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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528445/interindividual-spread-of-herpesviruses
#1
Keith W Jarosinski
Interindividual spread of herpesviruses is essential for the virus life cycle and maintenance in host populations. For most herpesviruses, the virus-host relationship is close, having coevolved over millions of years resulting in comparatively high species specificity. The mechanisms governing interindividual spread or horizontal transmission are very complex, involving conserved herpesviral and cellular proteins during the attachment, entry, replication, and egress processes of infection. Also likely, specific herpesviruses have evolved unique viral and cellular interactions during cospeciation that are dependent on their relationship...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528444/assembly-and-egress-of-an-alphaherpesvirus-clockwork
#2
Gregory A Smith
All viruses produce infectious particles that possess some degree of stability in the extracellular environment yet disassemble upon cell contact and entry. For the alphaherpesviruses, which include many neuroinvasive viruses of mammals, these metastable virions consist of an icosahedral capsid surrounded by a protein matrix (referred to as the tegument) and a lipid envelope studded with glycoproteins. Whereas the capsid of these viruses is a rigid structure encasing the DNA genome, the tegument and envelope are dynamic assemblies that orchestrate a sequential series of events that ends with the delivery of the genome into the nucleus...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528442/herpesvirus-capsid-assembly-and-dna-packaging
#3
Jason D Heming, James F Conway, Fred L Homa
Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. During productive lytic infection, over 80 viral proteins are expressed in a highly regulated manner, resulting in the replication of viral genomes and assembly of progeny virions. The virion of all herpesviruses consists of an external membrane envelope, a proteinaceous layer called the tegument, and an icosahedral capsid containing the double-stranded linear DNA genome...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528441/herpesvirus-latency-on-the-importance-of-positioning-oneself
#4
Patrick Lomonte
The nucleus is composed of multiple compartments and domains, which directly or indirectly influence many cellular processes including gene expression, RNA splicing and maturation, protein post-translational modifications, and chromosome segregation. Nuclear-replicating viruses, especially herpesviruses, have co-evolved with the cell, adopting strategies to counteract and eventually hijack this hostile environment for their own benefit. This allows them to persist in the host for the entire life of an individual and to ensure their maintenance in the target species...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528440/the-human-cmv-ie1-protein-an-offender-of-pml-nuclear-bodies
#5
Myriam Scherer, Eva-Maria Schilling, Thomas Stamminger
PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are SUMOylation-dependent, highly complex protein assemblies that accumulate in the interchromosomal territories of the cell nucleus. Research of the last two decades revealed that many viruses have evolved effector proteins that modify PML-NBs. This correlates with antagonization of individual PML-NB components which act as host cell restriction factors. The multifunctional immediate-early protein IE1 of human cytomegalovirus directly interacts with the PML protein resulting in a disruption of the dot-like structure of PML-NBs...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528438/herpes-simplex-virus-membrane-fusion
#6
Darin J Weed, Anthony V Nicola
Herpes simplex virus mediates multiple distinct fusion events during infection. HSV entry is initiated by fusion of the viral envelope with either the limiting membrane of a host cell endocytic compartment or the plasma membrane. In the infected cell during viral assembly, immature, enveloped HSV particles in the perinuclear space fuse with the outer nuclear membrane in a process termed de-envelopment. A cell infected with some strains of HSV with defined mutations spread to neighboring cells by a fusion event called syncytium formation...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527895/suppression-of-pmrab11-inhibits-yhv-infection-in-penaeus-monodon
#7
Akechai Kongprajug, Sakol Panyim, Chalermporn Ongvarrasopone
Yellow head virus (YHV) is one of the most serious pathogens that causes worldwide shrimp production loss. It enters the cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and utilizes small GTPase Rab proteins such as PmRab5 and PmRab7 for intracellular trafficking. In this study, molecular cloning and functional analysis of Rab11 during YHV infection were investigated. PmRab11 cDNA was cloned by Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs). It contained two forms of sizes 1200 and 1050 bp distinct at the 5' UTR. The coding region of PmRab11 was 645 bp, encoding 214 amino acids...
May 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527860/biochemical-principles-and-inhibitors-to-interfere-with-viral-capping-pathways
#8
REVIEW
Etienne Decroly, Bruno Canard
Messenger RNAs are decorated by a cap structure, which is essential for their translation into proteins. Many viruses have developed strategies in order to cap their mRNAs. The cap is either synthetized by a subset of viral or cellular enzymes, or stolen from capped cellular mRNAs by viral endonucleases ('cap-snatching'). Reverse genetic studies provide evidence that inhibition of viral enzymes belonging to the capping pathway leads to inhibition of virus replication. The replication defect results from reduced protein synthesis as well as from detection of incompletely capped RNAs by cellular innate immunity sensors...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527686/local-innate-responses-and-protective-immunity-after-intradermal-immunization-with-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-e2-protein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-in-cattle
#9
Sams M A Sadat, Marlene Snider, Ravendra Garg, Robert Brownlie, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogens in cattle. Recently, we developed a novel adjuvant platform (TriAdj) that includes a toll-like receptor 3 agonist, poly (I:C); an innate defense regulatory peptide; and water-soluble polymer, poly[di(sodiumcarboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP). To develop a needle-free intradermal (ID) subunit vaccine, the BVDV type-2 E2 protein was formulated with TriAdj, and immune protection was evaluated in calves against a BVDV-2 strain. Intradermal delivery of E2/TriAdj elicited robust virus neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527664/a-new-hdv-mouse-model-identifies-mitochondrial-antiviral-signaling-protein-mavs-as-a-key-player-in-ifn-%C3%AE-induction
#10
Lester Suárez-Amarán, Carla Usai, Marianna Di Scala, Cristina Godoy, Yi Ni, Mirja Hommel, Laura Palomo, Víctor Segura, Cristina Olagüe, Africa Vales, Alicia Ruiz-Ripa, Maria Buti, Eduardo Salido, Jesús Prieto, Stephan Urban, Francisco Rodríguez-Frias, Rafael Aldabe, Gloria González-Aseguinolaza
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studying hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and developing new treatments is hampered by the limited availability of small animal models. Here a description of a robust mouse model of HDV infection that mimics several important characteristics of the human disease is presented. METHODS: HDV- and HBV-replication competent genomes were delivered to the mouse liver using adeno-associated viruses (AAV) (AAV-HDV and AAV-HBV). Viral load, antigen expression and genomes were quantified at different time points after AAV injection...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527340/induction-of-cell-death-by-tospoviral-protein-nss-and-the-motif-critical-for-cell-death-does-not-control-rna-silencing-suppression-activity
#11
Ajeet Singh, Vipin Permar, R K Jain, Suneha Goswami, Ranjeet Ranjan Kumar, Tomas Canto, Peter Palukaitis, Shelly Praveen
Groundnut bud necrosis virus induces necrotic symptoms in different hosts. Previous studies showed reactive oxygen species-mediated programmed cell death (PCD) resulted in necrotic symptoms. Transgenic expression of viral protein NSs mimics viral symptoms. Here, we showed a role for NSs in influencing oxidative burst in the cell, by analyzing H2O2 accumulation, activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression levels of vacuolar processing enzymes, H2O2-responsive microRNA 319a.2 plus its possible target metacaspase-8...
May 17, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527257/-polyclonal-antibodies-against-recombinant-dengue-virus-ns3-protein
#12
Liliana Morales, Myriam L Velandia, María Angélica Calderon, Jaime E Castellanos, Jacqueline Chaparro-Olaya
INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a disease caused by one of four serotypes of the dengue virus (DENV) and is endemic in approximately 130 countries. The incidence of dengue has increased dramatically in recent decades, as well as the frequency and magnitude of outbreaks. Despite all efforts, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic treatments for the disease. Accordingly, research on the processes governing the DENV infection cycle is essential to develop vaccines or antiviral therapies. One of themost attractive DENV molecules to investigate is nonstructural protein 3 (NS3), which is essential for viral replication and a major immune target for infection...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526965/complete-sequence-and-genomic-annotation-of-carrot-torradovirus-1
#13
Zuriñe Rozado-Aguirre, Ian Adams, Adrian Fox, Matthew Dickinson, Neil Boonham
Carrot torradovirus 1 (CaTV1) is a new member of the genus Torradovirus within the family Secoviridae. CaTV1 genome sequences were obtained from a previous next-generation sequencing (NGS) study and were compared to other members and tentative new members of the genus. The virus has a bipartite genome, and RACE was used to amplify and sequence each end of RNA1 and RNA2. As a result, RNA1 and RNA2 are estimated to contain 6944 and 4995 nucleotides, respectively, with RNA1 encoding the proteins involved in virus replication, and RNA2 encoding the encapsidation and movement proteins...
May 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526964/characterization-of-a-new-isolate-of-pepper-chlorotic-spot-virus-from-yunnan-province-china
#14
Kuanyu Zheng, Tsung-Chi Chen, Shyi-Dong Yeh, Md Siddiqur Rahman, Xiaoxia Su, Kuo Wu, Ting Li, Zhongkai Zhang, Jiahong Dong
A new isolate, 14YV733, of pepper chlorotic spot virus (PCSV) from chili peppers in Yunnan province of China was identified. The typical tospoviral particles of 80-120 nm in diameter were observed by electron microscopy. The virus caused systemic symptoms in several solanaceous plants and the Brassica rapa L. Chinensis group with mechanical inoculation. The sap from infected leaves reacted positively to a rabbit antibody to the N protein of watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) in immunoblotting. The S, M, and L RNAs of PCSV-14YV733 are 3310 nts, 4711 nts, and 8913 nts long, respectively...
May 19, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526759/il-2-high-tissue-resident-t-cells-in-the-human-liver-sentinels-for-hepatotropic-infection
#15
Laura J Pallett, Jessica Davies, Emily J Colbeck, Francis Robertson, Navjyot Hansi, Nicholas J W Easom, Alice R Burton, Kerstin A Stegmann, Anna Schurich, Leo Swadling, Upkar S Gill, Victoria Male, TuVinh Luong, Amir Gander, Brian R Davidson, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
The liver provides a tolerogenic immune niche exploited by several highly prevalent pathogens as well as by primary and metastatic tumors. We have sampled healthy and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected human livers to probe for a subset of T cells specialized to overcome local constraints and mediate immunity. We characterize a population of T-bet(lo)Eomes(lo)Blimp-1(hi)Hobit(lo) T cells found within the intrahepatic but not the circulating memory CD8 T cell pool expressing liver-homing/retention markers (CD69(+)CD103(+) CXCR6(+)CXCR3(+))...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526563/live-cell-imaging-and-analysis-of-lipid-droplets-biogenesis-in-hcv-infected-cells
#16
Inbar Nevo-Yassaf, Marcos Lovelle, Yaacov Nahmias, Koret Hirschberg, Ella H Sklan
Lipid droplets (LDs) are regulated neutral lipid storage organelles having a central role in numerous cellular processes as well as in various pathologies such as metabolic disorders, immune responses and during pathogen infection. Several viruses were found to use the interface between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and LDs as the site for replication and assembly. Due to the growing significance of LDs, extensive efforts are made to study the mechanism and the dynamics of their formation and life history and how are these diverted or modified by pathogens...
May 16, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526436/intracranial-il-17a-overexpression-decreases-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-by-upregulation-of-abca1-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Junling Yang, Jinghong Kou, Robert Lalonde, Ken-Ichiro Fukuchi
Neuroinflammation is a pervasive feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized by activated microglia, increased proinflammatory cytokines and/or infiltrating immune cells. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are found in AD brain parenchyma and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is identified around deposits of aggregated amyloid β protein (Aβ). However, the role of IL-17A in AD pathogenesis remains elusive. We overexpressed IL-17A in an AD mouse model via recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5)-mediated intracranial gene delivery...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526201/viral-exploitation-of-the-mek-erk-pathway-a-tale-of-vaccinia-virus-and-other-viruses
#18
REVIEW
Cláudio A Bonjardim
The VACV replication cycle is remarkable in the sense that it is performed entirely in the cytoplasmic compartment of vertebrate cells, due to its capability to encode enzymes required either for regulating the macromolecular precursor pool or the biosynthetic processes. Although remarkable, this gene repertoire is not sufficient to confer the status of a free-living microorganism to the virus, and, consequently, the virus relies heavily on the host to successfully generate its progeny. During the complex virus-host interaction, viruses must deal not only with the host pathways to accomplish their temporal demands but also with pathways that counteract viral infection, including the inflammatory, innate and acquired immune responses...
July 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525961/passive-and-active-immunization-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-for-the-young-and-old
#19
Tonya Villafana, Judith Falloon, M Pamela Griffin, Qing Zhu, Mark T Esser
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide and also causes significant disease in the elderly. Despite 60 years of RSV research and vaccine development, there is only one approved medicine to prevent RSV infections. Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the RSV fusion (F) protein, is indicated for preterm infants and children at high-risk for RSV infections. It is an active time in RSV vaccine and mAb development with 14 vaccines and 2 mAbs currently being tested in clinical trials as of 13 February 2017...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525954/construction-of-various-%C3%AE-34-5-deleted-fluorescent-expressing-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-type-1-ohsv-for-generation-and-isolation-of-hsv-based-vectors
#20
Shahriyar Abdoli, Farzin Roohvand, Ladan Teimoori-Toolabi, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Mina Bahrololoumi, Kayhan Azadmanesh
Background: Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV)-based vectors lacking γ34.5 gene, are considered as ideal templates to construct efficient vectors for (targeted) cancer gene therapy. Herein, we reported the construction of three single/dually-flourescence labeled and γ34.5-deleted, recombinant HSV-1 vectors for rapid generation and easy selection/isolation of different HSV-Based vectors. Methods: Generation of recombinant viruses was performed with conventional homologous recombination methods using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and BleCherry harboring shuttle vectors...
July 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
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