bonds, base-base stacking, and hydrophobic interactions from each of the participating residues...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050220/characterization-of-a-novel-androgen-receptor-ar-coregulator-ripk1-and-related-chemicals-that-suppress-ar-mediated-prostate-cancer-growth-via-peptide-and-chemical-screening
#13
Cheng-Lung Hsu, Jai-Shin Liu, Ting-Wei Lin, Ying-Hsu Chang, Yung-Chia Kuo, An-Chi Lin, Huei-Ju Ting, See-Tong Pang, Li-Yu Lee, Wen-Lung Ma, Chun-Cheng Lin, Wen-Guey Wu
Using bicalutamide-androgen receptor (AR) DNA binding domain-ligand binding domain as bait, we observed enrichment of FxxFY motif-containing peptides. Protein database searches revealed the presence of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) harboring one FxxFY motif. RIPK1 interacted directly with AR and suppressed AR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Domain mapping experiments showed that the FxxFY motif in RIPK1 is critical for interactions with AR and the death domain of RIPK1 plays a crucial role in its inhibitory effect on transactivation...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049538/3d-printed-mitral-valve-models-affordable-simulation-for-robotic-mitral-valve-repair
#14
Ned Premyodhin, Divneet Mandair, Alice S Ferng, Timothy S Leach, Ryan P Palsma, Mohammad Z Albanna, Zain I Khalpey
OBJECTIVES: 3D printed mitral valve (MV) models that capture the suture response of real tissue may be utilized as surgical training tools. Leveraging clinical imaging modalities, 3D computerized modelling and 3D printing technology to produce affordable models complements currently available virtual simulators and paves the way for patient- and pathology-specific preoperative rehearsal. METHODS: We used polyvinyl alcohol, a dissolvable thermoplastic, to 3D print moulds that were casted with liquid platinum-cure silicone yielding flexible, low-cost MV models capable of simulating valvular tissue...
July 31, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048713/cucurbit-7-uril-as-a-supramolecular-artificial-enzyme-for-diels-alder-reactions
#15
Aniello Palma, Markus Artelsmair, Guanglu Wu, Xiaoyong Lu, Steven J Barrow, Najib Uddin, Edina Rosta, Eric Masson, Oren A Scherman
The ability to mimic the activity of natural enzymes using supramolecular constructs (artificial enzymes) represents a vibrant scientific research field. Herein, we demonstrate that cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) can catalyze Diels-Alder reactions for a number of substituted and unreactive N-allyl-2-furfurylamines under biomimetic conditions, without the need for protecting groups, yielding powerful synthons in previously unreported mild conditions. CB[7] rearranges the substrate in a highly reactive conformation and shields it from the aqueous environment, thereby mimicking the mode of action of a natural Diels-Alderase...
October 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048467/identification-of-copy-number-variations-and-translocations-in-cancer-cells-from-hi-c-data
#16
Abhijit Chakraborty, Ferhat Ay
Motivation: Eukaryotic chromosomes adapt a complex and highly dynamic three-dimensional (3D) structure, which profoundly affects different cellular functions and outcomes including changes in epigenetic landscape and in gene expression. Making the scenario even more complex, cancer cells harbor chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., copy number variations (CNVs) and translocations) altering their genomes both at the sequence level and at the level of 3D organization. High-throughput chromosome conformation capture techniques (e...
October 18, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047309/chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectors-as-vaccines-challenges-to-move-the-technology-into-the-fast-lane
#17
Alessandra Vitelli, Antonella Folgori, Elisa Scarselli, Stefano Colloca, Stefania Capone, Alfredo Nicosia
In recent years, replication-defective chimpanzee-derived adenoviruses have been extensively evaluated as genetic vaccines. These vectors share desirable properties with human adenoviruses like the broad tissue tropism and the ease of large-scale manufacturing. Additionally, chimpanzee adenoviruses have the advantage to overcome the negative impact of pre-existing anti-human adenovirus immunity. Areas covered: Here the authors review current pre-clinical research and clinical trials that utilize chimpanzee-derived adenoviral vectors as vaccines...
October 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046615/integrated-genomic-characterization-of-cancer-genes-in-glioma
#18
Aijun Liang, Bin Zhou, Wei Sun
BACKGROUND: Cancers are caused by the acquisition of somatic mutations. Numerous efforts have been made to characterize the key driver genes and pathways in glioma, however, the etiology of glioma is still not completely known. This study was implemented to characterize driver genes in glioma independently of somatic mutation frequencies. METHODS: Driver genes and pathways were predicted by OncodriveCLUST, OncodriveFM, Icages, Drgap and Dendrix in glioma using 31,958 somatic mutations from TCGA, followed by an integrative characterization of driver genes...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046560/ecosystem-functioning-is-enveloped-by-hydrometeorological-variability
#19
Christoforos Pappas, Miguel D Mahecha, David C Frank, Flurin Babst, Demetris Koutsoyiannis
Terrestrial ecosystem processes, and the associated vegetation carbon dynamics, respond differently to hydrometeorological variability across timescales, and so does our scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Long-term variability of the terrestrial carbon cycle is not yet well constrained and the resulting climate-biosphere feedbacks are highly uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive overview of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability from hourly to decadal timescales integrating multiple in situ and remote-sensing datasets characterizing extra-tropical forest sites...
September 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046488/principles-and-applications-of-rabbit-models-for-atherosclerosis-research
#20
Jianglin Fan, Yajie Chen, Haizhao Yan, Manabu Niimi, Yanli Wang, Jingyan Liang
Rabbits are one of the most used experimental animals for biomedical research, particularly as a bioreactor for the production of antibodies. However, many unique features of the rabbit have also made it as an excellent species for examining a number of aspects of human diseases such as atherosclerosis. Rabbits are phylogenetically closer to humans than rodents, in addition to their relatively proper size, tame disposition, and ease of use and maintenance in the laboratory facility. Due to their short life spans, short gestation periods, high numbers of progeny, low cost (compared with other large animals) and availability of genomics and proteomics, rabbits usually serve to bridge the gap between smaller rodents (mice and rats) and larger animals, such as dogs, pigs and monkeys, and play an important role in many translational research activities such as pre-clinical testing of drugs and diagnostic methods for patients...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
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