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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925101/the-difference-between-white-and-red-ginseng-variations-in-ginsenosides-and-immunomodulation
#1
Min He, Xin Huang, Shuying Liu, Chunsheng Guo, Yufei Xie, Annemarie H Meijer, Mei Wang
Ginseng Radix ( Panax ginseng ) is one of the most commonly used herbs worldwide for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases among others, supported by ancient historical records. Throughout this long history, the large-scale cultivation of ginseng created an increasing demand for long-term storage of the harvested plant material, accelerating the development of post-harvesting procedures. Dried white ginseng and processed (steamed) red ginseng are the products of the two most common traditional post-harvest processes...
June 20, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925063/targeting-shp-1-2-and-ship-pathways-a-novel-strategy-for-cancer-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Wolfram C M Dempke, Peter Uciechowski, Klaus Fenchel, Timothy Chevassut
Well-balanced levels of tyrosine phosphorylation, maintained by the reversible and coordinated actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), are critical for a wide range of cellular processes including growth, differentiation, metabolism, migration, and survival. Aberrant tyrosine phosphorylation, as a result of a perturbed balance between the activities of PTKs and PTPs, is linked to the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, including cancer, suggesting that PTPs may be innovative molecular targets for cancer treatment...
June 20, 2018: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925062/spleen-tyrosine-kinase-as-a-target-therapy-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#3
REVIEW
Alaa Alhazmi
Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase which associates directly with extracellular receptors, and is critically involved in signal transduction pathways in a variety of cell types for the regulation of cellular responses. SYK is expressed ubiquitously in immune and nonimmune cells, and has a much wider biological role than previously recognized. Several studies have highlighted SYK as a key player in the pathogenesis of a multitude of diseases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen, which is responsible for systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals, accounting for a major cause of severe chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients and subsequently resulting in a progressive deterioration of lung function...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925043/molecular-characterization-and-putative-pathogenic-pathways-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-associated-renal-cell-carcinoma
#4
Jeong Hwan Park, Cheol Lee, Mee Soo Chang, Kwangsoo Kim, Seongmin Choi, Hyunjung Lee, Hyun-Seob Lee, Kyung Chul Moon
Tuberous sclerosis complex-associated renal cell carcinoma (TSC-RCC) has distinct clinical and histopathologic features and is considered a specific subtype of RCC. The genetic alterations of TSC1 or TSC2 are responsible for the development of TSC. In this study, we assessed the mTOR pathway activation and aimed to evaluate molecular characteristics and pathogenic pathways of TSC-RCC. Two cases of TSC-RCC, one from a 31-year-old female and the other from an 8-year-old male, were assessed. The mTOR pathway activation was determined by immunohistochemistry...
June 17, 2018: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925034/minimal-network-topologies-for-signal-processing-during-collective-cell-chemotaxis
#5
Haicen Yue, Brian A Camley, Wouter-Jan Rappel
Cell-cell communication plays an important role in collective cell migration. However, it remains unclear how cells in a group cooperatively process external signals to determine the group's direction of motion. Although the topology of signaling pathways is vitally important in single-cell chemotaxis, the signaling topology for collective chemotaxis has not been systematically studied. Here, we combine mathematical analysis and simulations to find minimal network topologies for multicellular signal processing in collective chemotaxis...
June 19, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924996/salmonella-activation-of-stat3-signaling-by-sara-effector-promotes-intracellular-replication-and-production-of-il-10
#6
Sarah L Jaslow, Kyle D Gibbs, W Florian Fricke, Liuyang Wang, Kelly J Pittman, Mark K Mammel, Joshua T Thaden, Vance G Fowler, Gianna E Hammer, Johanna R Elfenbein, Dennis C Ko
Salmonella enterica is an important foodborne pathogen that uses secreted effector proteins to manipulate host pathways to facilitate survival and dissemination. Different S. enterica serovars cause disease syndromes ranging from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever and vary in their effector repertoire. We leveraged this natural diversity to identify stm2585, here designated sarA (Salmonella anti-inflammatory response activator), as a Salmonella effector that induces production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924958/overexpression-of-mir-361-5p-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-tnbc-inhibits-migration-and-invasion-by-targeting-rqcd1-and-inhibiting-the-egfr-pi3k-akt-pathway
#7
Jianjun Han, Jingjing Yu, Yuna Dai, Jumei Li, Meiyan Guo, Jingzhen Song, Xuefeng Zhou
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Previous studies indicated that miR-361-5p was downregulated in breast cancer, however, the exact effect of miR-361-5p on TNBC requires further investigation. In the present study, we investigated whether miR-361-5p can act as a tumor suppressor by targeting required for cell differentiation 1 homolog (RQCD1) and inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in TNBC...
June 20, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924908/heterocyclic-analogs-of-sulforaphane-trigger-dna-damage-and-impede-dna-repair-in-colon-cancer-cells-interplay-of-hats-and-hdacs
#8
Adaobi Okonkwo, Joy Mitra, Gavin S Johnson, Li Li, Wan Mohaiza Dashwood, Muralidhar Hegde, Chen Yue, Roderick H Dashwood, Praveen Rajendran
SCOPE: DNA repair inhibitors have broad clinical applications in tumor types with DNA repair defects, including colorectal cancer. Structural analogs of the anticancer agent sulforaphane (SFN) were investigated as modifiers of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, and for effects on DNA damage/repair pertinent to human colorectal cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the polyposis in rat colon (Pirc) model, single oral administration of SFN and structurally-related long-chain isothiocyanates (ITCs) decreased HDAC3 expression and increased pH2AX levels markedly in adenomatous colon polyps, extending our prior observations on HDAC3 inhibition/turnover in cell-based assays...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924881/hansenula-polymorpha-aat2p-is-targeted-to-peroxisomes-via-a-novel-pex20p-dependent-pathway
#9
Ann S Thomas, Arjen M Krikken, Rinse de Boer, Chris Williams
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aat2p contains a peroxisomal targeting signal type-1 and localises to peroxisomes in oleate-grown cells, but not in glucose-grown cells. Here, we have investigated Aat2p from the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, which lacks a recognizable peroxisomal targeting signal. Aat2p tagged with GFP at its C-terminus displays a dual cytosol-peroxisome localisation in ethanol-grown cells. The partial peroxisomal localization of Aat2p persisted in the absence of the classical cycling receptors Pex5p and Pex7p but Aat2p targeting to peroxisomes was reduced in cells deleted for the matrix protein import factors PEX1, PEX2 and PEX13...
June 20, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924867/arq-197-a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-c-met-reduces-tumour-burden-and-prevents-myeloma-induced-bone-disease-in-vivo
#10
Darren L Lath, Clive H Buckle, Holly R Evans, Matthew Fisher, Jenny M Down, Michelle A Lawson, Andrew D Chantry
The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met, its ligand HGF, and components of the downstream signalling pathway, have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of myeloma, both as modulators of plasma cell proliferation and as agents driving osteoclast differentiation and osteoblast inhibition thus, all these contribute substantially to the bone destruction typically caused by myeloma. Patients with elevated levels of HGF have a poor prognosis, therefore, targeting these entities in such patients may be of substantial benefit...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924817/a-component-of-the-tor-target-of-rapamycin-nutrient-sensing-pathway-plays-a-role-in-circadian-rhythmicity-in-neurospora-crassa
#11
Lalanthi Ratnayake, Keyur K Adhvaryu, Elizabeth Kafes, Kamyar Motavaze, Patricia Lakin-Thomas
The TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway is a highly-conserved signaling pathway in eukaryotes that regulates cellular growth and stress responses. The cellular response to amino acids or carbon sources such as glucose requires anchoring of the TOR kinase complex to the lysosomal/vacuolar membrane by the Ragulator (mammals) or EGO (yeast) protein complex. Here we report a connection between the TOR pathway and circadian (daily) rhythmicity. The molecular mechanism of circadian rhythmicity in all eukaryotes has long been thought to be transcription/translation feedback loops (TTFLs)...
June 20, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924794/colorectal-cancer-mutational-profiles-correlate-with-defined-microbial-communities-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#12
Michael B Burns, Emmanuel Montassier, Juan Abrahante, Sambhawa Priya, David E Niccum, Alexander Khoruts, Timothy K Starr, Dan Knights, Ran Blekhman
Variation in the gut microbiome has been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as to host genetic variation. However, we do not know whether, in addition to baseline host genetics, somatic mutational profiles in CRC tumors interact with the surrounding tumor microbiome, and if so, whether these changes can be used to understand microbe-host interactions with potential functional biological relevance. Here, we characterized the association between CRC microbial communities and tumor mutations using microbiome profiling and whole-exome sequencing in 44 pairs of tumors and matched normal tissues...
June 20, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924731/il-37-affects-the-occurrence-and-development-of-endometriosis-by-regulating-the-biological-behavior-of-endometrial-stromal-cells-through-multiple-signaling-pathways
#13
Jianfa Jiang, Kenan Yu, Zhaoying Jiang, Min Xue
Endometriosis (EMs) is a chronic inflammatory condition. Interleukin (IL)-37 is a member of the IL-1 family and an anti-inflammatory cytokine. This study aimed to evaluate the possible role of IL-37 in the EMs pathogenesis. We investigated the in vivo effect of IL-37 on EMs by injection with recombinant human IL-37 (rhIL-37) into EMs mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the in-vitro effects of IL-37 on proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasiveness of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), and explored whether Wnt/β-catenin and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were involved in this process...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924727/the-role-of-acid-sphingomyelinase-and-modulation-of-sphingolipid-metabolism-in-bacterial-infection
#14
Alexander Simonis, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism that converts sphingomyelin to ceramide, thereby modulating membrane structures and signal transduction. Bacterial pathogens can manipulate ASM activity and function, and use host sphingolipids during multiple steps of their infection process. An increase in ceramides upon infection results in the formation of ceramide-enriched membrane platforms that serve to cluster receptor molecules and organize intracellular signaling molecules, thus facilitating bacterial uptake...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924605/engineering-proton-transfer-in-photosynthetic-oxygen-evolution-chloride-nitrate-and-trehalose-reorganize-a-hydrogen-bonding-network
#15
Udita Brahmachari, Zhanjun Guo, Sara E Konecny, Emmanuela N C Obi, Bridgette A Barry
Photosystem II oxidizes water at a Mn4 CaO5 cluster. Oxygen evolution is accompanied by proton release through a 35 Å hydrogen-bonding network to the lumen. The mechanism of this proton-transfer reaction is not known, but the reaction is dependent on chloride. Here, vibrational spectroscopy defines the functional properties of the proton-transfer network using chloride, bromide, and nitrate as perturbative agents. As assessed by peptide C═O frequencies, bromide substitution yields a spectral Stark shift because of its increase in ionic radius...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924299/the-rasopathy-family-consequences-of-germline-activation-of-the-ras-mapk-pathway
#16
Mylène Tajan, Romain Paccoud, Sophie Branka, Thomas Edouard, Armelle Yart
Noonan syndrome (NS; Mendelian Inheritance in Men (MIM) ♯163950) and related syndromes (Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML, formerly called LEOPARD syndrome; MIM ♯151100), Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS-LAH; MIM ♯607721), Costello syndrome (CS; MIM ♯218040), Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous syndrome (CFCS; MIM ♯115150), type I Neurofibromatosis (NF1; MIM ♯162200), and Legius syndrome (LS; MIM ♯611431)) are a group of related genetic disorders, associating distinctive facial features, cardiopathies, growth and skeletal abnormalities, developmental delay/mental retardation, and tumor predisposition...
June 18, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924135/exenatide-ameliorates-hepatic-steatosis-and-attenuates-fat-mass-and-fto-gene-expression-through-pi3k-signaling-pathway-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Shan Li, Xiaoman Wang, Jielei Zhang, Jingyi Li, Xiaogang Liu, Yuanyuan Ma, Chao Han, Lixia Zhang, Lili Zheng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease associated with metabolic syndrome and can lead to life-threatening complications like hepatic carcinoma and cirrhosis. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist antidiabetic drug, has the capacity to overcome insulin resistance and attenuate hepatic steatosis but the specific underlying mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of exenatide therapy on NAFLD. We used in vivo and in vitro techniques to investigate the protective effects of exenatide on fatty liver via fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced NAFLD animal model and related cell culture model...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924132/screening-and-analysis-on-the-differentially-expression-genes-between-diploid-and-autotetraploid-watermelon-by-using-of-digital-gene-expression-profile
#18
Y L Long, F Qiao, X F Jiang, H Q Cong, M L Sun, Z J Xu
Synthetic polyploids are key breeding materials for watermelon. Compared with diploid watermelon, the tetraploid watermelon often exhibit wide phenotypic differences and differential gene expression. Digital gene expression (DGE) profile technique was performed in this study to present gene expression patterns in an autotetraploid and its progenitor diploid watermelon, and deferentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to the abiotic and biotic stress were also addressed. Altogether, 4,985 DEGs were obtained in the autotetraploid against its progenitor diploid, and 66...
June 14, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924053/integrated-assessment-of-differentially-expressed-plasma-micrornas-in-subtypes-of-nonsyndromic-orofacial-clefts
#19
Ni Wu, Jun Yan, Tao Han, Jijun Zou, Weimin Shen
BACKGROUND: Orofacial clefts include cleft lip only (CLO), cleft palate only (CPO), and cleft lip with palate (CLP). Previously, we reported the expression profile of plasma microRNAs in CLO, CPO, and CLP, respectively. However, the interaction of each subtype remains poorly investigated. METHODS: In this study, we integrated the expression profiles of plasma miRNAs in these 3 subtypes, and assessed the distinct and overlapping dysregulated miRNAs using Venn diagrams...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923797/valproate-augments-niraparib-killing-of-tumor-cells
#20
Laurence Booth, Jane L Roberts, Rumeesa Rais, Andrew Poklepovic, Paul Dent
PARP1 inhibitors are approved therapeutic agents in ovarian carcinomas, and have clinical activity in some breast cancers. As a single agent, niraparib killed ovarian and mammary tumor cells via an ATM-AMPK-ULK1 pathway which resulted in mTOR inactivation and the formation of autophagosomes, temporally followed by autolysosome formation. In parallel, niraparib activated a CD95-FADD-caspase 8 pathway, and collectively these signals caused tumor cell death that was suppressed by knock down of Beclin1, ATG5, CD95, FADD or AIF; or by expression of c-FLIP-s, BCL-XL or dominant negative caspase 9...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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