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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806733/the-interaction-between-endogenous-30s-ribosomal-subunit-protein-s11-and-cucumber-mosaic-virus-ls2b-protein-affects-viral-replication-infection-and-gene-silencing-suppressor-activity
#1
Ruilin Wang, Zhiyou Du, Zhenqing Bai, Zongsuo Liang
Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a model virus for plant-virus protein interaction and mechanism research because of its wide distribution, high-level of replication and simple genome structure. The 2b protein is a multifunctional protein encoded by CMV that suppresses RNA silencing-based antiviral defense and contributes to CMV virulence in host plants. In this report, 12 host proteins were identified as CMV LS2b binding partners using the yeast two-hybrid screen system from the Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806695/use-of-peptide-aptamers-cationic-peptides-and-artificial-zinc-finger-proteins-to-generate-resistance-to-plant-viruses
#2
REVIEW
Takashi Sera
Various RNA/DNA viruses have caused severe infectious diseases in plants as well as animals, including humans, and been a threat to the production of agricultural crops. Therefore, prevention of plant virus infections is a major objective in crop protection. One attractive approach is to inhibit functions of viral proteins responsible for virus infections. In this review, I describe the status using such approaches to confer virus resistance to plants by three types of peptides/proteins: peptide aptamers, artificial zinc finger proteins and acidic peptides...
August 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806629/aseptic-meningitis-in-adults-and-children-diagnostic-and-management-challenges
#3
Bhavarth Shukla, Elizabeth A Aguilera, Lucrecia Salazar, Susan H Wootton, Quanhathai Kaewpoowat, Rodrigo Hasbun
BACKGROUND: Aseptic meningitis represents a common diagnostic and management dilemma to clinicians. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical epidemiology, diagnostic evaluations, management, and outcomes between adults and children with aseptic meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 through September 2010 at 9 Memorial Hermann Hospitals in Houston, TX. Patients age≥2months who presented with community-acquired aseptic meningitis with a CSF white blood cell count >5cells/mm(3) and a negative Gram stain and cultures were enrolled...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806616/parvovirus-b19-integration-into-human-cd36-erythroid-progenitor-cells
#4
Tyler Janovitz, Susan Wong, Neal S Young, Thiago Oliveira, Erik Falck-Pedersen
The pathogenic autonomous human parvovirus B19 (B19V) productively infects erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional similarities between B19V nonstructural protein (NS1), a DNA binding endonuclease, and the Rep proteins of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) led us to hypothesize that NS1 may facilitate targeted nicking of the human genome and B19 vDNA integration. We adapted an integration capture sequencing protocol (IC-Seq) to screen B19V infected human CD36+ EPCs for viral integrants, and discovered 40,000 unique B19V integration events distributed throughout the human genome...
August 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806134/ilir-viral-a-web-resource-for-lir-motif-containing-proteins-in-viruses
#5
Anne-Claire Jacomin, Siva Samavedam, Hannah Charles, Ioannis P Nezis
Macroautophagy/autophagy has been shown to mediate the selective lysosomal degradation of pathogenic bacteria and viruses (xenophagy), and to contribute to the activation of innate and adaptative immune responses. Autophagy can serve as an antiviral defense mechanism but also as a pro-viral process during infection. Atg8-family proteins play a central role in the autophagy process due to their ability to interact with components of the autophagy machinery as well as selective autophagy receptors and adaptor proteins...
August 14, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805642/hytrosaviruses-current-status-and-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Henry M Kariithi, Irene K Meki, Drion G Boucias, Adly Mm Abd-Alla
Salivary gland hytrosaviruses (SGHVs) are entomopathogenic dsDNA, enveloped viruses that replicate in the salivary glands (SGs) of the adult dipterans, Glossina spp (GpSGHV) and Musca domestica (MdSGHV). Although belonging to the same virus family (Hytrosaviridae), SGHVs have distinct morphologies and pathobiologies. Two GpSGHV strains potentially account for the differential pathologies in lab-bred tsetse. New data suggest incorporation of host-derived cellular proteins and lipids into mature SGHVs. In addition to within the SGs, MdSGHV undergoes limited replication in the corpora allata, potentially disrupting hormone biosynthesis, and GpSGHV replicates in the milk glands providing a transmission conduit to progeny tsetse...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804866/virally-vectored-vaccine-delivery-medical-needs-mechanisms-advantages-and-challenges
#7
Daniel D Pinschewer
Vaccines represent one of the most successful chapters in the history of medicine. Over the past decades, the advent of recombinant cDNA technology has enabled the biomedical community to genetically engineer viruses for vaccine delivery purposes. As a starting point, this review evaluates the unmet medical needs, which drive scientists and industry to exploit such fundamentally new technology for human vaccination. The author discusses the molecular functioning, production and safety profile of replication-competent and -deficient viral vector systems, representing two fundamentally distinct classes of "genetic vaccines"...
August 14, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804553/sirt3-attenuates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-suppression-of-bnip3
#8
Qiong Du, Bin Zhu, Qing Zhai, Bo Yu
Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline antibiotic widely used in cancer treatment. Although its antitumor efficacy appears to be dose dependent, its clinical use is greatly restricted by development of cardiotoxicity. Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3) is the major deacetylase within the mitochondrial matrix that plays an important role in regulation of cardiac function. This study was performed to identify the regulatory role of Sirt3 on Dox-induced cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction in rats in vivo and in vitro...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803958/identification-and-characterization-of-lymph-organ-micrornas-in-red-swamp-crayfish-procambarus-clarkii-infected-with-white-spot-syndrome-virus
#9
Zhi-Qiang Du, Xiao-Yun Leng, Xiu-Li Shen, Yan-Hui Jin, Xin-Cang Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) were important post-transcriptional regulators and played vital roles in innate immunity system of invertebrates, especially in the aspect of antivirus. In this study, using high-throughput small RNAs Illumina sequencing system, differently expressed miRNAs (DEMs) from lymph organs in red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, infected with white spot syndrome virus, were identified. As a result, 32 known miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs were identified in crayfish lymph organ small RNAs library of NG and WG...
August 10, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803951/monocytes-inhibit-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-trail-expression-on-cd56-bright-nk-cells
#10
Dalila Mele, Stefania Mantovani, Barbara Oliviero, Giulia Grossi, Andrea Lombardi, Mario U Mondelli, Stefania Varchetta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection. We have previously shown that culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) enhance tumor necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression on healthy but not on HCV-infected patient-derived NK cells, which was likely dependent on accessory cells. Here we sought mechanistic insights involved in altered TRAIL upregulation in this setting. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from controls and HCV-infected patients were exposed to HCVcc...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803740/vorinostat-renders-the-replication-competent-latent-reservoir-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-vulnerable-to-clearance-by-cd8-t-cells
#11
Julia A Sung, Katherine Sholtis, Jennifer Kirchherr, Joann D Kuruc, Cynthia L Gay, Jeffrey L Nordstrom, Catherine M Bollard, Nancie M Archin, David M Margolis
Latently human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells are transcriptionally quiescent and invisible to clearance by the immune system. To demonstrate that the latency reversing agent vorinostat (VOR) induces a window of vulnerability in the latent HIV reservoir, defined as the triggering of viral antigen production sufficient in quantity and duration to allow for recognition and clearance of persisting infection, we developed a latency clearance assay (LCA). The LCA is a quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA) that includes the addition of immune effectors capable of clearing cells expressing viral antigen...
July 29, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803703/viral-hijacking-of-formins-in-neurodevelopmental-pathologies
#12
REVIEW
Karen Racicot, Sarah VanOeveren, Art Alberts
The 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak caused global concern when it was determined to cause microcephaly, hearing loss, and other neurodevelopmental manifestations upon fetal exposure. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the interactions between ZIKV and the pregnant host, but there is still a critical need to understand how ZIKV and other neurotropic viruses affect fetal neurodevelopment. Diaphanous-related formins (Diaphs) have recently been identified as microcephaly-associated proteins in humans and mice...
August 10, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803415/a-measles-outbreak-in-sindh-pakistan-caused-by-a-genotype-b3-virus
#13
Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Abdul Hameed, Naeem Ali, Massab Umair, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Muhammad Suleman Rana, Salmaan Sharif, Uzma Bashir Aamir, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Adnan Khurshid, Ribqa Akhtar, Nayab Mehmood, Nazish Badar
Measles continues to be a major public health issue causing substantial outbreaks worldwide, mostly affecting young children. Molecular analysis of measles viruses provides important information on outbreak linkages and transmission pathways that can be helpful towards implementation of appropriate control programs. In Pakistan, the control of measles is still tenuous, and progress towards elimination has been irregular and challenging. In the 2013 measles outbreak we received 4,682 sera collected from suspected patients in 23 districts across Sindh...
August 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802994/expression-and-purification-of-norovirus-virus-like-particles-in-escherichia-coli-and-their-immunogenicity-in-mice
#14
Yuqi Huo, Xin Wan, Tong Ling, Jie Wu, Wenhui Wang, Shuo Shen
Norovirus (NoV) virus like particles (VLPs) produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells have been tested in human volunteers as vaccine candidate and were shown to be protective against NoV induced acute gastroenteritis. In this study, prevailing Sydney-2012-like NoV major capsid protein gene with or without N-terminal deletions (N26 and N38, 26 and 38 amino acids deleted from N terminus,respectively) were sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector, pCold III and pCold IV. Soluble and insoluble proteins were detected for both vectors after induction and higher levels of protein expression were observed for constructs pCold III-N26 and pCold III-N38...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802715/elucidating-virus-entry-using-a-tetracysteine-tagged-virus
#15
REVIEW
Bjorn-Patrick Mohl, Polly Roy
Fluorescent tags constitute an invaluable tool in facilitating a deeper understanding of the mechanistic processes governing virus-host interactions. However, when selecting a fluorescent tag for in vivo imaging of cells, a number of parameters and aspects must be considered. These include whether the tag may affect and interfere with protein conformation or localization, cell toxicity, spectral overlap, photo-stability and background. Cumulatively, these constitute challenges to be overcome. Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of the Orbivirus genus in the Reoviridae family, is a non-enveloped virus that is comprised of two architecturally complex capsids...
August 9, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802578/purification-of-functional-reprogramming-factors-in-mammalian-cell-using-flag-tag
#16
Min-Joon Han, HaRam Kim, Carla O'Reilly, Chun-Hyung Kim
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology is a method for generating pluripotent stem cells in vitro from fully differentiated cells such as fibroblast cells. The potential applications of iPSC technology in cell therapy and disease modeling could influence current medical practices. Despite current advances in iPSC technology, many patient-derived reprogrammed cells are not suitable for clinical trial because most protocols rely on virus-based techniques, which pose the risk of integration of the viral genome into the chromosomes...
August 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802158/lipidation-increases-antiviral-activities-of-coronavirus-fusion-inhibiting-peptides
#17
Jung-Eun Park, Tom Gallagher
Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause life-threatening respiratory diseases. Their infectious entry requires viral spike (S) proteins, which attach to cell receptors, undergo proteolytic cleavage, and then refold in a process that catalyzes virus-cell membrane fusion. Fusion-inhibiting peptides bind to S proteins, interfere with refolding, and prevent infection. Here we conjugated fusion-inhibiting peptides to various lipids, expecting this to secure peptides onto cell membranes and thereby increase antiviral potencies...
August 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802032/deciphering-critical-amino-acid-residues-to-modify-and-enhance-the-binding-affinity-of-ankyrin-scaffold-specific-to-capsid-protein-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1
#18
Somphot Saoin, Tanchanok Wisitponchai, Kannaporn Intachai, Koollawat Chupradit, Sutpirat Moonmuang, Sawitree Nangola, Kuntida Kitidee, Kanda Fanhchaksai, Vannajan Sanghiran Lee, Saw-See Hong, Pierre Boulanger, Phimonphan Chuankhayan, Chun-Jung Chen, Chatchai Tayapiwatana
BACKGROUND: AnkGAG1D4 is an artificial ankyrin repeat protein which recognizes the capsid protein (CA) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and exhibits the intracellular antiviral activity on the viral assembly process. Improving the binding affinity of AnkGAG1D4 would potentially enhance the AnkGAG1D4-mediated antiviral activity. OBJECTIVE: To augment the affinity of AnkGAG1D4 scaffold towards its CA target, through computational predictions and experimental designs...
August 8, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801732/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-alopecia-areata-and-viral-antigen-exposure
#19
Christopher T Richardson, Matthew S Hayden, Elaine S Gilmore, Brian Poligone
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring alopecia with T-cell infiltration at the affected hair follicle. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the potential link between hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen exposure and AA. METHODS: Two pediatric patients with AA following hepatitis B vaccination were identified in a general dermatology clinic. A bioinformatics analysis and an electronic medical record (EMR) database query were performed at the University of Rochester Medical Center to identify patients with AA, coexisting viral infections, vaccinations, or interferon (IFN) therapy in order to determine if the presence of AA and these conditions was higher than in AA patients without these associated conditions or therapy...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801369/hepatitis-b-virus-upregulates-the-expression-of-c-reactive-protein-both-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#20
Shiyong Hao, Yan Wang, Guosheng Gao, Zhishan Li
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection induces immune-mediated inflammatory responses. The C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker that is synthesized by the liver. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of HBV infection on the expression of CRP and its clinical significance. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was employed to examine the expression of CRP mRNA in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines HepG2 and HepG2.2.15. A fully automatic biochemical analyzer was used to examine the serum levels of CRP in patients with chronic HBV infections and in healthy controls...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
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