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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647643/cognitive-functioning-among-dutch-older-adults-do-neighborhood-socioeconomic-status-and-urbanity-matter
#1
Jonathan Wörn, Lea Ellwardt, Marja Aartsen, Martijn Huisman
Positive associations of neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and older adults' cognitive functioning have been demonstrated in previous studies, but overall results have been mixed and evidence from European countries and particularly the Netherlands is scarce. We investigated the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) and urbanity of neighborhoods on four domains of cognitive functioning in a sample of 985 Dutch older adults aged 65-88 years from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Besides cross-sectional level differences in general cognitive functioning, processing speed, problem solving and memory, we examined cognitive decline over a period of six years...
June 3, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647542/parallel-interactive-retrieval-of-item-and-associative-information-from-event-memory
#2
Gregory E Cox, Amy H Criss
Memory contains information about individual events (items) and combinations of events (associations). Despite the fundamental importance of this distinction, it remains unclear exactly how these two kinds of information are stored and whether different processes are used to retrieve them. We use both model-independent qualitative properties of response dynamics and quantitative modeling of individuals to address these issues. Item and associative information are not independent and they are retrieved concurrently via interacting processes...
June 22, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646241/never-forget-a-name-white-matter-connectivity-predicts-person-memory
#3
Athanasia Metoki, Kylie H Alm, Yin Wang, Chi T Ngo, Ingrid R Olson
Through learning and practice, we can acquire numerous skills, ranging from the simple (whistling) to the complex (memorizing operettas in a foreign language). It has been proposed that complex learning requires a network of brain regions that interact with one another via white matter pathways. One candidate white matter pathway, the uncinate fasciculus (UF), has exhibited mixed results for this hypothesis: some studies have shown UF involvement across a range of memory tasks, while other studies report null results...
June 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645775/altered-populations-of-natural-killer-cells-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-major-depressive-disorder-association-with-sleep-disturbance
#4
Hideo Suzuki, Jonathan Savitz, T Kent Teague, Siva K Gandhapudi, Chibing Tan, Masaya Misaki, Brett A McKinney, Michael R Irwin, Wayne C Drevets, Jerzy Bodurka
A subset of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) have impaired adaptive immunity characterized by a greater vulnerability to viral infection and a deficient response to vaccination along with a decrease in the number and/or activity of T cells and natural killer cells (NKC). Nevertheless, it remains unclear which specific subsets of lymphocytes are altered in MDD, a shortcoming we address here by utilizing an advanced fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) method that allows for the differentiation of important functionally-distinct lymphocyte sub-populations...
June 20, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644541/assessment-of-executive-functioning-in-binge-eating-disorder-independent-of-weight-status
#5
Kalina T Eneva, Jean M Arlt, Angelina Yiu, Susan M Murray, Eunice Y Chen
OBJECTIVE: Executive functioning (EF) problems may serve as vulnerability or maintenance factors for Binge-Eating Disorder (BED). However, it is unclear if EF problems observed in BED are related to overweight status or BED status. The current study extends this literature by examining EF in overweight and normal-weight BED compared to weight-matched controls. METHOD: Participants were normal-weight women with BED (n = 23), overweight BED (n = 32), overweight healthy controls (n = 48), and normal-weight healthy controls (n = 29)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643564/the-power-of-traditional-design-techniques-the-effects-of-viewing-a-japanese-garden-on-individuals-with-cognitive-impairment
#6
Seiko Goto, Thomas J Gianfagia, John P Munafo, Eijiro Fujii, Xuting Shen, Minkai Sun, Bertram Emil Shi, Congcong Liu, Hiroshi Hamano, Karl Herrup
PURPOSE: This study is to examine how viewing a Japanese garden affects Japanese patients with dementia. BACKGROUND: In a previous study, authors explored the effect on individuals with Alzheimer's disease of viewing an indoor Japanese garden at a nursing home in the United States and reported that viewing the garden significantly reduced the heart rate, evoked short-term and long-term memories, and improved behavioral symptoms. However, it was unclear whether these effects were caused by the design of Japanese garden or unfamiliarity of the design to Caucasians...
July 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642703/different-regulation-of-interleukin-1-production-and-activity-in-monocytes-and-macrophages-innate-memory-as-an-endogenous-mechanism-of-il-1-inhibition
#7
Mariusz P Madej, Elfi Töpfer, Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani
Production and activity of interleukin (IL)-1β are kept under strict control in our body, because of its powerful inflammation-promoting capacity. Control of IL-1β production and activity allows IL-1 to exert its defensive activities without causing extensive tissue damage. Monocytes are the major producers of IL-1β during inflammation, but they are also able to produce significant amounts of IL-1 inhibitors such as IL-1Ra and the soluble form of the decoy receptor IL-1R2, in an auto-regulatory feedback loop...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642696/how-accumulated-real-life-stress-experience-and-cognitive-speed-interact-on-decision-making-processes
#8
Eva Friedel, Miriam Sebold, Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Stephan Nebe, Ilya M Veer, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Florian Schlagenhauf, Michael N Smolka, Michael Rapp, Henrik Walter, Andreas Heinz
Rationale: Advances in neurocomputational modeling suggest that valuation systems for goal-directed (deliberative) on one side, and habitual (automatic) decision-making on the other side may rely on distinct computational strategies for reinforcement learning, namely model-free vs. model-based learning. As a key theoretical difference, the model-based system strongly demands cognitive functions to plan actions prospectively based on an internal cognitive model of the environment, whereas valuation in the model-free system relies on rather simple learning rules from operant conditioning to retrospectively associate actions with their outcomes and is thus cognitively less demanding...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641965/animal-models-of-psychoactive-drug-use-and-addiction-present-problems-and-future-needs-for-translational-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Christian P Müller
Drug addiction is a psychiatric disorder based on a dysfunction of the brain. It frequently develops from a controlled drug consumption and drug instrumentalization (DI). Thereby, DI is the use of a drug to improve specific non-drug related behaviors, beyond the drug's direct positive or negative reinforcing effects. Currently available pharmacotherapies for drug addiction show low effect size and rather limited long-term efficacy, which suggests that current theories on addiction are still insufficient in how they capture the phenomenon and how they allow predictions for highly efficient treatments...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#10
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641589/modality-dependent-or-modality-independent-processing-in-mental-arithmetic-evidence-from-unimpaired-auditory-multiplication-for-a-patient-with-left-frontotemporal-stroke
#11
Dazhi Cheng, Haiyan Wu, Li Yuan, Rui Xu, Qian Chen, Xinlin Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Mental arithmetic is essential to daily life. Researchers have explored the mechanisms that underlie mental arithmetic. Whether mental arithmetic fact retrieval is dependent on surface modality or knowledge format is still highly debated. Chinese individuals typically use a procedure strategy for addition; and they typically use a rote verbal strategy for multiplication. This provides a way to examine the effect of surface modality on different arithmetic operations. METHODS: We used a series of neuropsychological tests (i...
June 23, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641585/cancer-bereaved-siblings-positive-and-negative-memories-and-experiences-of-illness-and-death-a-nationwide-follow-up
#12
Mary-Elizabeth Bradley Eilertsen, Malin Lövgren, Alexandra Eilegård Wallin, Ulrika Kreicbergs
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to explore bereaved siblings' positive and negative memories and experiences of their brother's or sister's illness and death. METHOD: In our nationwide Swedish study, 174 of 240 (73%) bereaved siblings participated, and 70% responded to two open-ended statements, which focused on siblings' positive and negative memories and experiences of illness and death. The data were analyzed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS: The bereaved siblings' responses were categorized into four different themes: (1) endurance versus vulnerability, (2) family cohesion versus family conflicts, (3) growth versus stagnation, and (4) professional support versus lack of professional support...
June 23, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639807/the-impact-of-time-and-repeated-exposure-on-famous-person-knowledge-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Sophie Benoit, Isabelle Rouleau, Roxane Langlois, Valérie Dostie, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Sven Joubert
OBJECTIVE: Famous people knowledge has been shown to be impaired early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, the question of whether recently acquired knowledge is more impaired than remotely acquired knowledge remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of semantic memory impairment in aMCI and AD by investigating 2 factors that may influence the retrieval of such knowledge, namely remoteness and frequency of repetition of information over time...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639800/working-memory-capacity-and-the-antisaccade-task-a-microanalytic-macroanalytic-investigation-of-individual-differences-in-goal-activation-and-maintenance
#14
Matt E Meier, Bridget A Smeekens, Paul J Silvia, Thomas R Kwapil, Michael J Kane
The association between working memory capacity (WMC) and the antisaccade task, which requires subjects to move their eyes and attention away from a strong visual cue, supports the claim that WMC is partially an attentional construct (Kane, Bleckley, Conway, & Engle, 2001; Unsworth, Schrock, & Engle, 2004). Specifically, the WMC-antisaccade relation suggests that WMC helps maintain and execute task goals despite interference from habitual actions. Related work has recently shown that mind wandering (McVay & Kane, 2009, 2012a, 2012b) and reaction time (RT) variability (Unsworth, 2015) are also related to WMC and they partially explain WMC's prediction of cognitive abilities...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639724/longitudinal-changes-in-global-and-domain-specific-cognitive-function-in-the-very-old-findings-from-the-newcastle-85-study
#15
Blossom C M Stephan, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Antoneta Granic, Joanna Collerton, Karen Davies, Brian K Saxby, Keith A Wesnes, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Carol Jagger
OBJECTIVE: Ageing is associated with changes in cognition in some, but not all domains. In young-old adults, defined as persons aged 65-84 years, baseline cognitive function has been shown to impact on cognitive trajectories. Whether similar patterns occur in the very-old, defined as persons aged 85 years and over, is not known. METHODS: Longitudinal changes (5 years' follow-up) in global and domain specific cognitive function including memory, attention and speed were investigated in participants from the Newcastle 85+ Study (n = 845)...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638998/italian-normative-data-and-validation-of-two-neuropsychological-tests-of-face-recognition-benton-facial-recognition-test-and-cambridge-face-memory-test
#16
Andrea Albonico, Manuela Malaspina, Roberta Daini
The Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT) and Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) are two of the most common tests used to assess face discrimination and recognition abilities and to identify individuals with prosopagnosia. However, recent studies highlighted that participant-stimulus match ethnicity, as much as gender, has to be taken into account in interpreting results from these tests. Here, in order to obtain more appropriate normative data for an Italian sample, the CFMT and BFRT were administered to a large cohort of young adults...
June 21, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638329/the-contribution-of-cognitive-factors-to-individual-differences-in-understanding-noise-vocoded-speech-in-young-and-older-adults
#17
Stephanie Rosemann, Carsten Gießing, Jale Özyurt, Rebecca Carroll, Sebastian Puschmann, Christiane M Thiel
Noise-vocoded speech is commonly used to simulate the sensation after cochlear implantation as it consists of spectrally degraded speech. High individual variability exists in learning to understand both noise-vocoded speech and speech perceived through a cochlear implant (CI). This variability is partly ascribed to differing cognitive abilities like working memory, verbal skills or attention. Although clinically highly relevant, up to now, no consensus has been achieved about which cognitive factors exactly predict the intelligibility of speech in noise-vocoded situations in healthy subjects or in patients after cochlear implantation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636654/characterization-of-human-fcrl4-positive-b-cells
#18
Michel Jourdan, Nicolas Robert, Maïlys Cren, Coraline Thibaut, Christophe Duperray, Alboukadel Kassambara, Michel Cogné, Karin Tarte, Bernard Klein, Jérôme Moreaux
FCRL4 is an immunoregulatory receptor that belongs to the Fc receptor-like (FCRL) family. In healthy individuals, FCRL4 is specifically expressed by memory B cells (MBCs) localized in sub-epithelial regions of lymphoid tissues. Expansion of FCRL4+ B cells has been observed in blood and other tissues in various infectious and autoimmune disorders. Currently, the mechanisms involved in pathological FCRL4+ B cell generation are actively studied, but they remain elusive. As in vivo FCRL4+ cells are difficult to access and to isolate, here we developed a culture system to generate in vitro FCRL4+ B cells from purified MBCs upon stimulation with soluble CD40 ligand and/or CpG DNA to mimic T-cell dependent and/or T-cell independent activation, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634548/decline-in-memory-visuospatial-ability-and-crystalized-cognitive-abilities-in-older-adults-normative-aging-or-terminal-decline
#19
R Bendayan, A M Piccinin, S M Hofer, D Cadar, B Johansson, G Muniz-Terrera
The aim of this study is to explore the pattern of change in multiple measures of cognitive abilities in a sample of oldest-old adults, comparing two different time metrics (chronological age and time to death) and therefore examining both underlying conceptual assumptions (age-related change and terminal decline). Moreover, the association with individual characteristics as sex, education, and dementia diagnosis was also examined. Measures of cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination and the Swedish Clock Test) and tests of crystallized (knowledge and synonyms), memory (verbal memory, nonverbal long-term memory, recognition and correspondence, and short-term memory), and visuospatial ability were included...
2017: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631005/phonological-working-memory-for-words-and-nonwords-in-cerebral-cortex
#20
Tyler K Perrachione, Satrajit S Ghosh, Irina Ostrovskaya, John D E Gabrieli, Ioulia Kovelman
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to identify the brain bases of phonological working memory (the short-term maintenance of speech sounds) using behavioral tasks analogous to clinically sensitive assessments of nonword repetition. The secondary purpose of the study was to identify how individual differences in brain activation were related to participants' nonword repetition abilities. Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neurophysiological response during a nonword discrimination task derived from standard clinical assessments of phonological working memory...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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