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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732249/evaluating-alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-as-mediators-of-age-related-cognitive-decline
#1
Timothy J Hohman, Doug Tommet, Shawn Marks, Joey Contreras, Rich Jones, Dan Mungas
Age-related changes in cognition are partially mediated by the presence of neuropathology and neurodegeneration. This manuscript evaluates the degree to which biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease, (AD) neuropathology and longitudinal changes in brain structure, account for age-related differences in cognition. Data from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 1012) were analyzed, including individuals with normal cognition and mild cognitive impairment. Parallel process mixed effects regression models characterized longitudinal trajectories of cognitive variables and time-varying changes in brain volumes...
July 4, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732046/qualitative-differences-in-cellular-immunogenicity-elicited-by-hepatitis-c-virus-t-cell-vaccines-employing-prime-boost-regimens
#2
Wendy G Tan, Iryna Zubkova, Alla Kachko, Frances Wells, Heiko Adler, Gerd Sutter, Marian E Major
T-cell based vaccines have been considered as attractive candidates for prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. In this study we compared the magnitude and phenotypic characteristics of CD8+ T-cells induced by three commonly used viral vectors, Adenovirus-5 (Ad5), Vaccinia virus (VV) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing the HCV NS3/4A protein. C57/BL6 mice were primed with DNA expressing NS3/4A and boosted with each of the viral vectors in individual groups of mice. We then tracked the vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell responses using pentamer binding and cytokine production analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731452/temporal-order-of-alzheimer-s-disease-related-cognitive-marker-changes-in-blsa-and-wrap-longitudinal-studies
#3
Murat Bilgel, Rebecca L Koscik, Yang An, Jerry L Prince, Susan M Resnick, Sterling C Johnson, Bruno M Jedynak
Investigation of the temporal trajectories of currently used neuropsychological tests is critical to identifying earliest changing measures on the path to dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). We used the Progression Score (PS) method to characterize the temporal trajectories of measures of verbal memory, executive function, attention, processing speed, language, and mental status using data spanning normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and AD from 1,661 participants with a total of 7,839 visits (age at last visit 77...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731437/computerized-cognitive-screen-cocosc-a-self-administered-computerized-test-for-screening-for-cognitive-impairment-in-community-social-centers
#4
Adrian Wong, Ching-Hang Fong, Vincent Mok, Kam Tat Leung, Raymond Kai-Yu Tong
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive tests may serve as a preliminary, low-cost method to identify individuals with suspected cognitive impairment in the community. OBJECTIVE: To develop a self-administered computerized test, namely the "Computerized Cognitive Screen (CoCoSc), Hong Kong version", for screening of individuals with cognitive impairment (CI) in community settings. METHODS: The CoCoSc is a 15-min computerized cognitive screen covering memory, executive functions, orientation, attention and working memory, and prospective memory administered on a touchscreen computer...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729929/picture-free-recall-performance-linked-to-the-brain-s-structural-connectome
#5
David Coynel, Leo Gschwind, Matthias Fastenrath, Virginie Freytag, Annette Milnik, Klara Spalek, Andreas Papassotiropoulos, Dominique J-F de Quervain
INTRODUCTION: Memory functions are highly variable between healthy humans. The neural correlates of this variability remain largely unknown. METHODS: Here, we investigated how differences in free recall performance are associated with DTI-based properties of the brain's structural connectome and with grey matter volumes in 664 healthy young individuals tested in the same MR scanner. RESULTS: Global structural connectivity, but not overall or regional grey matter volumes, positively correlated with recall performance...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728964/association-between-proton-pump-inhibitor-use-and-cognitive-function-in-women
#6
Paul Lochhead, Kaitlin Hagan, Amit D Joshi, Hamed Khalili, Long H Nguyen, Francine Grodstein, Andrew T Chan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies have reported associations between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and dementia. However, data are lacking on long-term PPI use and cognitive function. We therefore examined associations between PPI use and performance in tests of cognitive function. Because of shared clinical indications, we examined associations for H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) as a secondary aim. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data on medication use and other potential risk factors from 13,864 participants in the Nurses' Health Study II who had completed a self-administered computerized neuropsychological test battery...
July 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727792/aging-working-memory-capacity-and-the-proactive-control-of-recollection-an-event-related-potential-study
#7
Jessica Keating, Caitlin Affleck-Brodie, Ronny Wiegand, Alexa M Morcom
The present study investigated the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in the control of recollection in young and older adults. We used electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of age and of individual differences in WMC on the ability to prioritize recollection according to current goals. Targets in a recognition exclusion task were words encoded using two alternative decisions. The left parietal ERP old/new effect was used as an electrophysiological index of recollection, and the selectivity of recollection measured in terms of the difference in its magnitude according to whether recognized items were targets or non-targets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725187/lack-of-associations-between-female-hormone-levels-and-visuospatial-working-memory-divided-attention-and-cognitive-bias-across-two-consecutive-menstrual-cycles
#8
Brigitte Leeners, Tillmann H C Kruger, Kirsten Geraedts, Enrico Tronci, Toni Mancini, Fabian Ille, Marcel Egli, Susanna Röblitz, Lanja Saleh, Katharina Spanaus, Cordula Schippert, Yuangyuang Zhang, Michael P Hengartner
Background: Interpretation of observational studies on associations between prefrontal cognitive functioning and hormone levels across the female menstrual cycle is complicated due to small sample sizes and poor replicability. Methods: This observational multisite study comprised data of n = 88 menstruating women from Hannover, Germany, and Zurich, Switzerland, assessed during a first cycle and n = 68 re-assessed during a second cycle to rule out practice effects and false-positive chance findings. We assessed visuospatial working memory, attention, cognitive bias and hormone levels at four consecutive time-points across both cycles...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724337/handedness-effects-of-imagined-fine-motor-movements
#9
Christopher M Donoff, Christopher R Madan, Anthony Singhal
Previous studies of movement imagery have found inter-individual differences in the ability to imagine whole-body movements. The majority of these studies have used subjective scales to measure imagery ability, which may be confounded by other factors related to effort. Madan and Singhal [2013. Introducing TAMI: An objective test of ability in movement imagery. Journal of Motor Behavior, 45(2), 153-166. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2013.763764 ] developed the Test of Ability in Movement Imagery (TAMI) to address these confounds by using a multiple-choice format with objectively correct responses...
July 19, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722292/investigating-the-origins-of-political-views-biases-in-explanation-predict-conservative-attitudes-in-children-and-adults
#10
Larisa J Hussak, Andrei Cimpian
We tested the hypothesis that political attitudes are influenced by an information-processing factor - namely, a bias in the content of everyday explanations. Because many societal phenomena are enormously complex, people's understanding of them often relies on heuristic shortcuts. For instance, when generating explanations for such phenomena (e.g., why does this group have low status?), people often rely on facts that they can retrieve easily from memory - facts that are skewed toward inherent or intrinsic features (e...
July 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722017/the-role-of-age-related-t-cell-differentiation-in-patients-with-renal-replacement-therapy
#11
Matthias Schaier, Angele Leick, Lorenz Uhlmann, Florian Kälble, Volker Eckstein, Anthony Ho, Stefan Meuer, Karsten Mahnke, Claudia Sommerer, Martin Zeier, Andrea Steinborn
Dialysis patients have deficiencies regarding the generation of immune responses and show an increased susceptibility for infections. Persisting uremic conditions are made responsible for the increased aging of their immune system. In this study, we analyzed whether age-related differences in the differentiation of both recent-thymic-emigrant-(RTE)-regulatory (Tregs) and RTE-responder T cells (Tresps) into CD31(-)-memory Tregs/Tresps led to differences in the suppressive activity of naïve and memory Tregs on autologous Tresps between healthy volunteers and dialysis patients...
July 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720860/altered-hippocampal-volume-and-functional-connectivity-in-males-with-internet-gaming-disorder-comparing-to-those-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#12
Eun Jin Yoon, Jung-Seok Choi, Heejung Kim, Bo Kyung Sohn, Hee Yeon Jung, Jun-Young Lee, Dai-Jin Kim, Sun-Won Park, Yu Kyeong Kim
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and shares clinical, neuropsychological, and personality characteristics with alcohol use disorder (AUD), but IGD dose not entail brain exposure to toxic agents, which renders it different from AUD. To achieve a clear understanding of the neurobiological features of IGD, we aimed to identify morphological and functional changes in IGD and compare them with those in AUD. Individuals with IGD showed larger volume in the hippocampus/amygdala and precuneus than healthy controls (HCs)...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720169/characteristics-of-healthy-older-adults-that-influence-self-rated-cognitive-function
#13
Bryce P Mulligan, Colette M Smart, Sidney J Segalowitz, Stuart W S MacDonald
OBJECTIVES: We sought to clarify the nature of self-reported cognitive function among healthy older adults by considering the short-term, within-person association (coupling) of subjective cognitive function with objective cognitive performance. We expected this within-person coupling to differ between persons as a function of self-perceived global cognitive decline and depression, anxiety, or neuroticism. METHODS: This was an intensive measurement (short-term longitudinal) study of 29 older adult volunteers between the ages of 65 and 80 years without an existing diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718752/the-impact-of-presentation-format-on-younger-and-older-adults-self-regulated-learning
#14
Jodi Price
Background/Study Context: Self-regulated learning involves deciding what to study and for how long. Debate surrounds whether individuals' selections are influenced more by item complexity, point values, or if instead people select in a left-to-right reading order, ignoring item complexity and value. The present study manipulated whether point values and presentation format favored selection of simple or complex Chinese-English pairs to assess the impact on younger and older adults' selection behaviors. METHODS: One hundred and five younger (Mage = 20...
July 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717598/development-rate-rather-than-social-environment-influences-cognitive-performance-in-australian-black-field-crickets-teleogryllus-commodus
#15
Caitlin L Anderson, Michael M Kasumovic
Cognitive functioning is vital for enabling animals of all taxa to optimise their chances of survival and reproductive success. Learning and memory in particular are drivers of many evolutionary processes. In this study, we examine how developmental plasticity can affect cognitive ability by exploring the role the early social environment has on problem solving ability and learning of female black field crickets, Teleogryllus commodus. We used two learning paradigms, an analog of the Morris water maze and a novel linear maze, to examine cognitive differences between individuals reared in two acoustic treatments: silence or calling...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716162/changing-our-thinking-about-changing-their-thinking-in-older-adulthood
#16
Viviana M Wuthrich
It is well-established that as people age, deterioration in cognitive abilities including processing speed, memory, and cognitive flexibility occurs, although vast individual differences occur in the rate and consequences of this decline (Christensen, 2001). Anxiety and depression in late life are also associated with specific cognitive deficits in memory and executive functioning that may impact on new learning (Yochim et al., 2013). Therefore, it is possible that cognitive changes make it more difficult for older adults to learn how to change their thinking particularly in the context of psychological therapy...
July 18, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715846/b-cell-anomalies-in-autoimmune-retinopathy-air
#17
Elena Stansky, Angélique Biancotto, Pradeep K Dagur, Sapna Gangaputra, Benjamin Chaigne-Delalande, Robert B Nussenblatt, H Nida Sen, J Philip McCoy
Purpose: Autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is a retinopathy associated with unexplained vision loss presumably linked to circulating antiretinal antibodies; currently, however, there are no standardized criteria regarding the diagnosis, treatment strategy, or pathogenesis of this disease. The importance of B-lymphocyte immunophenotyping in the classification of AIR is unknown. Methods: We utilized 15-color multiparametric flow cytometry to identify aberrations in B cell subsets that may contribute to the pathophysiology of AIR...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715373/new-methods-to-study-gustatory-coding
#18
Alejandra Boronat-García, Sam Reiter, Kui Sun, Mark Stopfer
The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemicals in the environment, giving rise to behaviors critical for survival. When Gustatory Receptor Neurons (GRNs) detect tastant molecules, they encode information about the identity and concentration of the tastant as patterns of electrical activity that then propagate to follower neurons in the brain. These patterns constitute internal representations of the tastant, which then allow the animal to select actions and form memories. The use of relatively simple animal models has been a powerful tool to study basic principles in sensory coding...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714423/distinctive-neuropsychological-profiles-differentiate-patients-with-functional-memory-disorder-from-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Sarah J Wakefield, Daniel J Blackburn, Kirsty Harkness, Aijaz Khan, Markus Reuber, Annalena Venneri
OBJECTIVES: Patients with functional memory disorder (FMD) report significant memory failures in everyday life. Differentiating these patients from those with memory difficulties due to early stage neurodegenerative conditions is clinically challenging. The current study explored whether distinctive neuropsychological profiles could be established, suitable to differentiate patients with FMD from healthy individuals and those experiencing amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). METHODS: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of FMD were compared with patients with a-MCI, and healthy matched controls on several tests assessing different cognitive functions...
July 17, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711562/early-executive-function-differences-in-infants-born-moderate-to-late-preterm
#20
Amanda S Hodel, Kate L Senich, Claire Jokinen, Oren Sasson, Alyssa R Morris, Kathleen M Thomas
Individuals who are born very preterm (<32weeks gestation) show differential development of prefrontal cortex structure, function, and dependent behaviors, including executive function (EF) skills, beginning during late infancy and extending into adulthood. Preschool-aged children born moderate-to-late preterm (PT; 32-36weeks gestation) show smaller discrepancies in EF development, but it is unclear whether these differences first emerge during the early childhood years, when EF is rapidly developing, or if they arise from alterations in complex cognitive skills measurable in late infancy...
July 13, 2017: Early Human Development
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