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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446677/variable-inhibition-of-zika-virus-replication-by-different-wolbachia-strains-in-mosquito-cell-cultures
#1
Michaela J Schultz, Sharon Isern, Scott F Michael, Ronald B Corley, John Connor, Horacio M Frydman
Mosquito-borne arboviruses are a major source of human disease. One strategy to reduce arbovirus disease is to reduce the mosquito's ability to transmit virus. Mosquito infection with bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia pipientis wMel, is a novel strategy to reduce Aedes mosquito competency for flavivirus infection. However, experiments investigating cyclic environmental temperatures have shown a reduction in maternal transmission of wMel potentially weakening the integration of this strain into a mosquito population relative to other Wolbachia strains...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446674/broadening-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses-against-hepatitis-c-virus-by-vaccination-with-ns3-overlapping-peptide-panels-in-cross-priming-liposomes
#2
Jonathan Filskov, Marianne Mikkelsen, Paul R Hansen, Jan P Christensen, Allan R Thomsen, Peter Andersen, Jens Bukh, Else Marie Agger
Despite the introduction of effective drugs to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, a vaccine would be the only means to substantially reduce the worldwide disease burden. An incomplete understanding of how HCV interacts with its human host and evades immune surveillance has hampered vaccine development. It is generally accepted that in infected individuals, a narrow repertoire of exhausted T cells is a hallmark of persistent infection, whereas broad vigorous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses are associated with control of acute hepatitis C...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417013/erratum-zika-virus-evades-interferon-mediated-antiviral-response-through-the-co-operation-of-multiple-nonstructural-proteins-in-vitro
#3
Yaoxing Wu, Qingxiang Liu, Jie Zhou, Weihong Xie, Cheng Chen, Zefang Wang, Haitao Yang, Jun Cui
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/celldisc.2017.6.].
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410427/tcr-stimulation-strength-is-inversely-associated-with-establishment-of-functional-brain-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells-during-persistent-viral-infection
#4
Saumya Maru, Ge Jin, Todd D Schell, Aron E Lukacher
Establishing functional tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells at sites of infection is a newfound objective of T cell vaccine design. To directly assess the impact of antigen stimulation strength on memory CD8 T cell formation and function during a persistent viral infection, we created a library of mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV) variants with substitutions in a subdominant CD8 T cell epitope that exhibit a broad range of efficiency in stimulating TCR transgenic CD8 T cells. By altering a subdominant epitope in a nonstructural viral protein and monitoring memory differentiation of donor monoclonal CD8 T cells in immunocompetent mice, we circumvented potentially confounding changes in viral infection levels, virus-associated inflammation, size of the immunodominant virus-specific CD8 T cell response, and shifts in TCR affinity that may accompany temporal recruitment of endogenous polyclonal cells...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410425/the-cobas%C3%A2-hcv-gt-is-a-new-tool-that-accurately-identifies-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-for-clinical-practice
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
J A Fernández-Caballero, M Alvarez, N Chueca, A B Pérez, F García
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the correct assignment of HCV genotype/subtypes 1a and 1b by cobas® HCV genotyping (GT) assay (Roche Molecular Diagnostics) compared with nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) sequencing. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical samples from 153 patients submitted for HCV genotyping were studied. After genotyping with the cobas® HCV GT, sequencing of a 387 bp fragment in the NS5B gene and phylogenetic analysis was employed to compare genotyping results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410411/hepatitis-c-virus-impairs-natural-killer-cell-activity-via-viral-serine-protease-ns3
#6
Chang Mo Yang, Joo Chun Yoon, Jeon Han Park, Jae Myun Lee
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by a high frequency of chronic cases owing to the impairment of innate and adaptive immune responses. The modulation of natural killer (NK) cell functions by HCV leads to an impaired innate immune response. However, the underling mechanisms and roles of HCV proteins in this immune evasion are controversial, especially in the early phase of HCV infection. To investigate the role of HCV nonstructural proteins especially NS3 in the impairment of NK functions, NK cells were isolated from the PBMCs by negative selection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403441/clinical-and-laboratory-diagnosis-of-dengue-virus-infection
#7
REVIEW
David A Muller, Alexandra C I Depelsenaire, Paul R Young
Infection with any of the 4 dengue virus serotypes results in a diverse range of symptoms, from mild undifferentiated fever to life-threatening hemorrhagic fever and shock. Given that dengue virus infection elicits such a broad range of clinical symptoms, early and accurate laboratory diagnosis is essential for appropriate patient management. Virus detection and serological conversion have been the main targets of diagnostic assessment for many years, however cross-reactivity of antibody responses among the flaviviruses has been a confounding issue in providing a differential diagnosis...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381638/antibody-epitopes-identified-in-critical-regions-of-dengue-virus-nonstructural-1-protein-in-mouse-vaccination-and-natural-human-infections
#8
Tomer Hertz, P Robert Beatty, Zachary MacMillen, Sarah S Killingbeck, Chunling Wang, Eva Harris
Dengue is a global public health problem and is caused by four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes (DENV1-4). A major challenge in dengue vaccine development is that cross-reactive anti-DENV Abs can be protective or potentially increase disease via Ab-dependent enhancement. DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) has long been considered a vaccine candidate as it avoids Ab-dependent enhancement. In this study, we evaluated survival to challenge in a lethal DENV vascular leak model in mice immunized with NS1 combined with aluminum and magnesium hydroxide, monophosphoryl lipid A + AddaVax, or Sigma adjuvant system+CpG DNA, compared with mice infected with a sublethal dose of DENV2 and mice immunized with OVA (negative control)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381575/filamentous-structures-induced-by-a-phytoreovirus-mediate-viral-release-from-salivary-glands-in-its-insect-vector
#9
Qianzhuo Mao, Zhengfeng Liao, Jiajia Li, Yuyan Liu, Wei Wu, Hongyan Chen, Qian Chen, Dongsheng Jia, Taiyun Wei
Numerous viral pathogens are persistently transmitted by insect vectors and cause agricultural or health problems. These viruses circulate in the vector body, enter the salivary gland, and then are released into the apical plasmalemma-lined cavities where saliva is stored. The cavity plasmalemma of vector salivary glands thus represents the last membrane barrier for viral transmission. Here, we report a novel mechanism used by a persistent virus to overcome this essential barrier. We observed that the infection by rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), a species of the genus Phytoreovirus in the family Reoviridae, induced to form virus-associated filaments constructed by viral nonstructural protein Pns11 within the salivary glands of its leafhopper vector Recilia dorsalis Such filaments attached to actin-based apical plasmalemma and induced an exocytosis-like process for viral release into vector salivary gland cavities, through a direct interaction of Pns11 of RGDV and actin of R...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373913/zika-virus-evades-interferon-mediated-antiviral-response-through-the-co-operation-of-multiple-nonstructural-proteins-in-vitro
#10
Yaoxing Wu, Qingxiang Liu, Jie Zhou, Weihong Xie, Cheng Chen, Zefang Wang, Haitao Yang, Jun Cui
Type I interferon (IFN) serves as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Inhibition of IFN-triggered signaling cascade by Zika virus (ZIKV) plays a critical role for ZIKV to evade antiviral responses from host cells. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV nonstructural proteins NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 inhibit the induction of IFN and downstream IFN-stimulated genes through diverse strategies. NS1 and NS4B of ZIKV inhibit IFNβ signaling at TANK-binding kinase 1 level, whereas NS2B-NS3 of ZIKV impairs JAK-STAT signaling pathway by degrading Jak1 and reduces virus-induced apoptotic cell death...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368102/the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-hijack-of-host-proteins-by-the-1918-spanish-influenza-virus
#11
Qingliang Shen, Danyun Zeng, Baoyu Zhao, Veer S Bhatt, Pingwei Li, Jae-Hyun Cho
The 1918 Spanish influenza A virus (IAV) caused one of the most serious pandemics in history. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the 1918 IAV hijacks the interaction between human CrkII and JNK1. Little is, however, known about its molecular mechanism. Here, we performed X-ray crystallography, NMR relaxation dispersion experiment, and fluorescence spectroscopy to determine the structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic mechanisms underlying the hijacking of CrkII by 1918 IAV NS1. We observed that the interaction between a proline-rich motif in NS1 and the N-terminal SH3 domain of CrkII displays strikingly rapid kinetics and exceptionally high affinity with 100-fold faster kon and 3,300-fold lower Kd compared to those for the CrkII-JNK1 interaction...
April 3, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365807/identification-of-a-linear-b-cell-epitope-on-non-structural-protein-12-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-using-a-monoclonal-antibody
#12
Caihong Bi, Zengyu Shao, Yuanfeng Zhang, Liang Hu, Jiangnan Li, Li Huang, Changjiang Weng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has caused tremendous economic losses and continues to be a serious problem to the swine industry worldwide. The structure and function of PRRSV nonstructural protein 12 (NSP12) is still unknown. In this study, we produced a monoclonal antibody, named as 1E5, against the NSP12 protein of HP (highly pathogenic) -PRRSV strain HuN4. A series of partially overlapping recombinant NSP12 truncations and synthesized peptides were used to define the epitope recognized by 1E5...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345656/structure-and-function-of-the-zika-virus-full-length-ns5-protein
#13
Baoyu Zhao, Guanghui Yi, Fenglei Du, Yin-Chih Chuang, Robert C Vaughan, Banumathi Sankaran, C Cheng Kao, Pingwei Li
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has infected over 1 million people in over 30 countries. ZIKV replicates its RNA genome using virally encoded replication proteins. Nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) contains a methyltransferase for RNA capping and a polymerase for viral RNA synthesis. Here we report the crystal structures of full-length NS5 and its polymerase domain at 3.0 Å resolution. The NS5 structure has striking similarities to the NS5 protein of the related Japanese encephalitis virus. The methyltransferase contains in-line pockets for substrate binding and the active site...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344409/outbreak-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-peste-des-petits-ruminants-in-sheep-flock-imported-for-immediate-slaughter-in-riyadh
#14
M A Mahmoud, S A Galbat
AIM: To detect and identify the causative agent or agents of the following clinical symptoms which were fever, lack of appetite, salivation, vesiculation, erosions of the buccal mucosa, nose, and feet. The signs vary from mild to severe. The mortality rate of the disease is high. The morbidity rate reaches up to 100%. Sheep also show bloody diarrhea and rapid respiration. Sheep flock resident in El-Kharje Governorate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 serum samples and 50 buffy coat samples were collected from Marino sheep flock suffered from high mortalities, fever, lameness, diarrhea, stomatitis, and respiratory distress...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343379/hepatitis-c-virus-nonstructural-5a-protein-hcv-ns5a-inhibits-hepatocyte-apoptosis-through-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mir-503-bcl-2-pathway
#15
Zhengyuan Xie, Zhihua Xiao, Fenfen Wang
The nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) encoded by the human hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome is a multifunctional phosphoprotein. To analyse the influence of NS5A on apoptosis, we established an Hep-NS5A cell line (HepG2 cells that stably express NS5A) and induced apoptosis using tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We utilised the MTT assay to detect cell viability, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot to analyse gene and protein expression, and a luciferase reporter gene experiment to investigate the targeted regulatory relationship...
March 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341934/molecular-chaperone-jiv-promotes-the-rna-replication-of-classical-swine-fever-virus
#16
Kangkang Guo, Haimin Li, Xuechao Tan, Mengmeng Wu, Qizhuang Lv, Wei Liu, Yanming Zhang
The nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a self-splicing ribozyme wherein the precursor protein NS2-3 is cleaved, and the cleavage efficiency of NS2-3 is crucial to the replication of viral RNA. However, the proteolytic activity of NS2 autoprotease may be achieved through a cellular chaperone called J-domain protein interacting with viral protein (Jiv) or its fragment Jiv90, as evidence suggests that Jiv is required for the proper functioning of the NS2 protein of bovine viral diarrhea virus...
March 24, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303345/detection-and-characterization-of-hepatitis-a-virus-circulating-in-egypt
#17
Hazem Hamza, Dina Nadeem Abd-Elshafy, Sayed A Fayed, Mahmoud Mohamed Bahgat, Nagwa Abass El-Esnawy, Emam Abdel-Mobdy
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) still poses a considerable problem worldwide. In the current study, hepatitis A virus was recovered from wastewater samples collected from three wastewater treatment plants over one year. Using RT-PCR, HAV was detected in 43 out of 68 samples (63.2%) representing both inlet and outlet. Eleven positive samples were subjected to sequencing targeting the VP1-2A junction region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all samples belonged to subgenotype IB with few substitutions at the amino acid level...
March 16, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291746/crystal-structure-of-full-length-zika-virus-ns5-protein-reveals-a-conformation-similar-to-japanese-encephalitis-virus-ns5
#18
Anup K Upadhyay, Matthew Cyr, Kenton Longenecker, Rakesh Tripathi, Chaohong Sun, Dale J Kempf
The rapid spread of the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic across various countries in the American continent poses a major health hazard for the unborn fetuses of pregnant women. To date, there is no effective medical intervention. The nonstructural protein 5 of Zika virus (ZIKV-NS5) is critical for ZIKV replication through the 5'-RNA capping and RNA polymerase activities present in its N-terminal methyltransferase (MTase) and C-terminal RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains, respectively. The crystal structure of the full-length ZIKV-NS5 protein has been determined at 3...
March 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288679/muscovy-duck-reovirus-%C3%AF-ns-protein-triggers-autophagy-enhancing-virus-replication
#19
Yijian Wu, Longping Cui, Erpeng Zhu, Wuduo Zhou, Quanxi Wang, Xiaoping Wu, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang, Hung-Jen Liu
BACKGROUND: Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) causes high morbidity and mortality in Muscovy ducklings at 10 days old and can persist in an infected flock until the ducklings of 6 weeks old. It shares common physicochemical properties with avian reovirus (ARV) and differs in coding assignment and pathogenicity. The ARV p17 protein has been shown to trigger autophagy via activation multiple signaling pathways, which benefits virus replication. Since MDRV lacks the p17 protein, whether and how MDRV induces autophagy remains unknown...
March 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283039/hepatitis-c-virus-ns3-protein-enhances-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-invasion-by-promoting-ppm1a-ubiquitination-and-degradation
#20
Yali Zhou, Yan Zhao, Yaoying Gao, Wenjun Hu, Yan Qu, Ning Lou, Ying Zhu, Xiaoping Zhang, Hongmei Yang
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that hepatitis C virus (HCV) contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by directly modulating oncogenic signaling pathways. Protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A (PPM1A) has recently emerged as an important tumor suppressor as it can block a range of tumor-centric signaling pathways through protein dephosphorylation. However, the role and regulatory mechanisms of PPM1A in HCV-infected cells have not been reported. METHODS: Total, cytoplasmic, and nuclear PPM1A protein after HCV infection or overexpression of HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) were detected by western blotting...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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