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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154649/the-limits-of-visual-working-memory-in-children-exploring-prioritization-and-recency-effects-with-sequential-presentation
#1
Ed D J Berry, Amanda H Waterman, Alan D Baddeley, Graham J Hitch, Richard J Allen
Recent research has demonstrated that, when instructed to prioritize a serial position in visual working memory (WM), adults are able to boost performance for this selected item, at a cost to nonprioritized items (e.g., Hu, Hitch, Baddeley, Zhang, & Allen, 2014). While executive control appears to play an important role in this ability, the increased likelihood of recalling the most recently presented item (i.e., the recency effect) is relatively automatic, possibly driven by perceptual mechanisms. In 3 Experiments 7 to 10 year-old's ability to prioritize items in WM was investigated using a sequential visual task (total N = 208)...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154624/task-demands-determine-comparison-strategy-in-whole-probe-change-detection
#2
Rob Udale, Simon Farrell, Chris Kent
Detecting a change in our visual world requires a process that compares the external environment (test display) with the contents of memory (study display). We addressed the question of whether people strategically adapt the comparison process in response to different decision loads. Study displays of 3 colored items were presented, followed by 'whole-display' probes containing 3 colored shapes. Participants were asked to decide whether any probed items contained a new feature. In Experiments 1-4, irrelevant changes to the probed item's locations or feature bindings influenced memory performance, suggesting that participants employed a comparison process that relied on spatial locations...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154366/generalization-of-conditioned-auditory-fear-is-regulated-by-maternal-effects-on-ventral-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#3
Huy-Bin Nguyen, Carine Parent, Yiu Chung Tse, Tak Pan Wong, Michael J Meaney
Maternal care shapes individual differences in fear-associated neural circuitry. In rats, maternal licking and grooming (LG) in early life regulates ventral hippocampal (VH) function and plasticity in adulthood, but its consequent effect on the regulation of fear memories remains unknown. We report an effect of maternal care on generalization of learned fear, such that offspring of high LG mothers express generalized fear responses when confronted with neutral stimuli following auditory fear conditioning. These animals simultaneously display a reduction in the magnitude of VH-LTP expressed and reduced input-output transformation in Schaffer Collateral synapses...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154275/association-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-insulin-with-cognitive-performance-and-csf-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Stefan L C Geijselaers, Pauline Aalten, Inez H G B Ramakers, Peter Paul De Deyn, Annemieke C Heijboer, Huiberdina L Koek, Marcel G M OldeRikkert, Janne M Papma, Fransje E Reesink, Lieke L Smits, Coen D A Stehouwer, Charlotte E Teunissen, Frans R J Verhey, Wiesje M van der Flier, Geert Jan Biessels
BACKGROUND: Abnormal insulin signaling in the brain has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) insulin levels are associated with cognitive performance and CSF amyloid-β and Tau. Additionally, we explore whether any such association differs by sex or APOE ɛ4 genotype. METHODS: From 258 individuals participating in the Parelsnoer Institute Neurodegenerative Diseases, a nationwide multicenter memory clinic population, we selected 138 individuals (mean age 66±9 years, 65...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154166/sickness-absence-indicating-depressive-symptoms-of-working-population-in-south-korea
#5
Cheolmin Shin, Young-Hoon Ko, Seoyoung Yoon, Sang Won Jeon, Chi-Un Pae, Yong-Ku Kim, Ashwin A Patkar, Changsu Han
BACKGROUND: Sickness absence has been regarded as an important indicator of workers' health and work productivity. This study is aimed to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and sickness absence in workers of South Korea. METHODS: We used nationwide cross-sectional survey data from 2889 individuals in the working population aged over 19 years in South Korea. Depressive symptoms were measured using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Those respondents who scored above 10 on PHQ-9 were regarded as having depressive symptoms...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154160/gender-identity-better-than-sex-explains-individual-differences-in-episodic-and-semantic-components-of-autobiographical-memory-and-future-thinking
#6
Laurie Compère, Eirini Rari, Thierry Gallarda, Adèle Assens, Marion Nys, Sandrine Coussinoux, Sébastien Machefaux, Pascale Piolino
A recently tested hypothesis suggests that inter-individual differences in episodic autobiographical memory (EAM) are better explained by individual identification of typical features of a gender identity than by sex. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating sex and gender related differences not only in EAM but also during retrieval of more abstract self-knowledge (i.e., semantic autobiographical memory, SAM, and conceptual self, CS), and considering past and future perspectives. No sex-related differences were identified, but regardless of the sex, feminine gender identity was associated with clear differences in emotional aspects that were expressed in both episodic and more abstract forms of AM, and in the past and future perspectives, while masculine gender identity was associated with limited effects...
November 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150139/visual-working-memory-performance-in-aphantasia
#7
Christianne Jacobs, Dietrich S Schwarzkopf, Juha Silvanto
Aphantasia, i.e., the congenital inability to experience voluntary mental imagery, offers a new model for studying the functional role of mental imagery in (visual) cognition. However, until now, there have been no studies investigating whether aphantasia can be linked to specific impairments in cognitive functioning. Here, we assess visual working memory performance in an aphantasic individual. We find that she performs significantly worse than controls on the most difficult (i.e., requiring the highest degree of precision) visual working memory trials...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149128/who-we-are
#8
Ellen Carr
The holiday season may seem different this year with recent searing memories of individual and community heartbreak. For many, the holidays may be tough, and this season in particular may be very tough. Let's pause to take that in and remind ourselves of who we are: master clinicians who care for patients with cancer and their family members; caregiving instructors; and those prepared to answer the call, serving humanity. 
.
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147678/a-haplotype-associated-with-enhanced-mineralocorticoid-receptor-expression-facilitates-the-stress-induced-shift-from-cognitive-to-habit-learning
#9
Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Jan Wacker, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" toward dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146528/hierarchical-bayesian-models-for-the-autonomic-based-concealed-information-test
#10
Yusuke Shibuya, Kensuke Okada, Tokihiro Ogawa, Izumi Matsuda, Michiko Tsuneoka
The concealed information test (CIT) is a psychophysiological memory detection technique for examining whether an examinee recognizes crime-relevant information. In current statistical analysis practice, the autonomic responses are usually transformed into Z scores within individuals to remove inter- and intra-individual variability. However, this conventional procedure leads to overestimation of the effect size, specifically the standardized mean difference of the autonomic responses between the crime-relevant information and the crime-irrelevant information...
November 13, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145751/negative-symptoms-and-reward-disturbances-in-schizophrenia-before-and-after-antipsychotic-monotherapy
#11
Mette Ødegaard Nielsen, Egill Rostrup, Brian Villumsen Broberg, Sanne Wulff, Birte Glenthøj
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms (NS) are a central part of the symptomatology of schizophrenia, which is highly correlated to the functional outcome. Disturbances of the brain reward system are suggested to be central in the pathogenesis of NS by decreasing motivation and hedonic experiences. In this study, we compared reward-related brain activity in patients improving and not improving in NS after treatment with amisulpride. METHODS: Thirty-nine antipsychotic-naive patients and 49 healthy controls completed functional magnetic resonance imaging with a modified monetary incentive delay task...
November 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141793/information-processing-deficits-as-a-driving-force-for-memory-impairment-in-ms-a-cross-sectional-study-of-memory-functions-and-mri-in-early-and-late-stage-ms
#12
Wolfgang Köhler, Martin Fischer, Peter Bublak, Jürgen H Faiss, Frank Hoffmann, Annett Kunkel, Michael Sailer, Matthias Schwab, Erhard Stadler, Uwe K Zettl, Iris-Katharina Penner
BACKGROUND: Memory impairment (MI) is a common symptom of MS. Previous studies were conflicting in respect to the possible existence of early MI and the role of hippocampal atrophy. The objective of this study was to investigate MI and structural MRI correlates in homogenous groups of early and late MS, controlling for a potential information-processing speed (IPS) deficit, and utilizing multiple memory test paradigms. METHODS: 152 individually matched subjects were recruited: early MS (EMS, N = 25, disease duration 1...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138296/the-genetics-of-pkm%C3%AE-and-memory-maintenance
#13
REVIEW
Todd Charlton Sacktor, Johannes W Hell
Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that maintain long-term memory is a fundamental goal of neuroscience. Accumulating evidence suggests that persistent signaling by the atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) might maintain synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory. However, the role of PKMζ has been challenged by genetic data from PKMζ-knockout mice showing intact LTP and long-term memory. Moreover, the PKMζ inhibitor peptide ζ inhibitory peptide (ZIP) reverses LTP and erases memory in both wild-type and knockout mice...
November 14, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137227/re-balance-of-memory-t-cell-subsets-in-peripheral-blood-from-patients-with-cml-after-tki-treatment
#14
Danlin Yao, Ling Xu, Jiaxiong Tan, Yikai Zhang, Shuai Lu, Mingde Li, Sichun Lu, Lijian Yang, Shaohua Chen, Jie Chen, Jing Lai, Yuhong Lu, Xiuli Wu, Xianfeng Zha, Yangqiu Li
T cell immune surveillance is considered an important host protection process for inhibiting carcinogenesis. The full capacity of T cell immune surveillance is dependent on T cell homeostasis, particularly for central memory T (TCM) cells and stem cell memory T (TSCM) cells. In this study, distribution of T cell subsets in peripheral blood from 12 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and 12 cases with CML in complete remission (CR) was analyzed using a multicolor flow cytometer, and 16 samples from healthy individuals (HIs) served as control...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133114/neurocognitive-performance-profile-postparathyroidectomy-a-pilot-study-of-computerized-assessment
#15
Caitlin F Bell, Mathew M Warrick, Kathleen C Gallagher, Naira Baregamian
BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive symptoms attributable to primary hyperparathyroidism are important diagnostic criteria, yet the basic characterization and assessment of neurocognitive deficits in primary hyperparathyroidism are not defined fully. METHODS: In this prospective pilot study, patients with unequivocal biochemical diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism were evaluated for neurocognitive performance preoperatively and postparathyroidectomy (2 weeks, 6 months) using a battery of computerized modular tests designed by LUMOSITY...
November 10, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132782/midterm-outcomes-after-postoperative-delirium-on-cognition-and-mood-in-patients-after-cardiac-surgery
#16
Quyen Nguyen, Kelsey Uminski, Brett M Hiebert, Navdeep Tangri, Rakesh C Arora
OBJECTIVE: Delirium is a common neurologic complication after cardiac surgery. Our primary objective was to determine the impact of delirium on self-reported problems with midterm cognitive functioning and mood postcardiac surgery. METHODS: A single-center, prospective cohort study was conducted, enrolling 197 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting or valve replacement. Baseline cognition and mood were assessed preoperatively in elective patients as a part of routine care using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Patient Health Questionnaire 9, respectively...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129594/are-resting-state-spectral-power-measures-related-to-executive-functions-in-healthy-young-adults
#17
Shirley Gordon, Doron Todder, Inbal Deutsch, Dror Garbi, Nir Getter, Nachshon Meiran
Resting-state electroencephalogram (rsEEG) has been found to be associated with psychopathology, intelligence, problem solving, academic performance and is sometimes used as a supportive physiological indicator of enhancement in cognitive training interventions (e.g. neurofeedback, working memory training). In the current study, we measured rsEEG spectral power measures (relative power, between-band ratios and asymmetry) in one hundred sixty five young adults who were also tested on a battery of executive function (EF)...
November 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128976/neurons-in-the-crow-nidopallium-caudolaterale-encode-varying-durations-of-visual-working-memory-periods
#18
Konstantin Hartmann, Lena Veit, Andreas Nieder
Adaptive sequential behaviors rely on the bridging and integration of temporally separate information for the realization of prospective goals. Corvids' remarkable behavioral flexibility is thought to depend on the workings of the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL), a high-level avian associative forebrain area. We trained carrion crows to remember visual items for three alternating delay durations in a delayed match-to-sample task and recorded single-unit activity from the NCL. Sample-selective delay activity, a correlate of visual working memory, was maintained throughout different working memory durations...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127776/working-memory-capacity-and-intra-individual-variability-of-proactive-control
#19
Elizabeth A Wiemers, Thomas S Redick
Two datasets of 110 young adults were examined to investigate the relationship between individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) and dynamic cognitive control. The results delve into the specific differences between high- and low-WMC individuals' ability to enact and maintain cognitive control using the AX version of the continuous performance test (AX-CPT). Compared to high-WMC individuals, low-WMC individuals: (a) made more errors, specifically to AX targets; (b) exhibited a partial shift to proactive control with more time-on-task; (c) had more exaggerated slower AX target responses in the tail of the response time distribution; and (d) were equally likely to adjust control after conflict...
November 8, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124791/impact-of-different-intensities-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-the-cortical-properties-during-tms-eeg-and-working-memory-performance
#20
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Caley M Sullivan, Robin F H Cash, Paul B Fitzgerald
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of increasing cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. Due to the rapid induction of modulatory effects, prefrontal application of iTBS is gaining popularity as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression. In an attempt to increase efficacy, higher than conventional intensities are currently being applied. The assumption that this increases neuromodulatory may be mechanistically false for iTBS...
November 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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