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virus signal pathway

Lindsey B Crawford, Jung Heon Kim, Donna Collins-McMillen, Byeong-Jae Lee, Igor Landais, Christine Held, Jay A Nelson, Andrew D Yurochko, Patrizia Caposio
The ability of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) to reactivate from latent infection of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) is intimately linked to cellular differentiation. HCMV encodes UL7 that our group has shown is secreted from infected cells and induces angiogenesis. In this study, we show that UL7 is a ligand for Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (Flt-3R), a well-known critical factor in HPC differentiation. We observed that UL7 directly binds Flt-3R and induces downstream signaling cascades, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways...
April 24, 2018: MBio
Whitney C Lane, Matthew D Dunn, Christina L Gardner, L K Metthew Lam, Alan M Watson, Amy L Hartman, Kate D Ryman, William B Klimstra
Interferon alpha/beta (IFN-α/β) is a critical mediator of protection against most viruses, with host survival frequently impossible in its absence. Many studies have investigated the pathways involved in the induction of IFN-α/β after virus infection and the resultant upregulation of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) through IFN-α/β receptor complex signaling. However, other than examining the effects of genetic deletion of induction or effector pathway components, little is known regarding the functionality of these responses in intact hosts and whether host genetic or environmental factors might influence their potency...
April 24, 2018: MBio
H Kachingwe, Li-Hsuan Wang, Yow-Shieng Uang, Tsurng-Juhn Huang, Shwu-Jiuan Lin
Compound 1 (ent-16-oxobeyeran-19-N-methylureido) is a semisynthetic isosteviol derivative that showed anti-hepatitis B virus activity in Huh7 cells by affecting viral DNA transcription and the Toll-like receptor 2/nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. Thus, the pharmacokinetics and metabolite identification were studied as part of the discovery and development process of compound 1. The pharmacokinetics was evaluated after administration to rats at an intravenous dose of 2 mg/kg, and oral doses of 2, 5, and 10 mg/kg...
April 24, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Lingwei Ruan, Jiazhen Sun, Congzhao Zhou, Hong Shi, Kaiyu Lei
Chibby, a vital inhibitor molecule of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, participates in development and stem cell differentiation through the regulation of β-catenin. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Litopenaeus vannamei β-catenin (Lv-β-catenin) was involved in WSSV infection and could inhibit virus replication by modulating the host immune system. In the study, a Chibby homolog from L. vannamei (designed as Lv-Chibby) was isolated and its role in WSSV infection was investigated. Sequence analysis suggested that Lv-Chibby was a novel homolog of Chibby family...
April 21, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Pengcheng Li, Yufei Jin, Fei Qi, Fangyi Wu, Susu Luo, Yuanjiu Cheng, Ruth R Montgomery, Feng Qian
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne single-stranded RNA virus causing human disease with variable severity. The production of massive inflammatory cytokines in dengue patients has been associated with dengue disease severity. However, the regulation of these inflammatory responses remains unclear. In this study, we report that SIRT6 is a negative regulator of innate immune responses during DENV infection. Silencing of Sirt6 enhances DENV-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Overexpression of SIRT6 inhibits RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) mediated NF-κB activation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Zongdi Feng, Stanley M Lemon
Although hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both positive-strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, there are important differences in the ways they induce and counteract host innate immune responses. HAV is remarkably stealthy because of its ability to evade and disrupt innate signaling pathways that lead to interferon production. In contrast, HEV does not block interferon production. Instead, it persists in the presence of an interferon response. These differences may provide insight into HEV persistence in immunocompromised patients, an emerging health problem in developed countries...
April 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Vanessa Bottino-Rojas, Octavio A C Talyuli, Luana Carrara, Ademir J Martins, Anthony A James, Pedro L Oliveira, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva
Production and degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are extensively regulated to ensure proper cellular responses to various environmental stimuli and stresses. Moreover, physiologically generated ROS function as secondary messengers that can influence tissue homeostasis. The cap'n'collar transcription factor known as nuclear factor erythroid-derived factor 2 (Nrf2) coordinates an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional activation pathway that mediates antioxidant and detoxification responses in many animal species, including insects and mammals...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yih-Lin Chung, Mei-Ling Wu
The persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a risk factor for the development of steatosis-associated tumors in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, yet little is known about the metabolic link with this factor. We correlated HBV-related pathogenesis in genetically engineered mice and human carriers with metabolic proteomics and lipogenic gene expression profiles. The immunohistochemistry showed that the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML, a tumor suppressor involved in genome maintenance and fatty acid oxidation), being inversely influenced by the dynamic HBsAg levels from acute phase to seroclearance, appeared as a lipo-metabolic switch linking HBsAg-induced steatosis (lipogenesis) to HBsAg-lost fat-burning hepatocarcinogenesis (lipolysis)...
April 20, 2018: Translational Oncology
Peng Pang, Ke Zheng, Sizhi Wu, Huachong Xu, Li Deng, Yucong Shi, Xiaoyin Chen
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of baicalin on controlling the pulmonary infection and improving the prognosis in influenza A virus (IAV) infection. PCR and western blot were used to measure the changes of some key factors in RLRs signaling pathway. MSD electrochemiluminescence was used to measure the expression of pulmonary inflammatory cytokines including IFN- γ , TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, and KC/GRO. Flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Yu Huang, Zhiying Chen, Joon Hee Jang, Mirza S Baig, Grant Bertolet, Casey Schroeder, Shengjian Huang, Qian Hu, Yong Zhao, Dorothy E Lewis, Lidong Qin, Michael Xi Zhu, Dongfang Liu
BACKGROUND: Inhibitory receptor programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) is upregulated on a variety of immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells, during chronic virus infection and tumorigenesis. Blockade of PD-1 or its ligands produces durable clinical responses with tolerable side effects in patients with a broad spectrum of cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how PD-1 regulates NK cell function remain poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine what effect PD-1 signaling has on NK cells...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hai-Xia Du, Hui-Fen Zhou, Yu He, Jie-Hong Yang, Yi-Yu Lu, Yi-Chen Fan, Hai-Tong Wan
This paper aimed to investigate the effect of Yinhua Pinggan granule and San-ao decoction on the immunologic mechanisms of influenza viral pneumonia mice in vivo , in order to study the activity of the combined administration of different formulas on influenza A/H1N1 virus. The model of pneumonia was established in mice through nasal dropping influenza virus, and then divided randomly into five groups: normal control group, influenza virus model group, oseltamivir control group, Yinhua Pinggan granule group, and San-ao decoction group...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Olga A Smirnova, Birke Bartosch, Natalia F Zakirova, Sergey N Kochetkov, Alexander V Ivanov
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in various cell compartments by an array of enzymes and processes. An excess of ROS production can be hazardous for normal cell functioning, whereas at normal levels, ROS act as vital regulators of many signal transduction pathways and transcription factors. ROS production is affected by a wide range of viruses. However, to date, the impact of viral infections has been studied only in respect to selected ROS-generating enzymes. The role of several ROS-generating and -scavenging enzymes or cellular systems in viral infections has never been addressed...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Zhongzhong Tu, Wenjie Gong, Yan Zhang, Ye Feng, Yan Liu, Changchun Tu
The compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta- O -galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG), a gallotannin present in various plants such as Rhus chinensis Mill and Paeonia suffruticosa , has a broad spectrum of antiviral effects. The present study investigated its potency against infection of mice with rabies virus (RABV). Results demonstrated that PGG strongly inhibited virus titers (50-fold), viral mRNA expression (up to 90%), and protein synthesis in vitro. Importantly, we found that PGG not only suppressed viral adsorption and entry, but also directly inactivated RABV through suppression of autophagy by mediating activation of the mTOR-dependent autophagy signaling pathway...
April 17, 2018: Viruses
Jesús E Brunetti, Sabrina Foscaldi, Verónica M Quintana, Luis A Scolaro, Nora López, Viviana Castilla
We have previously shown that the infection of cell cultures with the arenaviruses Junín (JUNV), Tacaribe (TCRV), and Pichindé promotes the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and that this activation is required for the achievement of a productive infection. Here we examined the contribution of ERK1/2 in early steps of JUNV and TCRV multiplication. JUNV adsorption, internalization, and uncoating were not affected by treatment of cultured cells with U0126, an inhibitor of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway...
April 17, 2018: Viruses
Veerabrahma Pratap Seshachalam, Karthik Sekar, Kam M Hui
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, alcoholic consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver are the major known risk factors for Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There have been very few studies comparing the underlying biological mechanisms associated with the different etiologies of HCC. In this study, we hypothesized the existence of different regulatory networks associated with different liver disease etiologies involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. METHODS: Using upstream regulatory analysis tool in ingenuity pathway analysis software, URs were predicted using differential expressed genes for HCC to facilitate the interrogation of global gene regulation...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Xin Yin, Dong Ying, Sébastien Lhomme, Zimin Tang, Christopher M Walker, Ningshao Xia, Zizheng Zheng, Zongdi Feng
The enterically transmitted hepatitis E virus (HEV) adopts a unique strategy to exit cells by cloaking its capsid (encoded by the viral ORF2 gene) and circulating in the blood as "quasi-enveloped" particles. However, recent evidence suggests that the majority of the ORF2 protein present in the patient serum and supernatants of HEV-infected cell culture exists in a free form and is not associated with virus particles. The origin and biological functions of this secreted form of ORF2 (ORF2S ) are unknown...
April 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Huange Zhu, Yan Geng, Qian He, Miaoxian Li
Hepatitis C is one of the most common types of viral hepatitis that impair human health. At present, there is still no effective specific therapy for hepatitis C virus infection. As host immunity is an important mechanism to defend against or clear infections, the interactions between the virus and the host immune response are crucial to the progress of the disease. Of note, hepatitis C virus infection has been reported to regulate cellular miRNAs, which play significant roles in many processes, including infection and immunity...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Medical Research
Ankita Thawani, Devika Sirohi, Richard J Kuhn, Donna M Fekete
Zika virus (ZIKV) is associated with severe neurodevelopmental impairments in human fetuses, including microencephaly. Previous reports examining neural progenitor tropism of ZIKV in organoid and animal models did not address whether the virus infects all neural progenitors uniformly. To explore this, ZIKV was injected into the neural tube of 2-day-old chicken embryos, resulting in nonuniform periventricular infection 3 days later. Recurrent foci of intense infection were present at specific signaling centers that influence neuroepithelial patterning at a distance through secretion of morphogens...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
B I Gomez, B H Aloqaily, C A Gifford, D M Hallford, J A Hernandez Gifford
Appreciation of mechanisms that affect steroidogenesis is critical to identifying compromising signals that may decrease reproductive efficiency. Follicle maturation and steroidogenesis requires coordinated actions from the pituitary gonadotropins, and local ovarian signaling molecules. Beta-catenin (CTNNB1), the lynchpin molecule of canonical wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site (WNT) signaling is required for maximal gonadotropin stimulation of steroid production from granulosa (GC) and luteal cells...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
J Michael Hasse, Elise M Bragg, Allison J Murphy, Farran Briggs
The corticogeniculate (CG) pathway links the visual cortex with the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus and is the first feedback connection in the mammalian visual system. Whether functional connections between CG neurons and LGN relay neurons obey or ignore the separation of feedforward visual signals into parallel processing streams is not known. Accordingly, there is some debate about whether CG neurons are morphologically heterogeneous or homogenous. Here we characterized the morphology of CG neurons in the ferret, a visual carnivore with distinct feedforward parallel processing streams, and compared the morphology of ferret CG neurons with CG neuronal morphology previously described in macaque monkeys (Briggs et al, 2016)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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