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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792216/hiv-1-tat-phosphorylation-on-ser-16-residue-modulates-hiv-1-transcription
#1
Andrey Ivanov, Xionghao Lin, Tatiana Ammosova, Andrey V Ilatovskiy, Namita Kumari, Hatajai Lassiter, Nowah Afangbedji, Xiaomei Niu, Michael G Petukhov, Sergei Nekhai
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 transcription activator protein Tat is phosphorylated in vitro by CDK2 and DNA-PK on Ser-16 residue and by PKR on Tat Ser-46 residue. Here we analyzed Tat phosphorylation in cultured cells and its functionality. RESULTS: Mass spectrometry analysis showed primarily Tat Ser-16 phosphorylation in cultured cells. In vitro, CDK2/cyclin E predominantly phosphorylated Tat Ser-16 and PKR-Tat Ser-46. Alanine mutations of either Ser-16 or Ser-46 decreased overall Tat phosphorylation...
May 23, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786899/improved-stable-indocyanine-green-icg-mediated-cancer-optotheranostics-with-naturalized-hepatitis-b-core-particles
#2
Wenjun Shan, Ronghe Chen, Qiang Zhang, Jie Zhao, Binbin Chen, Xi Zhou, Shefang Ye, Shengli Bi, Liming Nie, Lei Ren
In recent years, hepatitis B core protein virus-like particle (HBc VLP) is an impressive biomaterial, which has attracted considerable attention due to favorable properties such as structural stability, high uptake efficiency, and biocompatibility in biomedical applications. Heretofore, only a few attempts have been made to apply it in physical, chemical, and biological therapy for cancer. In this study, a tumor-targeting RGD-HBc VLP is first fabricated through genetic engineering. For image-guided cancer phototherapy, indocyanine green (ICG) is loaded into RGD-HBc VLP via a disassembly/reassembly pathway and electrostatic attraction with high efficiency...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786519/effect-of-vaccination-on-cattle-subclinically-infected-with-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-in-cameroon
#3
Miranda R Bertram, Amy Delgado, Steven J Pauszek, George R Smoliga, Barbara Brito, Carolina Stenfeldt, Ethan J Hartwig, Simon Dickmu Jumbo, Mamoudou Abdoulmoumini, Amba Abona Oliva Marie, Robert Salhine, Luis L Rodriguez, Rebecca Garabed, Jonathan Arzt
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious and economically important livestock diseases worldwide. Four serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV; O, A, SAT1, SAT2) circulate in Cameroon, and a trivalent inactivated vaccine against the three most common serotypes (O, A, SAT2) was recently introduced in 2014. The objective of this study was to characterize vaccine performance in cattle under natural hyperendemic conditions in the Adamawa region of Cameroon. Vaccinated cattle (n = 50) and non-vaccinated controls (n = 100) were monitored by serum and oropharyngeal fluid (OPF) sample collection through a 12-month period...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786120/identification-and-characterization-of-a-tombusvirus-isolated-from-japanese-gentian
#4
Koki Fujisaki, Chika Tateda, Asuka Shirakawa, Mari Iwai, Yoshiko Abe
The DECS (dsRNA isolation, exhaustive amplification, cloning and sequencing) analysis technique for viral diagnosis detected a tombusvirus in Japanese gentian not displaying severe symptoms. We tentatively named this virus "gentian virus A" (GeVA). GeVA systemically but inefficiently infected Japanese gentian without causing visible symptoms, while it led to severe symptoms in some other plants. The complete genome sequence of GeVA indicated a typical tombusvirus-like structure. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of four tombusvirus-encoded proteins did not reveal other known tombusviruses that were closely-related to GeVA, suggesting that it is a novel tombusvirus...
May 21, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785069/genetic-characterization-of-chikungunya-virus-2009-isolates-from-south-india
#5
Gopalsamy Sarangan, Seema A Nayar, Monika Mani, Sudharsana Sundarrajan, Sathish Sankar, Gunasekaran Palani, Gracy Fathima Selvaraj, Jayachandran Damodharan, Karuppaiah Muthumani, Padma Srikanth
Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) is a single stranded positive sense enveloped RNA virus. Re-emergence of CHIKV caused a massive outbreak with severe clinical manifestation affecting multiple organs. The genetic diversity of CHIKV, which caused recurring outbreaks in India, was studied. Blood samples were collected from suspected human cases of CHIKV infection in Chennai, Tamil Nadu and three Northern districts of Kerala in Southern India during the CHIKV outbreak in 2009. A partial E2 gene segment was amplified by RT-PCR...
2018: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783653/avian-influenza-virus-subtype-h9n2-affects-intestinal-microbiota-barrier-structure-injury-and-inflammatory-intestinal-disease-in-the-chicken-ileum
#6
Hongxin Li, Xiaolin Liu, Feiyang Chen, Kejing Zuo, Che Wu, Yiming Yan, Weiguo Chen, Wencheng Lin, Qingmei Xie
Avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AIV) has caused significant losses to the poultry industry due to the high mortality associated with secondary infections attributable to E. coli . This study tries to address the underlying secondary mechanisms after H9N2 AIV infection. Initially, nine day-old specific pathogen-free chickens were assigned to control (uninfected) and H9N2-infected groups, respectively. Using Illumina sequencing, histological examination, and quantitative real-time PCR, it was found that H9N2 AIV caused intestinal microbiota disorder, injury, and inflammatory damage to the intestinal mucosa...
May 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782795/rna-modulates-the-interaction-between-influenza-a-virus-ns1-and-human-pabp1
#7
Bryan H Arias-Mireles, Cyrus M de Rozieres, Kevin Ly, Simpson Joseph
Non-Structural Protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein involved in preventing host-interferon response in Influenza A Virus (IAV). Previous studies have indicated that NS1 also stimulates the translation of viral mRNA by binding to conserved sequences in the viral 5'-UTR. Additionally, NS1 binds to Poly (A) Binding Protein (PABP1) and eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4G (eIF4G). The interaction of NS1 with the viral 5'-UTR, PABP1, and eIF4G has been suggested to specifically enhance the translation of viral mRNAs...
May 21, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782554/hijacking-of-multiple-phospholipid-biosynthetic-pathways-and-induction-of-membrane-biogenesis-by-a-picornaviral-3cd-protein
#8
Sravani Banerjee, David Aponte-Diaz, Calvin Yeager, Suresh D Sharma, Gang Ning, Hyung S Oh, Qingxia Han, Masato Umeda, Yuji Hara, Robert Y L Wang, Craig E Cameron
RNA viruses induce specialized membranous structures for use in genome replication. These structures are often referred to as replication organelles (ROs). ROs exhibit distinct lipid composition relative to other cellular membranes. In many picornaviruses, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) is a marker of the RO. Studies to date indicate that the viral 3A protein hijacks a PI4 kinase to induce PI4P by a mechanism unrelated to the cellular pathway, which requires Golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistance guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1, GBF1, and ADP ribosylation factor 1, Arf1...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781064/evolutionary-analyses-of-sindbis-virus-strains-isolated-from-mosquitoes-in-kenya
#9
Faith Sigei, Fredrick Nindo, Silvanos Mukunzi, Zipporah Ng'ang'a, Rosemary Sang
Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito borne virus maintained in nature in a mosquito-bird cycle, with human outbreaks known to occur in Northern Europe and parts of Africa. We analyzed five SINV strains isolated in Kenya from five different mosquito species and geographic locations between 2007 and 2013. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary inferences were performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference approaches. Selection analyses were carried out based on the virus envelope glycoproteins (E1, E2) and non-structural protein (nsP4) genes...
May 21, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779790/a-hyperthermophilic-phage-decoration-protein-suggests-common-evolutionary-origin-with-herpesvirus-triplex-proteins-and-an-anti-crispr-protein
#10
Nicholas P Stone, Brendan J Hilbert, Daniel Hidalgo, Kevin T Halloran, Jooyoung Lee, Erik J Sontheimer, Brian A Kelch
Virus capsids are protein shells that protect the viral genome from environmental assaults, while maintaining the high internal pressure of the tightly packaged genome. To elucidate how capsids maintain stability under harsh conditions, we investigated the capsid components of the hyperthermophilic phage P74-26. We determined the structure of capsid protein gp87 and show that it has the same fold as decoration proteins in many other phages, despite lacking significant sequence homology. We also find that gp87 is significantly more stable than mesophilic homologs...
April 26, 2018: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779095/crispr-cas13a-targeting-of-rna-virus-in-plants
#11
Kulbhushan Chaudhary
This approach is quite promising to control plant viral diseases and create synthetic networks to better understand the structure/function relationship in RNA and proteins. Plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which causes enormous losses in crop yield worldwide. These viruses replicate into infected cells by highjacking host cellular machinery. Over the last two decades, diverse approaches such as conventional breeding, transgenic approach and gene silencing strategies have been used to control RNA viruses, but escaped due to high rate of mutation...
May 19, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778892/structure-based-design-of-novel-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic-acids-and-analogues-as-pim-1-inhibitors
#12
Bruno Oyallon, Marie Brachet-Botineau, Cédric Logé, Pascal Bonnet, Mohamed Souab, Thomas Robert, Sandrine Ruchaud, Stéphane Bach, Pascal Berthelot, Fabrice Gouilleux, Marie-Claude Viaud-Massuard, Caroline Denevault-Sabourin
We identified a new series of quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid derivatives, targeting the human proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus-1 (HsPim-1) kinase. Seventeen analogues were synthesized providing useful insight into structure-activity relationships studied. Docking studies realized in the ATP pocket of HsPim-1 are consistent with an unclassical binding mode of these inhibitors. The lead compound 1 was able to block HsPim-1 enzymatic activity at nanomolar concentrations (IC50 of 74 nM), with a good selectivity profile against a panel of mammalian protein kinases...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778844/identification-of-micrornas-with-heat-stress-responsive-and-immune-properties-in-marsupenaeus-japonicus-based-on-next-generation-sequencing-and-bioinformatics-analysis-essential-regulators-in-the-heat-stress-host-interactions
#13
Jinbin Zheng, Jiawen Cao, Yong Mao, Yongquan Su, Jun Wang
Summer mortality syndrome is one of the most serious issue for Marsupenaeus japonicus aquaculture in China. Since it causes massive economic loss and threatens sustainability of M. japonicus aquaculture industry, thus, there is an urgent desire to reveal the heat stress-host interactions mechanisms that lead to mass mortalities of M. japonicus in hot summer months. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that involved in regulation of diverse biological processes, including stress and immune response, and might serve as potential regulators in the heat stress-host interactions...
May 17, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778185/serine-105-and-120-are-important-phosphorylation-sites-for-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-n-protein-function
#14
Yao Chen, Xiulin Xing, Qi Li, Songlin Feng, Xiaoliang Han, Shuyi He, Guihong Zhang
The nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant protein of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). It has been shown to be multiphosphorylated. However, the phosphorylation sites are still unknown. In this study, we used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to analyze the phosphorylation sites of N protein expressed in Sf9 cells. The results showed that N protein contains two phosphorylation sites. Since N protein can regulate IL-10, which may facilitate PRRSV replication, we constructed four plasmids (pCA-XH-GD, pCA-A105, pCA-A120 and pCA-A105-120) and transfected them into Pig alveolar macrophages (PAMs,3D4/2)...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777803/an-isolate-of-potato-virus-x-capsid-protein-from-n-benthamiana-insights-from-homology-modeling-and-molecular-dynamics-simulation
#15
Neda Esfandiari, Yahya Sefidbakht
Since Potato Virus X (PVX) is easily transmitted mechanically between their hosts, its control is difficult. We have previously reported new isolate of this virus (PVX-Iran, GenBank Accession number FJ461343). However, the molecular basis of resistance breaking activity and its relation to capsid protein structure are still not well-understood. SDS-PAGE, ELISA, Western blot and RT-PCR molecular examinations were performed on the inoculated plants Nicotiana benthamiana. The pathological symptoms were related to the PVX isolate...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775653/atomic-structure-of-a-rationally-engineered-gene-delivery-vector-aav2-5
#16
Matthew Burg, Claire Rosebrough, Lauren M Drouin, Antonette Bennett, Mario Mietzsch, Paul Chipman, Robert McKenna, Duncan Sousa, Mark Potter, Barry Byrne, R Jude Samulski, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna
AAV2.5 represents the first structure-guided in-silico designed Adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery vector. This engineered vector combined the receptor attachment properties of AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) with the muscle tropic properties of AAV1, and exhibited an antibody escape phenotype because of a modified antigenic epitope. To confirm the design, the structure of the vector was determined to a resolution of 2.78 Å using cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction. The structure of the major viral protein (VP), VP3, was ordered from residue 219 to 736, as reported for other AAV structures, and the five AAV2...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772256/extremely-halophilic-pleomorphic-archaeal-virus-hrpv9-extends-the-diversity-of-pleolipoviruses-with-integrases
#17
Nina S Atanasova, Tatiana A Demina, Sudar N V Krishnam Rajan Shanthi, Hanna M Oksanen, Dennis H Bamford
Certain pleomorphic archaeal viruses are highly infectious even at saturated salt. These viruses belong to the genus Betapleolipovirus of the recently described archaeal virus family Pleolipoviridae. Pleolipoviruses comprise single-stranded or double-stranded, circular or linear DNA genomes that share countless homologs among various archaeal genetic elements. Here we describe a new extremely halophilic betapleolipovirus, Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 9 (HRPV9), which has an integrase gene. We also identified new genes encoding minor pleolipoviral structural proteins...
May 14, 2018: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769436/viral-nanomechanics-with-a-virtual-atomic-force-microscope
#18
Maria Aznar, Sergi Roca-Bonet, David Reguera
One of the most important components of a virus is the protein shell or capsid 
 that encloses its genetic material. The main role of the capsid is to protect 
 the viral genome against external aggressions, facilitating its safe and 
 efficient encapsulation and delivery. As a consequence, viral capsids have 
 developed astonishing mechanical properties that are crucial for viral function. 
 These remarkable properties have started to be unveiled in single-virus 
 nanoindentation experiments, and are opening the door to the use of 
 viral-derived artificial nanocages for promising bio- and nano-technological 
 applications...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769345/the-major-tegument-protein-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-vp8-interacts-with-dna-damage-response-proteins-and-induces-apoptosis
#19
Sharmin Afroz, Ravendra Garg, Michel Fodje, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
VP8, the UL47 gene product in bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1), is a major tegument protein, essential for virus replication in vivo The major DNA damage response protein, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phosphorylates Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS1) and structural maintenance of chromosome-1 (SMC1) proteins during the DNA damage response. VP8 was found to interact with ATM and NBS1 during transfection and BoHV-1 infection. However, VP8 did not interfere with phosphorylation of ATM in transfected or BoHV-1-infected cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769343/glycoprotein-3-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-exhibits-an-unusual-hairpin-like-membrane-topology
#20
Minze Zhang, Ludwig Krabben, Fangkun Wang, Michael Veit
The glycoprotein GP3 of the Arterivirus porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) consists of a cleaved signal peptide, a highly glycosylated domain, a short hydrophobic region and an unglycosylated C-terminal domain. GP3 is supposed to form a complex with GP2 and GP4 in virus particles, but secretion of GP3 from cells has also been reported.We analyzed the membrane topology of GP3 from various PRRSV strains. A fraction of the protein is secreted from transfected cells; GP3 from PRRSV-1 strains to a greater extent than GP3 from PRRSV-2 strains...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
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