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virus signal pathway

Yan Chen, Jude Juventus Aweya, Wanwei Sun, Xiaoyuan Wei, Yi Gong, Hongyu Ma, Yueling Zhang, Xiaobo Wen, Shengkang Li
Tolls and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) identified to play key roles in host innate immunity. However, relatively little is known about other types of Toll-like receptors in Scylla paramamosain, although a Toll-like receptor (SpToll1) has recently been cloned. In this study, we cloned and characterized another novel Toll-like receptor 2 (SpToll2) from S. paramamosain. The full-length cDNA of SpToll2 is 3391 bp with a 2646 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 881 amino acids, and predicted to contain six extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain...
June 20, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yuan Liu, Beth Gordesky-Gold, Michael Leney-Greene, Nathan L Weinbren, Matthew Tudor, Sara Cherry
The emerging arthropod-borne flavivirus Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with neurological complications. Innate immunity is essential for the control of virus infection, but the innate immune mechanisms that impact viral infection of neurons remain poorly defined. Using the genetically tractable Drosophila system, we show that ZIKV infection of the adult fly brain leads to NF-kB-dependent inflammatory signaling, which serves to limit infection. ZIKV-dependent NF-kB activation induces the expression of Drosophila stimulator of interferon genes (dSTING) in the brain...
June 9, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Maria Lina Tornesello, Clorinda Annunziata, Anna Lucia Tornesello, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco Maria Buonaguro
Viral oncogenesis is a multistep process largely depending on the complex interplay between viruses and host factors. The oncoviruses are capable of subverting the cell signaling machinery and metabolic pathways and exploit them for infection, replication, and persistence. Several viral oncoproteins are able to functionally inactivate the tumor suppressor p53, causing deregulated expression of many genes orchestrated by p53, such as those involved in apoptosis, DNA stability, and cell proliferation. The Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV) BZLF1, the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6, and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5 proteins have shown to directly bind to and degrade p53...
June 22, 2018: Cancers
Huiyun Li, Runxiu Zeng, Zian Chen, Xiaoshi Liu, Zhendan Cao, Qi Xie, Chengwei Yang, Jianbin Lai
Geminiviruses, such as beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV), are a group of DNA viruses that cause severe plant diseases and agricultural losses. The C4 protein is a major symptom determinant in several geminiviruses; however, its regulatory mechanism and molecular function in plant cells remain unclear. Here, we show that BSCTV C4 is S-acylated in planta, and that this post-translational lipid modification is necessary for its membrane localization and functions, especially its regulation of shoot development of host plants...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Young Kyuen Im, Ouafa Najyb, Simon-Pierre Gravel, Shawn McGuirk, Ryuhjin Ahn, Daina Avizonis, Valérie Chénard, Valerie Sabourin, Jesse Hudson, Tony Pawson, Ivan Topisirovic, Michael N Pollak, Julie St-Pierre, Josie Ursini-Siegel
The ShcA adaptor protein transduces oncogenic signals downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. We show here that breast tumors engage the ShcA pathway to increase their metabolism. ShcA signaling enhanced glucose catabolism through glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, rendering breast cancer cells critically dependent on glucose. ShcA signaling simultaneously increased the metabolic rate and flexibility of breast cancer cells by inducing the PGC-1α transcription factor, a central regulator of mitochondrial metabolism...
June 21, 2018: Cancer Research
Angel F Corona Velazquez, Abigail K Corona, Kathryn A Klein, William T Jackson
Poliovirus (PV), like many positive-strand RNA viruses, subverts the macroautophagy/autophagy pathway to promote its own replication. Here, we investigate whether the virus uses the canonical autophagic signaling complex, consisting of the ULK1/2 kinases, ATG13, RB1CC1, and ATG101, to activate autophagy. We find that the virus sends autophagic signals independent of the ULK1 complex, and that the members of the autophagic complex are not required for normal levels of viral replication. We also show that the SQSTM1/p62 receptor protein is not degraded in a conventional manner during infection, but is likely cleaved in a manner similar to that shown for coxsackievirus B3...
June 21, 2018: Autophagy
Pei-Song Bai, Peng Hou, Ying Kong
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a male-dominant cancer. Several factors may contribute to the gender difference. Recent investigations have reported that miRNAs are involved in sex-linked signaling pathways and play a critical role in the molecular pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC. Therefore, we speculated that some of these miRNAs might contribute to the gender differences observed in HBV-related HCC. Our results showed that miR-371a-5p was significantly upregulated in tumor tissue and serum from HCC patients and that the expression level of miR-371a-5p was related to HBV infection, sexuality, TNM stage, adjacent organ invasion and microvascular invasion...
June 18, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Holly Koblish, Yun-Long Li, Niu Shin, Leslie Hall, Qian Wang, Kathy Wang, Maryanne Covington, Cindy Marando, Kevin Bowman, Jason Boer, Krista Burke, Richard Wynn, Alex Margulis, Gary W Reuther, Que T Lambert, Valerie Dostalik Roman, Ke Zhang, Hao Feng, Chu-Biao Xue, Sharon Diamond, Greg Hollis, Swamy Yeleswaram, Wenqing Yao, Reid Huber, Kris Vaddi, Peggy Scherle
The Proviral Integration site of Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) serine/threonine protein kinases are overexpressed in many hematologic and solid tumor malignancies and play central roles in intracellular signaling networks important in tumorigenesis, including the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways. The three PIM kinase isozymes (PIM1, PIM2, and PIM3) share similar downstream substrates with other key oncogenic kinases and have differing but mutually compensatory functions across tumors...
2018: PloS One
Giel P Göertz, Kristin L McNally, Shelly J Robertson, Sonja M Best, Gorben P Pijlman, Jelke J Fros
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has evolved effective mechanisms to counteract the type I interferon (IFN) response. Upon viral recognition, cells secrete IFNs which signal through transmembrane receptors (IFNAR) to phosphorylate STAT proteins (pSTAT). pSTAT dimers are transported into the nucleus by importin-α5 and activate the transcription of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) increasing cellular resistance to infection. Subsequently, STAT proteins are shuttled back into the cytoplasm by exportin CRM1...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Y M Xue, M G Chen, D W Chen, W F Wu, Y L Liu, F H Lin
Objective: To explore the effect of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on myocardial fibrosis in mice with chronic viral myocarditis (CVMC) and related mechanisms. Methods: Forty 4-week-old Balb/c male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups ( n= 10 each): phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group, CVMC group, CVMC+miR-21 inhibitor group, CVMC+isotype control group. The first injection of Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) or PBS was performed on day 0, and the total study time was 42 days. Each mouse in CVMC group, CVMC+miR-21 inhibitor group and CVMC+isotype control group was intraperitoneally (i...
June 24, 2018: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
AmirReza Hesari, Faezeh Ghasemi, Reza Salarinia, Hamed Biglari, Agheel Tabar Molla Hassan, Vali Abdoli, Hamed Mirzaei
Curcumin is a yellow-orange powder derived from the Curcuma longa plant. Curcumin has been used extensively in traditional medicine for centuries. This component is non-toxic and shown different therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antiviral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-parasites, and anti-oxidant. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA member of the genus Orthohepadnavirus (Hepadnaviridae family) which is a highly contagious blood-borne viral pathogen. HBV infection is a major public health problem with 2 billion people infected throughout the world and 350 million suffering from chronic HBV infection...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Safder S Ganaie, Jianming Qiu
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is pathogenic to humans and causes bone marrow failure diseases and various other inflammatory disorders. B19V infection exhibits high tropism for human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) in the bone marrow and fetal liver. The exclusive restriction of B19V replication to erythroid lineage cells is partly due to the expression of receptor and co-receptor(s) on the cell surface of human EPCs and partly depends on the intracellular factors essential for virus replication. We first summarize the latest developments in the viral entry process and the host cellular factors or pathways critical for B19V replication...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Pierre Rosenbaum, Nicolas Tchitchek, Candie Joly, Lev Stimmer, Hakim Hocini, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Anne-Sophie Beignon, Catherine Chapon, Yves Levy, Roger Le Grand, Frédéric Martinon
New vaccine design approaches would be greatly facilitated by a better understanding of the early systemic changes, and those that occur at the site of injection, responsible for the installation of a durable and oriented protective response. We performed a detailed characterization of very early infection and host response events following the intradermal administration of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara as a live attenuated vaccine model in non-human primates. Integrated analysis of the data obtained from in vivo imaging, histology, flow cytometry, multiplex cytokine, and transcriptomic analysis using tools derived from systems biology, such as co-expression networks, showed a strong early local and systemic inflammatory response that peaked at 24 h, which was then progressively replaced by an adaptive response during the installation of the host response to the vaccine...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Robert M DeKroon, Harsha P Gunawardena, Rachel Edwards, Nancy Raab-Traub
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncoproteins latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and LMP2A constitutively activate multiple signaling pathways, and both have been shown to interact with cellular ubiquitin ligases and affect cellular ubiquitination. To detect the LMP1- and LMP2A-mediated effects on the global cellular proteome, epithelial cell lines expressing LMP1 or LMP2A were analyzed using label-free quantitative proteomics. To identify proteins whose ubiquitination is affected by the viral proteins, the cells were cultured in the presence and absence of deubiquitinase (DUB) and proteasome inhibitors...
June 19, 2018: MBio
Donald Bastin, Amelia S Aitken, Adrian Pelin, Larissa A Pikor, Mathieu J F Crupi, Michael S Huh, Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault, John C Bell, Carolina S Ilkow
Antiviral responses are barriers that must be overcome for efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. In mammalian cells, antiviral responses involve the interferon pathway, a protein-signaling cascade that alerts the immune system and limits virus propagation. Tumour-specific defects in interferon signaling enhance viral infection and responses to oncolytic virotherapy, but many human cancers are still refractory to oncolytic viruses. Given that invertebrates, fungi and plants rely on RNA interference pathways for antiviral protection, we investigated the potential involvement of this alternative antiviral mechanism in cancer cells...
June 19, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Zara Naz, Braira Wahid, Sana Usman, Komal Saleem, Shazia Rafique, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Idrees
Genetics of host plays a significant role in susceptibility and pathogenesis of disease. During hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, HCV proteins interfere with interferon (IFN) signaling pathways and upregulate transcription of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 genes (SOCS1 and SOCS3), which results in impaired immune response. In this study, we evaluated relative expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in untreated HCV patients and patients treated with 2 different treatment strategies that are, (IFN therapy and direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drug regimen...
June 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Tian-Sheng He, Tian Chen, Dan-Dan Wang, Liang-Guo Xu
Mitochondrial anti‑viral signaling protein (VISA), additionally termed MAVS, IPS‑1 and Cardif, is located at the outer membrane of mitochondria and is an essential adaptor in the Rig‑like receptor (RLRs) signaling pathway. Upon viral infection, activated RLRs interact with VISA on mitochondria, forming a RLR‑VISA platform, leading to the recruitment of different TRAF family members, including TRAF3, TRAF2 and TRAF6. This results in the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3/IRF7) by TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and/or IKKε, as well as activation of NF‑κB, to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and pro‑inflammatory cytokines...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Xue Jing, Zibin Tian, Pujun Gao, Huashi Xiao, Xiaolong Qi, Yanan Yu, Xueli Ding, Lin Yang, Liang Zong
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains one of the leading causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) globally. However, the mechanism underlying the mediation by HBV surface proteins (HBsAgs) of the early steps in the virus life cycle and following HCC development is unclear. β‑2‑glycoprotein I (β2GPI) specifically interacts with HBsAg and demonstrates high expression during the earliest stages of hepatitis B virus infection. In the present study, the assessment of HCC and adjacent tissues revealed that the levels of mRNA and protein of β2GPI were highly expressed in HBV‑related HCC...
June 19, 2018: Oncology Reports
Joao Palma Pombo, Sumana Sanyal
Cellular lipid homeostasis is maintained through an intricately linked array of anabolic and catabolic pathways. Upon flavivirus infections, these are significantly altered: on the one hand, these viruses can co-opt lipid metabolic pathways to generate ATP to facilitate replication, or to synthesize membrane components to generate replication sites; on the other hand, more recent evidence suggests counter strategies employed by host cells, which actively modulate several of these networks in response to infection, enhancing interferon signaling by doing so, and thus creating an antiviral environment...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Boya Zhang, Yangzhige He, Yanpeng Xu, Fan Mo, Tingwei Mi, Qing Sunny Shen, Chunfeng Li, Yali Li, Jing Liu, Yihui Wu, Guilai Chen, Wenliang Zhu, Chengfeng Qin, Baoyang Hu, Guomin Zhou
Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) poses a serious threat to the world's public health yet without a cure. Certain JEV-infected neural cells express a subset of previously identified intrinsic antiviral interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), indicating brain cells retain autonomous antiviral immunity. However, whether this happens in composited brain remains unclear. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived organoids can model disorders caused by human endemic pathogens such as Zika virus, which may potentially address this question and facilitate the discovery of a cure for JE...
June 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
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