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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531645/judgment-of-moral-and-social-transgression-in-schizophrenia
#1
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Despite evidence of pervasive social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known of moral cognition in this population. While recent research indicates that impairment of explicit moral reasoning is explained by these individuals' other cognitive deficits, their capacities for basic moral judgment are unknown. METHODS: 45 people with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls completed the Moral-Conventional Distinction Task: a classic task that assesses judgment of violations of moral or social convention on permissibility, severity, and authority-contingence...
May 4, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531561/a-meta-analysis-of-neurocognition-in-youth-with-familial-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#2
E Bora, A Özerdem
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological impairment, including deficits in social cognition is evident in subjects at genetic high-risk for psychosis. However, findings in youth at genetic risk to bipolar disorder (BP) have been suggested to be less supportive of premorbid deficits. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in youth with familiar risk for bipolar disorder (FHR-BD). METHODS: A novel meta-analysis of FHR-BD (mean age 10-25), including 18 studies (786 offsprings/siblings of patients with BD and 794 healthy controls), was conducted...
March 3, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528736/on-the-effectiveness-of-event-related-beta-tacs-on-episodic-memory-formation-and-motor-cortex-excitability
#3
Verena Braun, Rodika Sokoliuk, Simon Hanslmayr
BACKGROUND: Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is widely used to entrain or modulate brain oscillations in order to investigate causal relationships between oscillations and cognition. OBJECTIVE: In a series of experiments we here addressed the question of whether event-related, transient tACS in the beta frequency range can be used to entrain beta oscillations in two different domains: episodic memory formation and motor cortex excitability. METHODS: In experiments 1 and 2, 72 healthy human participants engaged in an incidental encoding task of verbal and non-verbal material while receiving tACS to the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) at 6...
April 30, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527753/asymmetry-and-empathy-higher-asymmetry-is-associated-with-lower-levels-of-mentalizing
#4
Colton B Christian, Azim F Shariff
People differ in their mentalizing abilities. Though past research suggests that individual differences in exposure to prenatal testosterone may be able to explain why some people excel at mentalizing, while others struggle, meta-analyses yield a null relationship between 2D:4D ratio (a proxy for prenatal testosterone) and mentalizing. Importantly, however, past research has not examined the asymmetrical differences between the digit ratios on the right and left hands. In the current work, we test whether the difference between the digit ratios of the left and right hands may function as a better predictor of mentalizing than digit ratio alone...
May 18, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526680/decrease-in-numbers-of-naive-and-resting-b-cells-in-hiv-infected-kenyan-adults-leads-to-a-proportional-increase-in-total-and-plasmodium-falciparum-specific-atypical-memory-b-cells
#5
Anne E Frosch, Oludare A Odumade, Justin J Taylor, Kathleen Ireland, George Ayodo, Bartholomew Ondigo, David L Narum, John Vulule, Chandy C John
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with B cell activation and exhaustion, and hypergammaglobulinemia. How these changes influence B cell responses to coinfections such as malaria is poorly understood. To address this, we compared B cell phenotypes and Abs specific for the Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate apical membrane Ag-1 (AMA1) in HIV-infected and uninfected adults living in Kenya. Surprisingly, HIV-1 infection was not associated with a difference in serum AMA1-specific Ab levels...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522982/differences-in-verbal-and-visuospatial-forward-and-backward-order-recall-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Enrica Donolato, David Giofrè, Irene C Mammarella
How sequential, verbal and visuospatial stimuli are encoded and stored in memory is not clear in cognitive psychology. Studies with order recall tasks, such as the digit, and Corsi span, indicate that order of presentation is a crucial element for verbal memory, but not for visuospatial memory. This seems to be due to the different effects of forward and backward recall in verbal and visuospatial tasks. In verbal span tasks, performance is worse when recalling things in backward sequence rather than the original forward sequence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522981/perception-of-leitmotives-in-richard-wagner-s-der-ring-des-nibelungen
#7
David J Baker, Daniel Müllensiefen
The music of Richard Wagner tends to generate very diverse judgments indicative of the complex relationship between listeners and the sophisticated musical structures in Wagner's music. This paper presents findings from two listening experiments using the music from Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen that explores musical as well as individual listener parameters to better understand how listeners are able to hear leitmotives, a compositional device closely associated with Wagner's music. Results confirm findings from a previous experiment showing that specific expertise with Wagner's music can account for a greater portion of the variance in an individual's ability to recognize and remember musical material compared to measures of generic musical training...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521253/differences-in-cognitive-deficits-in-individuals-with-subthreshold-syndromes-with-and-without-family-history-of-bipolar-disorder
#8
Kangguang Lin, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Ting Li, Weicong Lu, Jiehua Kong, Guiyun Xu
Little is known about the development of cognitive deficits prior to the official onset of bipolar disorder (BP). The aim of this study was to investigate neurocognitive performance in two early stages of BP. This high-risk design study recruited a group of offspring of parents with BP (n = 58), aged 8-28 years. Based on the subthreshold syndromes, the "unaffected" offspring were further divided into high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages. For comparison, a group of individuals with subthreshold symptoms but without family history of psychiatric disorder (n = 17) and 48 healthy controls (HCs) were included...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513274/cognitive-functioning-and-adjudicative-competence-defendants-referred-for-neuropsychological-evaluation-in-a-psychiatric-inpatient-setting
#9
Beth C Arredondo, Bernice A Marcopulos, Jesse G Brand, Kristen T Campbell, Julie-Ann Kent
OBJECTIVE: A paucity of peer-reviewed research exists regarding the relation between cognitive functioning and adjudicative competence, despite increasing awareness of cognitive deficits associated with serious mental illness. This retrospective study sought to add to and expand upon existing research by considering performance validity and court determinations of competence, when available. METHOD: We compared demographic and cognitive variables of a group of defendants with presumed valid testing admitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility for evaluation of adjudicative competence and referred for neuropsychological evaluation (n = 45) and compared individuals determined by the evaluator and/or the court to be competent (n = 30) and incompetent (n = 15)...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511728/birth-weight-interacts-with-a-functional-variant-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-oxtr-to-predict-executive-functioning-in-children
#10
Mark Wade, Heather Prime, Thomas J Hoffmann, Louis A Schmidt, Thomas G O'Connor, Jennifer M Jenkins
Genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with several psychiatric conditions characterized by deficits in executive functioning (EF). A specific OXTR variant, rs2254298, has previously been associated with brain functioning in regions implicated in EF. Moreover, birth weight variation across the entire range is associated with individual differences in cortical structure and function that underlie EF. This is the first study to examine the main and interactive effect between rs2254298 and birth weight on EF in children...
May 17, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510619/diabetes-and-cognitive-decline-in-older-adults-the-ginkgo-evaluation-of-memory-study
#11
Priya Palta, Michelle C Carlson, Rosa M Crum, Elizabeth Colantuoni, A Richey Sharrett, Sevil Yasar, Richard L Nahin, Steven T DeKosky, Beth Snitz, Oscar Lopez, Jeff D Williamson, Curt D Furberg, Stephen R Rapp, Sherita Hill Golden
Background: Previous studies have shown that individuals with diabetes exhibit accelerated cognitive decline. However, methodological limitations have limited the quality of this evidence. Heterogeneity in study design, cognitive test administration, and methods of analysis of cognitive data have made it difficult to synthesize and translate findings to practice. We analyzed longitudinal data from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study to test our hypothesis that older adults with diabetes have greater test-specific and domain-specific cognitive declines compared to older adults without diabetes...
May 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508283/young-adults-self-derive-and-retain-new-factual-knowledge-through-memory-integration
#12
Nicole L Varga, Patricia J Bauer
The present research investigated the retention of new factual knowledge derived through integration of information acquired across temporally distributed learning episodes. Young adults were exposed to novel facts as they read long lists of seemingly unrelated information, one sentence at a time. They then were presented open-ended questions, the answers to which could be self-derived through integration of pairs of facts from the list. Experiment 1 was the first test of self-derivation of new factual knowledge through integration in adults using open-ended testing (as opposed to forced-choice testing)...
May 15, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507526/behavioral-and-neural-manifestations-of-reward-memory-in-carriers-of-low-expressing-versus-high-expressing-genetic-variants-of-the-dopamine-d2-receptor
#13
Anni Richter, Adriana Barman, Torsten Wüstenberg, Joram Soch, Denny Schanze, Anna Deibele, Gusalija Behnisch, Anne Assmann, Marieke Klein, Martin Zenker, Constanze Seidenbecher, Björn H Schott
Dopamine is critically important in the neural manifestation of motivated behavior, and alterations in the human dopaminergic system have been implicated in the etiology of motivation-related psychiatric disorders, most prominently addiction. Patients with chronic addiction exhibit reduced dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) availability in the striatum, and the DRD2 TaqIA (rs1800497) and C957T (rs6277) genetic polymorphisms have previously been linked to individual differences in striatal dopamine metabolism and clinical risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507319/longitudinal-changes-of-tau-pet-imaging-in-relation-to-hypometabolism-in-prodromal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#14
K Chiotis, L Saint-Aubert, E Rodriguez-Vieitez, A Leuzy, O Almkvist, I Savitcheva, M Jonasson, M Lubberink, A Wall, G Antoni, A Nordberg
The development of tau-specific positron emission tomography (PET) tracers allows imaging in vivo the regional load of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Eighteen patients with baseline investigations enroled in a 17-month follow-up study, including 16 with AD (10 had mild cognitive impairment and a positive amyloid PET scan, that is, prodromal AD, and six had AD dementia) and two with corticobasal syndrome. All patients underwent PET scans with [(18)F]THK5317 (tau deposition) and [(18)F]FDG (glucose metabolism) at baseline and follow-up, neuropsychological assessment at baseline and follow-up and a scan with [(11)C]PIB (amyloid-β deposition) at baseline only...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505961/effects-of-dual-task-conditions-on-cervical-spine-movement-variability
#15
Daniel Niederer, Lutz Vogt, Johanna Vogel, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: The potential to accurately perform cervical movements during more challenging tasks might be of importance to prevent dysfunctional motion characteristics. Although sensorimotor function during dual-task conditions are of increasing interest in biomedical and rehabilitation research, effects of such conditions on movement consistency of the neck have not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: In this crossover MiSpEx(Medicine in Spine Exercise)-diagnostic study, we aimed to explore differences between single and dual-task conditions on cervical movement variability...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505273/factor-analysis-of-an-expanded-halstead-reitan-battery-and-the-structure-of-neurocognition
#16
Virginie M Patt, Gregory G Brown, Michael L Thomas, Scott C Roesch, Michael J Taylor, Robert K Heaton
Objective: The structure of neurocognition is explored by examining the neurocognitive domains underlying comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of cognitively healthy individuals. Method: Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the adult normative dataset of an expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery (eHRB), comprising Caucasian and African American participants. The factor structure contributions of the original HRB, eHRB expansion, and Wechsler intelligence scales were compared...
May 13, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504528/the-importance-of-arousal-for-variation-in-working-memory-capacity-and-attention-control-a-latent-variable-pupillometry-study
#17
Nash Unsworth, Matthew K Robison
A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and attention control. The current study explored the role of arousal in individual differences in WMC and attention control. Participants performed multiple WMC and attention control tasks. During the attention control tasks participants were periodically probed regarding their current attentional state and both baseline and task-evoked pupillary responses were recorded as indicators of tonic arousal and phasic arousal because of attentional effort, respectively...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501741/executive-functioning-deficits-among-adults-with-bipolar-disorder-types-i-and-ii-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Tania Dickinson, Rodrigo Becerra, Jacqui Coombes
BACKGROUND: Executive functioning (EF) deficits contribute to a significant proportion of the burden of disease associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Yet, there is still debate in the literature regarding the exact profile of executive functioning in BD. The purpose of the present project was to assess whether EF deficits exist among adults suffering BD, and whether these deficits (if apparent) differ by BD subtype. METHODS: A systematic search identified relevant literature...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499930/working-memory-and-attentional-bias-on-reinforcing-efficacy-of-food
#19
Katelyn A Carr, Leonard H Epstein
Reinforcing efficacy of food, or the relationship between food prices and purchasing, is related to obesity status and energy intake in adults. Determining how to allocate resources for food is a decision making process influenced by executive functions. Attention to appetitive cues, as well as working memory capacity, or the ability to flexibly control attention while mentally retaining information, may be important executive functions involved in food purchasing decisions. In two studies, we examined how attention bias to food and working memory capacity are related to reinforcing efficacy of both high energy-dense and low energy-dense foods...
May 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498887/sex-differences-in-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease-related-to-neurotrophin-gene-polymorphisms-the-cache-county-memory-study
#20
Joshua Matyi, JoAnn T Tschanz, Gail B Rattinger, Chelsea Sanders, E K Vernon, Chris Corcoran, John S K Kauwe, Mona Buhusi
Neurotrophins, including nerve-growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Associations between AD and neurotrophin signaling genes have been inconsistent, with few studies examining sex differences in risk. We examined four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in neurotrophin signaling (rs6265, rs56164415, rs2289656, rs2072446) and risk for AD by sex in a population-based sample of older adults. 3499 individuals without dementia at baseline [Mean (SD) age = 74...
May 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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