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Individual differences memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813089/polyspecific-antibodies-without-persisting-antigen-in-multiple-sclerosis-neurolupus-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-immune-network-connectivity-in-chronic-diseases
#1
Hansotto Reiber
The polyspecific antibody synthesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) gained diagnostic relevance with the frequent combination of measles-, rubella- and varicella zoster antibodies (MRZ-antibody reaction) but their pathophysiological role remains unknown. This review connects the data for intrathecal polyspecific antibody synthesis in MS and neurolupus with observations in the blood of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Simultaneously increased antibody and autoantibody titers in GBS blood samples indicate that the polyspecific antibodies are based on a general property of an immune network, supported by the deterministic day-to-day concentration variation of antibodies in normal blood...
August 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811938/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-children-with-mixed-autism-and-adhd
#2
Costanza Colombi, Mohammad Ghaziuddin
Clinical heterogeneity is a well-established characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While the comorbidity of ASD and ADHD is well known in clinical practice, relatively little research has examined the neuropsychological profile of children with ASD + ADHD. Our study showed significant differences in the neuropsychological characteristics of children with ASD + ADHD compared to those with ASD only. Children with ASD + ADHD showed higher symptoms of anxiety, worse working memory, and less empathy, as measured by the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811259/should-i-trust-you-learning-and-memory-of-social-interactions-in-dementia
#3
Stephanie Wong, Muireann Irish, Claire O'Callaghan, Fiona Kumfor, Greg Savage, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Michael Hornberger
Social relevance has an enhancing effect on learning and subsequent memory retrieval. The ability to learn from and remember social interactions may impact on susceptibility to financial exploitation, which is elevated in individuals with dementia. The current study aimed to investigate learning and memory of social interactions, the relationship between performance and financial vulnerability and the neural substrates underpinning performance in 14 Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809837/protocol-for-assessing-the-relative-effects-of-environment-and-genetics-on-antler-and-body-growth-for-a-long-lived-cervid
#4
Eric S Michel, Emily B Flinn, Stephen Demarais, Bronson K Strickland, Guiming Wang, Chad M Dacus
Cervid phenotype can be placed into one of two categories: efficiency, which promotes survival over extravagant morphometric growth, and luxury, which promotes growth of large weaponry and body size. Populations of the same species display each phenotype depending on environmental conditions. Although antler and body size of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) varies by physiographic region in Mississippi, USA and is strongly correlated with regional variation in nutritional quality, the effects of population-level genetics from native stocks and previous re-stocking efforts cannot be disregarded...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806193/speech-perception-in-noise-and-listening-effort-of-older-adults-with-nonlinear-frequency-compression-hearing-aids
#5
James Shehorn, Nicole Marrone, Thomas Muller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this laboratory-based study was to compare the efficacy of two hearing aid fittings with and without nonlinear frequency compression, implemented within commercially available hearing aids. Previous research regarding the utility of nonlinear frequency compression has revealed conflicting results for speech recognition, marked by high individual variability. Individual differences in auditory function and cognitive abilities, specifically hearing loss slope and working memory, may contribute to aided performance...
August 10, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803766/different-neural-routes-to-autobiographical-memory-recall-in-healthy-people-and-individuals-with-left-medial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Cornelia McCormick, Morris Moscovitch, Taufik A Valiante, Melanie Cohn, Mary Pat McAndrews
Individuals with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are poor at recalling vivid details from autobiographical memories (AM), instead retrieving gist-like schematic memories. Recent research has suggested that this impoverished recall in comparison to controls may reflect (1) differential engagement of anterior vs posterior regions of the hippocampus (HC) and/or (2) differences between the engagement of the HC vs the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here we examined these hypotheses by comparing connectivity amongst hippocampal regions and between vmPFC and other brain regions during construction (retrieval of a particular event) vs elaboration (retrieval of perceptual detail) phases of AM recall in 12 individuals with left mTLE and 12 matched controls...
August 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802915/neurological-evaluation-of-the-selection-stage-of-metaphor-comprehension-in-individuals-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Brea Chouinard, Joanne Volden, Ivor Cribben, Jacqueline Cummine
Because of their difficulties with figurative language in conversation, it is commonly thought that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not understand figurative meaning. However, recent research indicates that individuals with and without ASD are similar in the first two stages of metaphor comprehension, up to and including successful generation of the figurative meaning. In the current study, we used a sentence decision task to evaluate the subsequent stage of metaphor comprehension, the selection stage, which requires suppression/inhibition of the unintended meaning as part of selecting the intended meaning...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802842/the-role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-lymphoid-malignancies
#8
REVIEW
Adrienne Nugent, Richard L Proia
B cell lymphoma consists of multiple individual diseases arising throughout the lifespan of B cell development. From pro-B cells in the bone marrow, through circulating mature memory B cells, each stage of B cell development is prone to oncogenic mutation and transformation, which can lead to a corresponding lymphoma. Therapies designed against individual types of lymphoma often target features that differ between malignant cells and the corresponding normal cells from which they arise. These genetic changes between tumor and normal cells can include oncogene activation, tumor suppressor gene repression and modified cell surface receptor expression...
August 9, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800429/bimanual-coordination-positively-predicts-episodic-memory-a-combined-behavioral-and-mri-investigation
#9
Keith B Lyle, Brynn A Dombroski, Leonard Faul, Robin F Hopkins, Farah Naaz, Andrew E Switala, Brendan E Depue
Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory performance, with individuals who consistently use a single preferred hand for unimanual actions performing worse than individuals who make greater use of both hands...
August 8, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799411/the-modrey-an-episodic-memory-test-for-nonclinical-and-preclinical-populations
#10
Christiane Hale, Briana S Last, Irene B Meier, Lok-Kin Yeung, Mariana Budge, Richard P Sloan, Scott A Small, Adam M Brickman
List learning tests are used in practice for diagnosis and in research to characterize episodic memory, but often suffer from ceiling effects in unimpaired individuals. We developed the Modified Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, or ModRey, an episodic memory test for use in normal and preclinical populations. We administered the ModRey to 230 healthy adults and to 86 of the same individuals 102 days later and examined psychometric properties and effects of demographic factors. Primary measures were normally distributed without evidence of ceiling effect...
August 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798682/a-novel-virtual-reality-based-training-protocol-for-the-enhancement-of-the-mental-frame-syncing-in-individuals-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-development-of-concept-trial
#11
Silvia Serino, Elisa Pedroli, Cosimo Tuena, Gianluca De Leo, Marco Stramba-Badiale, Karine Goulene, Noemi G Mariotti, Giuseppe Riva
A growing body of evidence suggests that people with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) show compromised spatial abilities. In addition, there exists from the earliest stages of AD a specific impairment in "mental frame syncing," which is the ability to synchronize an allocentric viewpoint-independent representation (including object-to-object information) with an egocentric one by computing the bearing of each relevant "object" in the environment in relation to the stored heading in space (i.e., information about our viewpoint contained in the allocentric viewpoint-dependent representation)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797209/working-memory-and-auditory-imagery-predict-sensorimotor-synchronization-with-expressively-timed-music
#12
Ian D Colley, Peter E Keller, Andrea R Halpern
Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) is prevalent and readily studied in musical settings, as most people are able to perceive and synchronize with a beat (e.g. by finger tapping). We took an individual differences approach to understanding SMS to real music characterized by expressive timing (i.e. fluctuating beat regularity). Given the dynamic nature of SMS, we hypothesized that individual differences in working memory and auditory imagery-both fluid cognitive processes-would predict SMS at two levels: 1) mean absolute asynchrony (a measure of synchronization error), and 2) anticipatory timing (i...
August 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794901/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-test-the-efficacy-of-the-sci-get-fit-toolkit-on-leisure-time-physical-activity-behaviour-and-social-cognitive-processes-in-adults-with-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Kelly P Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Shane N Sweet, Marie-Eve Lamontagne, Kathleen A Martin Ginis, Samantha Jeske, François Routhier, Amy E Latimer-Cheung
STUDY DESIGN: Single blind, two-group randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the SCI Get Fit Toolkit delivered online on theoretical constructs and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adults with SCI. SETTING: Ontario and Quebec, Canada. ELIGIBILITY: Inactive, English- and French-speaking Canadian adults with traumatic SCI with Internet access, and no self-reported cognitive or memory impairments...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793232/interaction-effect-between-5-httlpr-and-htr1a-rs6295-polymorphisms-on-the-frontoparietal-network
#14
Haixia Long, Bing Liu, Chao Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Jin Li, Chunshui Yu, Tianzi Jiang
Previous studies have shown a close relationship between the serotonin system and working memory, but the neural mechanism for the role of the serotonin system on the working memory is unclear. The frontoparietal network is involved in working memory and is associated with the serotonin system. Therefore, this study investigated the interaction effect of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the polymorphism in the serotonin 1A receptor gene (rs6295) on the frontoparietal network obtained from the independent component analysis in a large, young Chinese sample population...
August 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790908/multi-kernel-learning-with-dartel-improves-combined-mri-pet-classification-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-aibl-data-group-and-individual-analyses
#15
Vahab Youssofzadeh, Bernadette McGuinness, Liam P Maguire, KongFatt Wong-Lin
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are neuroimaging modalities typically used for evaluating brain changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Due to their complementary nature, their combination can provide more accurate AD diagnosis or prognosis. In this work, we apply a multi-modal imaging machine-learning framework to enhance AD classification and prediction of diagnosis of subject-matched gray matter MRI and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET data related to 58 AD, 108 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 120 healthy elderly (HE) subjects from the Australian imaging, biomarkers and lifestyle (AIBL) dataset...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782975/heterogeneity-in-development-of-aspects-of-working-memory-predicts-longitudinal-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptom-change
#16
Sarah L Karalunas, Hanna C Gustafsson, Nathan F Dieckmann, Jessica Tipsord, Suzanne H Mitchell, Joel T Nigg
The role of cognitive mechanisms in the clinical course of neurodevelopmental disorders is poorly understood. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is emblematic in that numerous alterations in cognitive development are apparent, yet how they relate to changes in symptom expression with age is unclear. To resolve the role of cognitive mechanisms in ADHD, a developmental perspective that takes into account expected within-group heterogeneity is needed. METHOD: The current study uses an accelerated longitudinal design and latent trajectory growth mixture models in a sample of children ages 7-13 years carefully characterized as with (n = 437) and without (n = 297) ADHD to (a) identify heterogeneous developmental trajectories for response inhibition, visual spatial working memory maintenance, and delayed reward discounting and (b) to assess the relationships between these cognitive trajectories and ADHD symptom change...
August 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782901/the-effects-of-memory-training-on-behavioral-and-microstructural-plasticity-in-young-and-older-adults
#17
Ann-Marie Glasø de Lange, Anne Cecilie Sjøli Bråthen, Darius A Rohani, Håkon Grydeland, Anders M Fjell, Kristine B Walhovd
Age differences in human brain plasticity are assumed, but have not been systematically investigated. In this longitudinal study, we investigated changes in white matter (WM) microstructure in response to memory training relative to passive and active control conditions in 183 young and older adults. We hypothesized that (i) only the training group would show improved memory performance and microstructural alterations, (ii) the young adults would show larger memory improvement and a higher degree of microstructural alterations as compared to the older adults, and (iii) changes in memory performance would relate to microstructural alterations...
August 7, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782371/patterns-of-fixation-during-face-recognition-differences-in-autism-across-age
#18
Jennifer Fedor, Andrew Lynn, William Foran, Jared DiCicco-Bloom, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Difficulties with face recognition increase from adolescence to adulthood in autism, reflecting a lack of typical late development. We examined whether this reflects differences in the development of patterns of fixation to eyes and mouths during face recognition. Children, adolescents, and adults (aged 7-30) with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test while gaze was recorded. Average duration and number of fixations were calculated for eyes and mouth regions of interest, defined individually for each face image in the task...
August 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780430/hippocampal-activation-and-memory-in-schizophrenia-depend-on-spatial-strategy-use-in-a-virtual-maze
#19
Leanne K Wilkins, Todd A Girard, Katherine A Herdman, Bruce K Christensen, Jelena King, Michael Kiang, Veronique D Bohbot
Different strategies may be spontaneously adopted to solve most navigation tasks. These strategies are associated with dissociable brain systems. Here, we use brain-imaging and cognitive tasks to test the hypothesis that individuals living with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) have selective impairment using a hippocampal-dependent spatial navigation strategy. Brain activation and memory performance were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the 4-on-8 virtual maze (4/8VM) task, a human analog of the rodent radial-arm maze that is amenable to both response-based (egocentric or landmark-based) and spatial (allocentric, cognitive mapping) strategies to remember and navigate to target objects...
July 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777749/baseline-telomere-length-and-effects-of-a%C3%A2-multidomain-lifestyle-intervention-on-cognition-the-finger-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Shireen Sindi, Tiia Ngandu, Iiris Hovatta, Ingemar Kåreholt, Riitta Antikainen, Tuomo Hänninen, Esko Levälahti, Tiina Laatikainen, Jaana Lindström, Teemu Paajanen, Markku Peltonen, Dharma Singh Khalsa, Benjamin Wolozin, Timo Strandberg, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Hilkka Soininen, Miia Kivipelto, Alina Solomon
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of aging, and it is associated with lifestyle. It is currently unknown whether LTL is associated with the response to lifestyle interventions. The goal is to assess whether baseline LTL modified the cognitive benefits of a 2-year multidomain lifestyle intervention (exploratory analyses). The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) was a 2-year randomized controlled trial including 1,260 people at risk of cognitive decline, aged 60-77 years identified from the general population...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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