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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454428/the-regulation-of-proteins-associated-with-the-cytoskeleton-by-hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-during-hepatocarcinogenesis
#1
Fanyun Kong, Hongjuan You, Renxian Tang, Kuiyang Zheng
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major malignant disease worldwide, and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the primary causes for this type of cancer. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is a non-structural protein encoded by the viral genome that has significant effects on the pathogenesis of HCC. With the development of high-throughput assays and technologies, the abnormal HBx-induced expression of certain cellular proteins with assorted biological functions has been investigated. These target proteins identified by various methods include specific proteins associated with the cellular cytoskeleton, which contribute to HBx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454211/targeting-the-ras-raf-mek-erk-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
Sufang Yang, Guohua Liu
Although the biological basis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear, effective treatments and improvement of the survival rate remain worthwhile research goals. Abnormal protein signaling pathways contributing to uncontrolled cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis are biomarkers of the carcinogenic process. Certain mutated components or overexpression of the rat sarcoma virus (Ras)/rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (Raf)/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway are increasingly being studied in HCC carcinogenesis...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454117/elimination-of-lmp1-expressing-cells-from-a-monolayer-of-gastric-cancer-ags-cells
#3
Yoshitaka Sato, Shingo Ochiai, Takayuki Murata, Teru Kanda, Fumi Goshima, Hiroshi Kimura
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latently infects malignant epithelial cells in approximately 10% of all gastric cancers. Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), an oncogenic protein, plays an important role in malignant transformation in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma and B-cell lymphoma; however, its expression has not been detected in EBV-associated gastric cancer. To address why LMP1 has not been detected in EBV-positive gastric tumors, we focused on the interactions between LMP1-positive and -negative cells and stably expressed LMP1 in the gastric cancer cell line AGS...
April 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453414/innate-immune-gene-transcript-level-associated-with-the-infection-of-macrophages-with-ectromelia-virus-in-two-different-mouse-strains
#4
Patryk Dolega, Lidia Szulc-Dąbrowska, Magdalena Bossowska, Matylda Mielcarska, Zuzanna Nowak, Felix N Toka
Poxviruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to avoid the immune response of the infected host, and many of these mechanisms have not been fully described. Here, we studied the transcriptional response of innate immune genes in BALB/c and C57BL/6 peritoneal macrophages following infection with the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (ECTV-Mos) with the aim of delineating innate immune genes that contribute to the difference between susceptibility and resistance to lethal infection. We show a generalized downregulation of many genes in four categories (toll-like receptor signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, and type I interferon signaling) of antiviral innate immune receptors, downstream signaling pathways, and responsive components...
April 28, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453384/isolation-and-characterization-of-ulva-prolifera-actin1-gene-and-function-verification-of-the-5-flanking-region-as-a-strong-promoter
#5
Chunhui Wu, Peng Jiang, Yang Guo, Jianguo Liu, Jin Zhao, Huihui Fu
Ulva prolifera is a green macroalgae with an extremely high growth rate that can accumulate biomass with considerable protein content. To set up an available seaweed expression system, a prior step is to isolate endogenous and strong constitutive promoters. For this reason, the full-length genomic actin1 gene from U. prolifera (Upactin1) was cloned and its 5' flanking sequence was obtained by genome walking. The Upactin1 open reading frame consisted of 1134 nucleotides encoding 377 amino acid residues. Besides four exons and three introns in the coding region, an extra leader intron was identified in the 5' untranslated region...
April 28, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449248/betanodavirus-dissection-of-the-viral-life-cycle
#6
REVIEW
C-F Low, B Syarul Nataqain, H-Y Chee, M Z H Rozaini, M Najiah
Progressive research has been recently made in dissecting the molecular biology of Betanodavirus life cycle, the causative pathogen of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in economic important marine fish species. Establishment of betanodavirus infectious clone allows the manipulation of virus genome for functional genomic study, which elucidates the biological event of the viral life cycle at molecular level. The betanodavirus strategizes its replication by expressing anti-apoptosis/antinecrotic proteins to maintain the cell viability during early infection...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449094/hepatic-tm6sf2-overexpression-affects-cellular-apob-trafficking-plasma-lipid-levels-hepatic-steatosis-and-atherosclerosis
#7
Nicole Ehrhardt, Michael E Doche, Shuang Chen, Hui Z Mao, Meghan T Walsh, Candy Bedoya, Maha Guindi, Weidong Xiong, Joseph Ignatius Irudayam, Jahangir Iqbal, Sebastien Fuchs, Samuel W French, M Mahmood Hussain, Moshe Arditi, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Miklós Péterfy
The human TM6SF2 gene has been implicated in plasma lipoprotein metabolism, alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and myocardial infarction in multiple genome-wide association studies. To investigate the role of Tm6sf2 in metabolic homeostasis, we generated mice with elevated expression using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery. Hepatic overexpression of mouse Tm6sf2 resulted in phenotypes previously observed in Tm6sf2-deficient mice including reduced plasma lipid levels, diminished hepatic TG secretion and increased hepatosteatosis...
April 25, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448611/insights-into-intercontinental-spread-of-zika-virus
#8
Dachao Liang, Ross Ka Kit Leung, Shui Shan Lee, Kai Man Kam
The epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in South America has led to World Health Organization's declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. To further inform effective public health policy, an understanding of ZIKV's transmission mechanisms is crucial. To characterize the intercontinental transmission of ZIKV, we compiled and analyzed more than 250 gene sequences together with their sequence-related geographic and temporal information, sampled across 27 countries spanning from 1947 to 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448574/fusion-expression-of-occludin-extracellular-loops-and-an-%C3%AE-helical-bundle-a-new-research-model-for-tight-junction
#9
Xiaojing Chi, Xia Zhao, Wei Wang, Yuqiang Niu, Min Cheng, Xiuying Liu, Sheng Cui, Wei Yang
Tight junctions (TJs) are the outermost structures of intercellular junctions and are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes. However, most TJ proteins are four-time transmembrane proteins and are difficult to express in their correct soluble form, which limits their functional study and therapeutic application. Human occludin (OCLN) is a major component of TJs and an essential co-receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) cell entry. To explore expression strategy for recombinant TJ proteins possessing integrated and functional extracellular loops, OCLN was here used as a model molecule, and several prokaryotic fusion constructs were designed by docking OCLN extracellular loops (ECLs) to HIV-1 gp41 NHR and CHR six-helical bundle (6HV1); then their biophysical features and anti-HCV activity were evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448571/localization-of-adenovirus-morphogenesis-players-together-with-visualization-of-assembly-intermediates-and-failed-products-favor-a-model-where-assembly-and-packaging-occur-concurrently-at-the-periphery-of-the-replication-center
#10
Gabriela N Condezo, Carmen San Martín
Adenovirus (AdV) morphogenesis is a complex process, many aspects of which remain unclear. In particular, it is not settled where in the nucleus assembly and packaging occur, and whether these processes occur in a sequential or a concerted manner. Here we use immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy (immunoEM) to trace packaging factors and structural proteins at late times post infection by either wildtype virus or a delayed packaging mutant. We show that representatives of all assembly factors are present in the previously recognized peripheral replicative zone, which therefore is the AdV assembly factory...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448558/the-herpevac-trial-for-women-sequence-analysis-of-glycoproteins-from-viruses-obtained-from-infected-subjects
#11
Miguel A Minaya, Maria Korom, Hong Wang, Robert B Belshe, Lynda A Morrison
The Herpevac Trial for Women revealed that three dose HSV-2 gD vaccine was 58% protective against culture-positive HSV-1 genital disease, but it was not protective against HSV-2 infection or disease. To determine whether vaccine-induced immune responses had selected for a particular gD sequence in strains infecting vaccine recipients compared with viruses infecting control subjects, genetic sequencing studies were carried out on viruses isolated from subjects infected with HSV-1 or HSV-2. We identified naturally occurring variants among the gD sequences obtained from 83 infected subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448456/upregulation-of-mirna-4776-in-influenza-virus-infected-bronchial-epithelial-cells-is-associated-with-downregulation-of-nfkbib-and-increased-viral-survival
#12
Sreekumar Othumpangat, Nicole B Bryan, Donald H Beezhold, John D Noti
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. One key transcription factor that is activated upon IAV infection is nuclear factor Kappa B (NF-κB). NF-κB regulation involves the inhibitor proteins NF-κB inhibitor beta (NFKBIB), (also known as IκB β), which form complexes with NF-κB to sequester it in the cytoplasm. In this study, microarray data showed differential expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs) on exposure to IAV. Target scan analysis revealed that miR-4776, miR-4514 and miR-4742 potentially target NFKBIB messenger RNA (mRNA)...
April 27, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448437/sulfiredoxin-may-promote-cervical-cancer-metastasis-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway
#13
Kangyun Lan, Yuni Zhao, Yue Fan, Binbin Ma, Shanshan Yang, Qin Liu, Hua Linghu, Hui Wang
The abnormal elevation of sulfiredoxin (Srx/SRXN1)-an antioxidant enzyme whose main function is to protect against oxidative stress-has been shown to be closely correlated with the progression of several types of cancer, including human cervical cancer. However, the molecular mechanism by which Srx promotes tumor progression, especially cancer metastasis in cervical cancer, has not been elucidated. Here, we show that Srx expression gradually increases during the progression of human cervical cancer and its expression level is closely correlated with lymph node metastasis...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448401/clinical-significance-of-incidentally-detected-torus-tubarius-calcification
#14
Karen Buch, Rohini N Nadgir, Muhammad Mustafa Qureshi, Al Ozonoff, Osamu Sakai
OBJECTIVES: Calcification of the torus tubarius has been rarely reported in the literature. Histopathologic studies have previously described cases of Eustachian tube calcification and cite an association with increasing patient age. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of torus tubarius calcification and potential clinical significance on an unrestricted patient population using thin-section computed tomography (CT), which has not been previously reported. METHODS: After the institutional review board approval, 1571 consecutive patients who underwent noncontrast head CT between January 2011 and July 2011 were retrospectively reviewed for torus tubarius calcification...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448121/hiv-1-frameshift-rna-targeted-triazoles-inhibit-propagation-of-replication-competent-and-multi-drug-resistant-hiv-in-human-cells
#15
Thomas A Hilimire, Jeffrey M Chamberlain, Viktoriya Anokhina, Ryan P Bennett, Oliver Swart, Jason R Myers, John M Ashton, Ryan A Stewart, Aaron L Featherston, Kathleen Gates, Eric D Helms, Harold C Smith, Stephen Dewhurst, Benjamin L Miller
The HIV-1 frameshift-stimulating (FSS) RNA, a regulatory RNA of critical importance in the virus' life cycle, has been posited as a novel target for anti-HIV drug development. We report the synthesis and evaluation of triazole-containing compounds able to bind the FSS with high affinity and selectivity. Readily accessible synthetically, these compounds are less toxic than previously reported olefin congeners. We show for the first time that FSS-targeting compounds have antiviral activity against replication-competent HIV in human cells, including a highly cytopathic, multi-drug-resistant strain...
April 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448054/lipid-droplet-isolation-for-quantitative-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#16
Kathrin Rösch, Marcel Kwiatkowski, Hartmut Schlüter, Eva Herker
Lipid droplets are vital to the replication of a variety of different pathogens, most prominently the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), as the putative site of virion morphogenesis. Quantitative lipid droplet proteome analysis can be used to identify proteins that localize to or are displaced from lipid droplets under conditions such as virus infections. Here, we describe a protocol that has been successfully used to characterize the changes in the lipid droplet proteome following infection with HCV. We use Stable Isotope Labeling with Amino Acids in Cell Culture (SILAC) and thus label the complete proteome of one population of cells with "heavy" amino acids to quantitate the proteins by mass spectrometry...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447465/transferrin-dressed-virus-like-ternary-nanoparticles-with-aggregation-induced-emission-for-targeted-delivery-and-rapid-cytosolic-release-of-sirna
#17
Tingbin Zhang, Weisheng Guo, Chunqiu Zhang, Jing Yu, Jing Xu, Shuyi Li, Jian-Hua Tian, Paul C Wang, Jinfeng Xing, Xing-Jie Liang
Viruses have evolved to be outstandingly efficient at gene delivery, but their use as vectors is limited by safety risks. Inspired by the structure of viruses, we constructed a virus-mimicking vector (denoted as TR4@siRNA@Tf NCs) with virus-like architecture and infection properties. Composed of a hydrophilic peptide, an AIEgen and a lipophilic tail, TR4 imitates the viral capsid and endows the vector with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) properties as well as efficient siRNA compaction. The outer glycoprotein transferrin (Tf) mimics the viral envelope protein, and endows the vector with reduced cytotoxicity as well as enhanced targeting capability...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447192/rescue-of-a-wild-type-rabies-virus-from-cloned-cdna-and-assessment-of-the-proliferative-capacity-of-recombinant-viruses
#18
Qin Tian, Yifei Wang, Qiong Zhang, Jun Luo, Mingzhu Mei, Yongwen Luo, Xiaofeng Guo
Reverse genetic systems (RGS) have been widely used for fixed rabies virus (RABV) strains. However, RGS, for wild-type (wt) strains, have been seldom reported despite the value of this approach in defining the biological characteristics of these strains. In this work, we developed a wt RGS using a swine-origin RABV strain (GD-SH-01) for the first time. In order to have a better understanding of the contribution and function of individual gene on viral proliferation for wt RABV isolates, we constructed a full-length cDNA clone of GD-SH-01 and exchanged the single genes encoding RABV protein of a highly attenuated RABV strain HEP-Flury with those of the virulent strain...
April 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446681/minute-virus-of-mice-mvm-inhibits-transcription-of-the-cyclin-b1-gene-during-infection
#19
Matthew S Fuller, Kinjal Majumder, David J Pintel
Replication of minute virus of mice (MVM) induces a sustained cellular DNA damage response (DDR) which the virus then exploits to prepare the nuclear environment for effective parvovirus takeover. An essential aspect of the MVM-induced DDR is the establishment of a potent pre-mitotic block, which we previously found to be independent of activated p21 and ATR/Chk1 signaling. This arrest, unlike others previously reported, depends upon the significant, specific depletion of cyclin B1 and its encoding RNA, which precludes cyclin B1/CDK1 complex function thus preventing mitotic entry...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446680/non-structural-protein-l-species-specificity-supports-a-mouse-origin-for-vilyuisk-human-encephalitis-virus
#20
Melissa Drappier, Fred R Opperdoes, Thomas Michiels
Vilyuisk human encephalitis virus (VHEV) is a picornavirus related to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). VHEV was isolated from human material passaged in mice. Whether this VHEV is from human or mouse origin is therefore unclear. We took advantage of the species-specific activity of the non-structural L* protein of theiloviruses to track the origin of TMEV isolates. TMEV L* inhibits RNase L, the effector enzyme of the interferon pathway. Using co-immunoprecipitation and functional RNase L assays, the species-specificity of RNase L antagonism was tested for L* from a mouse (DA) and a rat (RTV-1) TMEV strain as well as for VHEV...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
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