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virus protein

Vassilis E Papadopoulos, Georgia Nikolopoulou, Ivi Antoniadou, Antonia Karachaliou, Giovanna Arianoglou, Evangelia Emmanouilidou, S Pablo Sardi, Leonidas Stefanis, Kostas Vekrellis
Glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) mutations are the most common genetic contributor to Parkinson's Disease (PD) and are associated with decreased Glucocerebrosidase (GCase) enzymatic activity in PD. PD patients without GBA mutations also exhibit lower levels of GCase activity in the central nervous system (CNS) suggesting a potential contribution of the enzyme activity in disease pathogenesis, possibly by alteration of lysosomal function. α-synuclein, a protein with a central role in PD pathogenesis, has been shown to be secreted partly in association with exosomes...
March 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Neha J Pancholi, Matthew D Weitzman
During viral replication in the nucleus, the DNA genomes of adenoviruses are accessible to cellular DNA-binding proteins. Human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) targets the cellular Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex (MRN) to evade detection by the DNA damage response (DDR). Ad5 mutants that cannot target MRN have reduced viral propagation. Previous studies showed that diverse adenovirus serotypes interact differently with MRN. While these studies revealed diverse MRN interactions among serotypes, it remains unclear how these differences influence viral replication...
March 13, 2018: Virology
Hong-Jie Li, Dong-Sheng Gao, Yong-Tao Li, Yong-Sheng Wang, Hong-Ying Liu, Jun Zhao
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the Coronaviridae family, causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality rates in neonatal piglets. Severe outbreaks of PEDV variants have re-emerged in Asia and North America since 2010, causing tremendous economic losses to the swine industry. The lack of effective therapeutic treatment promotes the research for new antivirals. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has been reported as a potential antiviral drug for certain viruses. In this study, the antiviral effect of LiCl on PEDV in Vero cells was evaluated...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Amporn Suphatrakul, Thaneeya Duangchinda, Natapong Jupatanakul, Kanjanawadee Prasittisa, Suppachoke Onnome, Jutharat Pengon, Bunpote Siridechadilok
Reporter virus is a versatile tool to visualize and to analyze virus infections. However, for flaviviruses, it is difficult to maintain the inserted reporter genes on the viral genome, limiting its use in several studies that require homogeneous virus particles and several rounds of virus replication. Here, we showed that flanking inserted GFP genes on both sides with ribosome-skipping 2A sequences improved the stability and the consistency of their fluorescent signals for dengue-virus-serotype 2 (DENV2) reporter viruses...
2018: PloS One
Mitchell R White, Ruth Kandel, I-Ni Hsieh, Xavier De Luna, Kevan L Hartshorn
Recent studies have shown that the Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid protein (βA) can inhibit growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses. We reported that the 42 amino acid βA protein inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro and modulates activation of neutrophils and monocytes exposed IAV. We here show that fragments composed of the N and C terminal domain of βA42, including βA22-42 and the 8 amino acid βA35-42, retain viral neutralizing and viral aggregating activity, whereas fragments lacking the C-terminal amino acids 41 and 42 (e...
2018: PloS One
Allison A Lindgren, Adam R Filipowicz, Julian B Hattler, Soon Ok Kim, Hye Kyung Chung, Marcelo J Kuroda, Edward M Johnson, Woong-Ki Kim
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 infection of the brain and related cognitive impairment remain prevalent in HIV-1-infected subjects despite combination antiretroviral therapy. Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a newly identified host restriction factor that blocks the replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses in myeloid cells. Cell-cycle-regulated phosphorylation at residue Thr592 and viral protein X (Vpx)-mediated degradation of SAMHD1 have been shown to bypass SAMHD1 restriction in vitro...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Koh-Hei Yamada, Ryuichi Majima, Toyofumi Yamaguchi, Naoki Inoue
Background Previously, we established a reporter cell line for human cytomegalovirus and screened anti-human cytomegalovirus compounds using the cell line. In this study, we characterized one of the identified compounds, 2,4-diamino-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine (coded as 35C10). Methods 50% Effective concentrations (EC50s) and 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50s) of 35C10 and its derivatives in human fibroblasts were determined by X-gal staining of the cells infected with human cytomegalovirus Towne strain expressing β-galactosidase...
January 2018: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
Ana Carla Peixoto Guissoni, Célia Maria Almeida Soares, Kareem R Badr, Fabiola Sousa Ficcadori, Ana Flávia Alves Parente, Juliana Alves Parente, Lilian Cristina Baeza, Menira Souza, Divina das Dores de Paula Cardoso
Human Adenoviruses (HAdVs) are etiological agents of different syndromes such as gastroenteritis, cystitis, ocular, and respiratory diseases, and infection by these viruses may cause alterations in cellular homeostasis. The objective of the study was the proteomic analysis of A-549 cells infected with HAdV-40 using LC-MS. At 30 h of infection, the quantitative analysis revealed 336 differentially expressed proteins. From them, 206 were induced (up-regulated) and 130 were suppressed (down-regulated). The majority of up-regulated proteins were related to energy, cellular organization, stress response, and apoptosis pathways...
March 15, 2018: Virus Genes
Edward E Walsh, Lu Wang, Ann R Falsey, Xing Qiu, Anthony Corbett, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Thomas J Mariani, David J Topham, Mary T Caserta
Background: Maternally derived serum antibody and viral load are thought to influence disease severity in primary Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection. As part of the AsPIRES study of RSV pathogenesis we correlated various serum antibody concentrations and viral load with disease severity. Methods: Serum neutralizing titers and IgG to RSV F, Ga and Gb proteins, the CX3C region of G, and nasal viral load were measured in 139 full-term previously healthy infants with primary RSV infection and correlated with illness severity...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Cheleka A M Mpande, One B Dintwe, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Nicole Bilek, Mark Hatherill, Elisa Nemes, Thomas J Scriba
Background: Maintenance of long-lasting immunity is thought to depend on stem cell memory T cells (TSCM ), which have superior self-renewing capacity, longevity and proliferative potential compared with central memory (TCM ) or effector (TEFF ) T cells. Our knowledge of TSCM derives primarily from studies of virus-specific CD8+ TSCM . We aimed to determine if infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), the etiological agent of tuberculosis, generates antigen-specific CD4+ TSCM and to characterize their functional ontology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ken Matsui, Makoto Ozawa, Maki Kiso, Makoto Yamashita, Toshihiko Maekawa, Minoru Kubota, Sumio Sugano, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Influenza A viruses cause seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. The emergence of viruses resistant to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and M2 ion channel inhibitors underlines the need for alternate anti-influenza drugs with novel mechanisms of action. Here, we report the discovery of a host factor as a potential target of anti-influenza drugs. By using cell-based virus replication screening of a chemical library and several additional assays, we identified clonidine as a new anti-influenza agent in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuan Luo, Teena Mohan, Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Lei Deng, Bao-Zhong Wang
Seasonal influenza vaccines have proven to be effective against well-matched viruses in healthy adults. However, rapid accumulation of mutations in the main antigenic surface proteins of influenza can compromise the efficiency of flu vaccines. Occasionally, influenza pandemics arise and present a different type of challenge to current seasonal vaccines. Novel vaccination strategies that can educate the host immune system to generate immune responses focusing on conserved epitopes on theses antigenic surface proteins are crucial for controlling and limiting influenza epidemics and pandemics...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gi Young Lee, Deok-Gyun You, Hye-Ra Lee, Sun Wook Hwang, C Justin Lee, Young Do Yoo
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial inner membrane protein known to regulate mitochondrial ROS production and to act as an essential redox sensor in mitochondrial dynamics. Although its physiological roles have been studied for a decade, the biophysical mechanisms that explain these activities of Romo1 are unclear. In this study, we report that Romo1 is a unique mitochondrial ion channel that differs from currently identified eukaryotic ion channels. Romo1 is a highly conserved protein with structural features of class II viroporins, which are virus-encoded nonselective cation channels...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Memi Muto, Wataru Kamitani, Mizuki Sakai, Minato Hirano, Shintaro Kobayashi, Hiroaki Kariwa, Kentaro Yoshii
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe neurological disease, but the pathogenetic mechanism is unclear. The conformational structure of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of TBEV is associated with its virulence. We tried to identify host proteins interacting with the 3'-UTR of TBEV. Cellular proteins of HEK293T cells were co-precipitated with biotinylated RNAs of the 3'-UTR of low- and high-virulence TBEV strains and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Fifteen host proteins were found to bind to the 3'-UTR of TBEV, four of which- cold shock domain containing-E1 (CSDE1), spermatid perinuclear RNA binding protein (STRBP), fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), and interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (ILF3)-bound specifically to that of the low-virulence strain...
March 12, 2018: Virus Research
Annebel R De Vleeschauwer, Xiaocui Zhou, David J Lefebvre, Annabelle Garnier, Fleur Watier, Charly Pignon, Sandrine A Lacour, Stephan Zientara, Labib Bakkali-Kassimi, Kris De Clercq, Bernard Klonjkowski
Vaccination is a key element in the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). The majority of the antigenic sites that induce protective immune responses are localized on the FMD virus (FMDV) capsid that is formed by four virus-encoded structural proteins, VP1 to VP4. In the present study, recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2)-based FMD vaccines, Cav-P1/3C R° and Cav-VP1 R°, respectively expressing the structural P1 precursor protein along with the non-structural 3C protein or expressing the structural VP1 protein of the FMDV strain O/FRA/1/2001, were evaluated as novel vaccines against FMD...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Minghua Zheng, Jie Jiang, Xiao Zhang, Nan Wang, Kaihang Wang, Qiong Li, Tingting Li, Qingshan Lin, Yingbin Wang, Hai Yu, Ying Gu, Jun Zhang, Shaowei Li, Ningshao Xia
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is associated with acute hepatitis disease. Numerous truncated HEV capsid proteins have been successfully expressed using different expression systems. Among these, p495, a protein truncated at its N- and C-termini by 111 and 54 amino acids (aa), respectively (HEV ORF2 aa 112-606) can self-assemble into T = 1 virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed by insect cells. A shorter p239 (aa 368-606) protein is a particulate antigen that we have previously used in our commercialized HEV vaccine, Hecolin...
March 12, 2018: Vaccine
Nisar Ahmed, Adeel Riaz, Zahra Zubair, Muhammad Saqib, Sehrish Ijaz, Muhammad Shah Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Ahmed Al-Qahtani, Muhammad Mubin
BACKGROUND: The infection in dogs due to canine parvovirus (CPV), is a highly contagious one with high mortality rate. The present study was undertaken for a detailed genetic analysis of partial VP2 gene i.e., 630 bp isolated from rectal swab samples of infected domestic and stray dogs from all areas of district Faisalabad. Monitoring of viruses is important, as continuous prevalence of viral infection might be associated with emergence of new virulent strains. METHODS: In the present study, 40 rectal swab samples were collected from diarrheic dogs from different areas of district Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 2014-15 and screened for the presence of CPV by immunochromatography...
March 15, 2018: Virology Journal
Richard Lindqvist, Chaitanya Kurhade, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Flaviviruses are a group of diverse and emerging arboviruses and an immense global health problem. A number of flaviviruses are neurotropic, causing severe encephalitis and even death. Type I interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense of the innate immune system against flavivirus infection. IFNs elicit the concerted action of numerous interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to restrict both virus infection and replication. Viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an ISG with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple flaviviruses in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jarrod S Johnson, Sasha Y Lucas, Lynn M Amon, Stephanie Skelton, Rodolfo Nazitto, Sara Carbonetti, D Noah Sather, Dan R Littman, Alan Aderem
Myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) have the innate capacity to sense pathogens and orchestrate immune responses. However, DCs do not mount efficient immune responses to HIV-1, primarily due to restriction of virus reverse transcription, which prevents accumulation of viral cDNA and limits its detection through the cGAS-STING pathway. By allowing reverse transcription to proceed, we find that DCs detect HIV-1 in distinct phases, before and after virus integration. Blocking integration suppresses, but does not abolish, activation of the transcription factor IRF3, downstream interferon (IFN) responses, and DC maturation...
March 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Cynthia de la Fuente, Chelsea Pinkham, Deemah Dabbagh, Brett Beitzel, Aura Garrison, Gustavo Palacios, Kimberley Alex Hodge, Emanuel F Petricoin, Connie Schmaljohn, Catherine E Campbell, Aarthi Narayanan, Kylene Kehn-Hall
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191983.].
2018: PloS One
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