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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916951/the-box-task-a-tool-to-design-experiments-for-assessing-visuospatial-working-memory
#1
Roy P C Kessels, Albert Postma
The present paper describes the Box Task, a paradigm for the computerized assessment of visuospatial working memory. In this task, hidden objects have to be searched by opening closed boxes that are shown at different locations on the computer screen. The set size (i.e., number of boxes that must be searched) can be varied and different error scores can be computed that measure specific working memory processes (i.e., the number of within-search and between-search errors). The Box Task also has a developer's mode in which new stimulus displays can be designed for use in tailored experiments...
September 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916780/preserved-immune-functionality-and-high-cmv-specific-t-cell-responses-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-poor-cd4-t-cell-immune-recovery
#2
Elisabet Gómez-Mora, Elisabet García, Victor Urrea, Marta Massanella, Jordi Puig, Eugenia Negredo, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco, Cecilia Cabrera
Poor CD4(+) T-cell recovery after cART has been associated with skewed T-cell maturation, inflammation and immunosenescence; however, T-cell functionality in those individuals has not been fully characterized. In the present study, we assessed T-cell function by assessing cytokine production after polyclonal, CMV and HIV stimulations of T-cells from ART-suppressed HIV-infected individuals with CD4(+) T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordants) or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordants). A group of HIV-uninfected individuals were also included as controls...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916628/the-impact-of-threat-of-shock-induced-anxiety-on-memory-encoding-and-retrieval
#3
Sorcha Bolton, Oliver J Robinson
Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders, and daily transient feelings of anxiety (or "stress") are ubiquitous. However, the precise impact of both transient and pathological anxiety on higher-order cognitive functions, including short- and long-term memory, is poorly understood. A clearer understanding of the anxiety-memory relationship is important as one of the core symptoms of anxiety, most prominently in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is intrusive reexperiencing of traumatic events in the form of vivid memories...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915366/structural-encoding-processes-contribute-to-individual-differences-in-face-and-object-cognition-inferences-from-psychometric-test-performance-and-event-related-brain-potentials
#4
Hadiseh Nowparast Rostami, Werner Sommer, Changsong Zhou, Oliver Wilhelm, Andrea Hildebrandt
The enhanced N1 component in event-related potentials (ERP) to face stimuli, termed N170, is considered to indicate the structural encoding of faces. Previously, individual differences in the latency of the N170 have been related to face and object cognition abilities. By orthogonally manipulating content domain (faces vs objects) and task demands (easy/speed vs difficult/accuracy) in both psychometric and EEG tasks, we investigated the uniqueness of the processes underlying face cognition as compared with object cognition and the extent to which the N1/N170 component can explain individual differences in face and object cognition abilities...
August 19, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912704/reliability-of-eeg-measures-of-interaction-a-paradigm-shift-is-needed-to-fight-the-reproducibility-crisis
#5
Yvonne Höller, Andreas Uhl, Arne Bathke, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Kevin Butz, Raffaele Nardone, Jürgen Fell, Eugen Trinka
Measures of interaction (connectivity) of the EEG are at the forefront of current neuroscientific research. Unfortunately, test-retest reliability can be very low, depending on the measure and its estimation, the EEG-frequency of interest, the length of the signal, and the population under investigation. In addition, artifacts can hamper the continuity of the EEG signal, and in some clinical situations it is impractical to exclude artifacts. We aimed to examine factors that moderate test-retest reliability of measures of interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912701/spectral-entropy-can-predict-changes-of-working-memory-performance-reduced-by-short-time-training-in-the-delayed-match-to-sample-task
#6
Yin Tian, Huiling Zhang, Wei Xu, Haiyong Zhang, Li Yang, Shuxing Zheng, Yupan Shi
Spectral entropy, which was generated by applying the Shannon entropy concept to the power distribution of the Fourier-transformed electroencephalograph (EEG), was utilized to measure the uniformity of power spectral density underlying EEG when subjects performed the working memory tasks twice, i.e., before and after training. According to Signed Residual Time (SRT) scores based on response speed and accuracy trade-off, 20 subjects were divided into two groups, namely high-performance and low-performance groups, to undertake working memory (WM) tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912681/divergence-in-morris-water-maze-based-cognitive-performance-under-chronic-stress-is-associated-with-the-hippocampal-whole-transcriptomic-modification-in-mice
#7
Seung H Jung, Milene L Brownlow, Matteo Pellegrini, Ryan Jankord
Individual susceptibility determines the magnitude of stress effects on cognitive function. The hippocampus, a brain region of memory consolidation, is vulnerable to stressful environments, and the impact of stress on hippocampus may determine individual variability in cognitive performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define the relationship between the divergence in spatial memory performance under chronically unpredictable stress and an associated transcriptomic alternation in hippocampus, the brain region of spatial memory consolidation...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910279/longitudinal-multiparameter-single-cell-analysis-of-macaques-immunized-with-pneumococcal-protein-conjugated-or-unconjugated-polysaccharide-vaccines-reveals-distinct-antigen-specific-memory-b-cell-repertoires
#8
Bin Jia, Lisa K McNeil, Christopher D Dupont, Konstantinos Tsioris, Rachel M Barry, Ingrid L Scully, Adebola O Ogunniyi, Christopher Gonzalez, Michael W Pride, Todd M Gierahn, Paul A Liberator, Kathrin U Jansen, J Christopher Love
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of protein-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines has been well characterized for children. The level of protection conferred by unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines remains less clear, particularly for elderly individuals who have had prior antigenic experience through immunization with unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines or natural exposure to Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: We compared the magnitude, diversity and genetic biases of antigen-specific memory B cells in two groups of adult cynomolgus macaques that were immunized with a 7-valent conjugated vaccine and boosted after five years with either a 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (13vPnC) or a 23-valent unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPS) using microengraving (a single-cell analysis method) and single-cell RT-PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906586/equivalent-linear-change-in-cognition-between-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-and-healthy-controls-over-5%C3%A2-years
#9
Kelly A Ryan, Shervin Assari, Kaley Angers, David F Marshall, Kristin Hinrichs, Rebecca Easter, Pallavi Babu, Bethany D Pester, Scott A Langenecker, Melvin G McInnis
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction is a key feature of bipolar disorder (BD). However, not much is known about its temporal stability, as some studies have demonstrated a neurodegenerative model in BD while others have shown no change in cognitive functioning over time. Building upon our prior work, which examined the natural course of executive functioning, the current study aimed to investigate the natural course of memory, emotion processing, and fine motor dexterity over a 5-year period in BD and healthy control (HC) samples...
September 14, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906240/listening-effort-measured-in-adults-with-normal-hearing-and-cochlear-implants
#10
Ann E Perreau, Yu-Hsiang Wu, Bailey Tatge, Diana Irwin, Daniel Corts
BACKGROUND: Studies have examined listening effort in individuals with hearing loss to determine the extent of the impairment. Regarding cochlear implants (CIs), results suggest that listening effort is improved using bilateral CIs compared to unilateral CIs. Few studies have investigated listening effort and outcomes related to the hybrid CI. PURPOSE: Here, we compared listening effort across three CI groups, and to a normal-hearing control group. The impact of listener traits, that is, age, age at onset of hearing loss, duration of CI use, and working memory capacity, were examined relative to listening effort...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906173/diagnosing-prosopagnosia-in-east-asian-individuals-norms-for-the-cambridge-face-memory-test-chinese
#11
Elinor McKone, Lulu Wan, Rachel Robbins, Kate Crookes, Jia Liu
The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) is widely accepted as providing a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing prosopagnosia (inability to recognize people's faces). Previously, large-sample norms have been available only for Caucasian-face versions, suitable for diagnosis in Caucasian observers. These are invalid for observers of different races due to potentially severe other-race effects. Here, we provide large-sample norms (N = 306) for East Asian observers on an Asian-face version (CFMT-Chinese). We also demonstrate methodological suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for prosopagnosia diagnosis (high internal reliability, approximately normal distribution, norm-score range sufficiently far above chance)...
September 14, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904601/from-militant-voices-to-militant-irony-examining-identity-memory-and-conflict-in-the-basque-country
#12
Ignacio Brescó de Luna
Collective memory and identity so often go hand in hand with conflicts. Alongside the use of violence, conflicts unfold against the backdrop of different narratives about the past through which groups constantly remind themselves of the supposed origin of the conflict, and consequently, what position individuals are expected to take as members of the group. Narratives - as symbolic tools for interpreting the past and the present, as well as happenings that have yet to occur - simultaneously underpin, and are underpinned by, the position held by each warring faction...
August 2017: Europe's journal of psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902903/visuo-perceptual-capabilities-predict-sensitivity-for-coinciding-auditory-and-visual-transients-in-multi-element-displays
#13
Hauke S Meyerhoff, Nina A Gehrer
In order to obtain a coherent representation of the outside world, auditory and visual information are integrated during human information processing. There is remarkable variance among observers in the capability to integrate auditory and visual information. Here, we propose that visuo-perceptual capabilities predict detection performance for audiovisually coinciding transients in multi-element displays due to severe capacity limitations in audiovisual integration. In the reported experiment, we employed an individual differences approach in order to investigate this hypothesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892766/the-cognitive-profile-of-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1-%C3%A2-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Kees Okkersen, Melanie Buskes, Johannes Groenewoud, Roy P C Kessels, Hans Knoop, Baziel van Engelen, Joost Raaphorst
OBJECTIVE: To examine the cognitive profile of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) on the basis of a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. METHODS: Embase, Medline and PsycInfo were searched for studies reporting ≥1 neuropsychological test in both DM1 patients and healthy controls. Search, data extraction and risk of bias analysis were independently performed by two authors to minimize error. Neuropsychological tests were categorized into 12 cognitive domains and effect sizes (Hedges' g) were calculated for each domain and for tests administered in ≥5 studies...
August 16, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891818/machine-learning-support-to-individual-diagnosis-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-using-multimodal-mri-and-cognitive-assessments
#15
Matteo De Marco, Leandro Beltrachini, Alberto Biancardi, Alejandro F Frangi, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Understanding whether the cognitive profile of a patient indicates mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or performance levels within normality is often a clinical challenge. The use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and machine learning may represent valid aids in clinical settings for the identification of MCI patients. METHODS: Machine-learning models were computed to test the classificatory accuracy of cognitive, volumetric [structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI)] and blood oxygen level dependent-connectivity (extracted from RS-fMRI) features, in single-modality and mixed classifiers...
September 7, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891784/familiarity-speeds-up-visual-short-term-memory-consolidation-electrophysiological-evidence-from-contralateral-delay-activities
#16
Weizhen Xie, Weiwei Zhang
To test how preexisting long-term memory influences visual STM, this study takes advantage of individual differences in participants' prior familiarity with Pokémon characters and uses an ERP component, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), to assess whether observers' prior stimulus familiarity affects STM consolidation and storage capacity. In two change detection experiments, consolidation speed, as indexed by CDA fractional area latency and/or early-window (500-800 msec) amplitude, was significantly associated with individual differences in Pokémon familiarity...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890704/computer-mediated-social-comparative-feedback-does-not-affect-metacognitive-regulation-of-memory-reports
#17
Joanne Rechdan, James D Sauer, Lorraine Hope, Melanie Sauerland, James Ost, Harald Merckelbach
In two experiments, we investigated how social comparative feedback affects the metacognitive regulation of eyewitness memory reports. In Experiment 1, 87 participants received negative, positive, or no feedback about a co-witness's performance on a task querying recall of a crime video. Participants then completed the task individually. There were no significant differences between negative and positive feedback groups on any measure. However, participants in both of these conditions volunteered more fine-grain details than participants in the control condition...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890703/observations-on-working-psychoanalytically-with-a-profoundly-amnesic-patient
#18
Paul A Moore, Christian E Salas, Suvi Dockree, Oliver H Turnbull
Individuals with profound amnesia are markedly impaired in explicitly recalling new episodic events, but appear to preserve the capacity to use information from other sources. Amongst these preserved capacities is the ability to form new memories of an emotional nature - a skill at the heart of developing and sustaining interpersonal relationships. The psychoanalytic study of individuals with profound amnesia might contribute to the understanding the importance of each memory system, including effects on key analytic processes such as transference and countertransference...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890634/the-role-of-domain-general-cognitive-abilities-and-decimal-labels-in-at-risk-fourth-grade-students-decimal-magnitude-understanding
#19
Amelia S Malone, Abbey M Loehr, Lynn S Fuchs
The purpose of the study was to determine whether individual differences in at-risk 4(th) graders' language comprehension, nonverbal reasoning, concept formation, working memory, and use of decimal labels (i.e., place value, point, incorrect place value, incorrect fraction, or whole number) are related to their decimal magnitude understanding. Students (n = 127) completed 6 cognitive assessments, a decimal labeling assessment, and 3 measures of decimal magnitude understanding (i.e., comparing decimals to the fraction [Formula: see text] benchmark task, estimating where decimals belong on a 0-1 number line, and identifying fraction and decimal equivalencies)...
August 2017: Learning and Individual Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888192/what-counts-in-preschool-number-knowledge-a-bayes-factor-analytic-approach-toward-theoretical-model-development
#20
Yi Mou, Ilaria Berteletti, Daniel C Hyde
Preschool children vary tremendously in their numerical knowledge, and these individual differences strongly predict later mathematics achievement. To better understand the sources of these individual differences, we measured a variety of cognitive and linguistic abilities motivated by previous literature to be important and then analyzed which combination of these variables best explained individual differences in actual number knowledge. Through various data-driven Bayesian model comparison and selection strategies on competing multiple regression models, our analyses identified five variables of unique importance to explaining individual differences in preschool children's symbolic number knowledge: knowledge of the count list, nonverbal approximate numerical ability, working memory, executive conflict processing, and knowledge of letters and words...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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