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Individual differences memory

Steffen Moritz, Karla Spirandelli, Insa Happach, Despina Lion, Fabrice Berna
OBJECTIVES: There is mixed evidence regarding whether patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) display substantial neurocognitive deficits. Several studies implicate poor motivation, comorbid disorders, or distraction due to obsessive thoughts as potential causes of secondary malperformance. The present study examined the impact of stereotype threat (i.e., confrontation with a negative stereotype may impair performance) on neuropsychological functioning in individuals with OCD...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Victoria Pile, Sally Robinson, Elystan Roberts, Marta Topor, Tammy Hedderly, Jennifer Y F Lau
OBJECTIVE: Depression is common in Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorders (TS/CTD) and contributes to significant impairment. The specificity of autobiographical memories is implicated in an individual's sense of self and their daily functioning but also in the onset and development of depression in the general population. Here, we examined whether memory specificity is reduced in young people with TS/CTD, relative to control participants, and whether memory specificity is associated with depression...
March 6, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Xiao Luo, Kaicheng Li, Y L Jia, Qingze Zeng, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Tiantian Qiu, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Zhujing Shen, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Chao Wang, J J Xu, Minming Zhang
The APOE ε4 allele is associated with impaired intrinsic functional connectivity in neural networks, especially in the default mode network (DMN). However, effective connectivity (EC) reflects the direct causal effects of one brain region to another, which has rarely been investigated. Recently, Granger causality analysis (GCA) proved suitable for the study of directionality in neuronal interactions. Using GCA, we examined the differences in the EC between the anterior medial prefrontal cortex/posterior cingulate cortex (aMPFC/PCC) and the whole brain in 17 ε4 carrying and 32 non-carrying cognitively intact elderly individuals...
March 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sait Karaman, Semiha Bahçeci Erdem, Nesrin Gülez, Ferah Genel
BACKGROUND: Patients with unclassified hypogammaglobulinemia (UCH) constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma, because information concerning the clinical and immunological characteristics of these patients is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate B-cell subsets in cases with UCH and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and their association with treatment requirement in UCH patients. METHODS: The study included 41 UCH, 25 CVID, and 36 healthy individuals between the ages of 4-18 years...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
Anne Deblock-Bellamy, Charles Sebiyo Batcho, Catherine Mercier, Andreanne K Blanchette
BACKGROUND: Proprioceptive sense plays a significant role in the generation and correction of skilled movements and, consequently, in most activities of daily living. We developed a new proprioception assessment protocol that enables the quantification of elbow position sense without using the opposite arm, involving active movement of the evaluated limb or relying on working memory. The aims of this descriptive study were to validate this assessment protocol by quantifying the elbow position sense of healthy adults, before using it in individuals who sustained a stroke, and to investigate its test-retest reliability...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Jocelyne C Whitehead, Lingqian Li, Douglas A McQuiggan, Sara A Gambino, Malcolm A Binns, Jennifer D Ryan
INTRODUCTION: Preferential viewing of novel stimuli in the Visual Paired Comparison task has provided a useful marker of memory and medial temporal lobe function. We created a portable version of the VPC (P-VPC) and contrasted P-VPC metrics against the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in healthy adults, to assess the validity and reliability of the P-VPC as an indicator of memory function across age. A supplementary case series was conducted with individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, to provide a preliminary illustration of the P-VPC's use as a measure in clinical populations...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
David De Vito, Anne E Ferrey, Mark J Fenske, Naseem Al-Aidroos
Ignoring visual stimuli in the external environment leads to decreased liking of those items, a phenomenon attributed to the affective consequences of attentional inhibition. Here we investigated the generality of this "distractor devaluation" phenomenon by asking whether ignoring stimuli represented internally within visual working memory has the same affective consequences. In two experiments we presented participants with two or three visual stimuli and then, after the stimuli were no longer visible, provided an attentional cue indicating which item in memory was the target they would have to later recall, and which were task-irrelevant distractors...
March 15, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Janna N Vrijsen, Justin Dainer-Best, Sara M Witcraft, Santiago Papini, Paula Hertel, Christopher G Beevers, Eni S Becker, Jasper A J Smits
Memory bias is a risk factor for depression. In two independent studies, the efficacy of one CBM-Memory session on negative memory bias and depressive symptoms was tested in vulnerable samples. We compared positive to neutral (control) CBM-Memory trainings in highly-ruminating individuals (N = 101) and individuals with elevated depressive symptoms (N = 100). In both studies, participants studied positive, neutral, and negative Swahili words paired with their translations. In five study-test blocks, they were then prompted to retrieve either only the positive or neutral translations...
March 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Clifford R Jack, Heather J Wiste, Christopher G Schwarz, Val J Lowe, Matthew L Senjem, Prashanthi Vemuri, Stephen D Weigand, Terry M Therneau, Dave S Knopman, Jeffrey L Gunter, David T Jones, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Kejal Kantarci, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen
Our objective was to compare different whole-brain and region-specific measurements of within-person change on serial tau PET and evaluate its utility for clinical trials. We studied 126 individuals: 59 cognitively unimpaired with normal amyloid, 37 cognitively unimpaired with abnormal amyloid, and 30 cognitively impaired with an amnestic phenotype and abnormal amyloid. All had baseline amyloid PET and two tau PET, MRI, and clinical assessments. We compared the topography across all cortical regions of interest of tau PET accumulation rates and the rates of four different whole-brain or region-specific meta-regions of interest among the three clinical groups...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Nina Wolinski, Nicholas R Cooper, Paul Sauseng, Vincenzo Romei
The speed of theta brain oscillatory activity is thought to play a key role in determining working memory (WM) capacity. Individual differences in the length of a theta cycle (ranging between 4 and 7 Hz) might determine how many gamma cycles (>30 Hz) can be nested into a theta wave. Gamma cycles are thought to represent single memory items; therefore, this interplay could determine individual memory capacity. We directly tested this hypothesis by means of parietal transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) set at slower (4 Hz) and faster (7 Hz) theta frequencies during a visuospatial WM paradigm...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Biology
Shahram Saghafi, Lisa Ferguson, Olivia Hogue, Jordan M Gales, Richard Prayson, Robyn M Busch
OBJECTIVE: The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a classification system for hippocampal sclerosis (HS) based on location and extent of hippocampal neuron loss. The literature debates the usefulness of this classification system when studying memory in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and determining memory outcome after temporal lobe resection (TLR). This study further explores the relationship between HS ILAE subtypes and episodic memory performance in patients with TLE and examines memory outcomes after TLR...
March 14, 2018: Epilepsia
Douglas Sjöwall, Lisa B Thorell
The present study aimed at improving our understanding of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study included 52 children in the ADHD group and 72 controls (age 4-6 years). Both laboratory measures and teacher reports of executive deficits (i.e., working memory, inhibition, and shifting), delay-related behaviors (i.e., the preference for minimizing delay), and emotional functions (i.e., emotion recognition and regulation) were included. Variable-oriented analyses were complemented with person-oriented analyses (i...
March 14, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Tianlu Wang, Celine R Gillebert
Visuospatial attention and short-term memory allow us to prioritize, select, and briefly maintain part of the visual information that reaches our senses. These cognitive abilities are quantitatively accounted for by Bundesen's theory of visual attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). Previous studies have suggested that TVA-based assessments are sensitive to inter-individual differences in spatial bias, visual short-term memory capacity, top-down control, and processing speed in healthy volunteers as well as in patients with various neurological and psychiatric conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Joanne Rechdan, Lorraine Hope, James D Sauer, Melanie Sauerland, James Ost, Harald Merckelbach
We examined the influence of co-witness discussion on the metacognitive regulation of memory reports. Participants (N = 92) watched a crime video. Later, a confederate confidently agreed with (gave confirming feedback), disagreed with (gave disconfirming feedback), or gave no feedback (control) regarding participants' answers to questions about the video. Participants who received disconfirming feedback reported fewer fine-grain details than participants in the confirming and control conditions on a subsequent, individual recall test for a different question set...
March 13, 2018: Memory
Joeri J Meijsen, Archie Campbell, Caroline Hayward, David J Porteous, Ian J Deary, Riccardo E Marioni, Kristin K Nicodemus
Lower performances in cognitive ability in individuals with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been observed on multiple occasions. Understanding cognitive performance in MDD could provide a wider insight in the aetiology of MDD as a whole. Using a large, well characterised cohort (N = 7012), we tested for: differences in cognitive performance by MDD status and a gene (single SNP or polygenic score) by MDD interaction effect on cognitive performance. Linear regression was used to assess the association between cognitive performance and MDD status in a case-control, single-episode-recurrent MDD and control-recurrent MDD study design...
March 13, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Lizanne Schweren, Pieter Hoekstra, Marloes van Lieshout, Jaap Oosterlaan, Nanda Lambregts-Rommelse, Jan Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Catharina Hartman
BACKGROUND: Methodological and ethical constraints have hampered studies into long-term lasting outcomes of stimulant treatment in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lasting effects may be beneficial (i.e. improved functioning even when treatment is temporarily ceased) or detrimental (i.e. worse functioning while off medication), but both hypotheses currently lack empirical support. Here we investigate whether stimulant treatment history predicts long-term development of ADHD symptoms, social-emotional functioning or cognition, measured after medication wash-out...
March 13, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Leif Karlsson, Anna Nordenström, Tatja Hirvikoski, Svetlana Lajic
Dexamethasone (DEX) is used to prevent prenatal virilization in female fetuses with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Since treatment has to be started before the genotype of the fetus is known, 7 out of 8 fetuses will be exposed to DEX without benefit. Previously, we have observed negative effects on cognition and behavior in DEX treated children. Here we evaluated neuropsychological functions, psychopathology and autistic traits in non-CAH DEX-treated adults exposed during the first trimester of fetal life (duration 6...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Edmund T Rolls, Wei Cheng, Matthieu Gilson, Jiang Qiu, Zicheng Hu, Hongtao Ruan, Yu Li, Chu-Chung Huang, Albert C Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Xiaodong Zhang, Kaixiang Zhuang, Ching-Po Lin, Gustavo Deco, Peng Xie, Jianfeng Feng
BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional connectivity reflects correlations in the activity between brain areas, whereas effective connectivity between different brain areas measures directed influences of brain regions on each other. Using the latter approach, we compare effective connectivity results in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and control subjects. METHODS: We used a new approach to the measurement of effective connectivity, in which each brain area has a simple dynamical model, and known anatomical connectivity is used to provide constraints...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Sarah E Snider, Harshawardhan U Deshpande, Jonathan M Lisinski, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Stephen M LaConte, Warren K Bickel
BACKGROUND: Episodic thinking, whether past or future, uses similar neural machinery, and individuals with alcohol dependence have clear challenges with both. Moreover, alcohol-dependent individuals' narrowed temporal window likely gives rise to greater valuation of immediate rewards. We aimed to strengthen working memory (WM) in alcohol-dependent individuals and measure performance on near-transfer (novel WM) and far-transfer delay discounting (DD) tasks, including episodic future thinking (EFT) performance...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Yu-Lin Wu, Chun-Jen Huang, Su-Chen Fang, Ling-Hsin Ko, Pei-Shan Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive dysfunction has been reported in individuals with fibromyalgia. However, findings regarding cognitive function examined using neuropsychological tests have been inconsistent. The aim of the study was to determine domain-specific cognitive impairment in patients with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis that systematically searched six databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science) for articles published before September 2017...
March 9, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
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