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Individual differences memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088551/individual-and-sex-differences-in-high-and-low-responder-phenotypes
#1
María B Carreira, Ricardo Cossio, Gabrielle B Britton
Individual differences in responses to a novel environment are an important tool to predict predisposition to neuropsychiatric disorders. One way to examine individual differences involves classifying animals based on locomotion in a novel context. In this study we focused on individual and sex differences by categorizing female and male mice as high (HR) or low responders (LR) on the basis of open field locomotion. We then assessed whether groups differed on behavioral measures of spontaneous alternations, anxiety, depression and contextual fear conditioning...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088063/verbal-and-musical-short-term-memory-variety-of-auditory-disorders-after-stroke
#2
Catherine Hirel, Norbert Nighoghossian, Yohana Lévêque, Salem Hannoun, Lesly Fornoni, Sébastien Daligault, Patrick Bouchet, Julien Jung, Barbara Tillmann, Anne Caclin
Auditory cognitive deficits after stroke may concern language and/or music processing, resulting in aphasia and/or amusia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential deficits of auditory short-term memory for verbal and musical material after stroke and their underlying cerebral correlates with a Voxel-based Lesion Symptom Mapping approach (VLSM). Patients with an ischemic stroke in the right (N=10) or left (N=10) middle cerebral artery territory and matched control participants (N=14) were tested with a detailed neuropsychological assessment including global cognitive functions, music perception and language tasks...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087764/accumulation-of-polyribosomes-in-dendritic-spine-heads-but-not-bases-and-necks-during-memory-consolidation-depends-on-cap-dependent-translation-initiation
#3
Linnaea E Ostroff, Benjamin Botsford, Sofya Gindina, Kiriana K Cowansage, Joseph E LeDoux, Eric Klann, Charles Hoeffer
: Translation in dendrites is believed to support synaptic changes during memory consolidation. Although translational control mechanisms are fundamental mediators of memory, little is known about their role in local translation. We previously found that polyribosomes accumulate in dendritic spines of the adult rat lateral amygdala (LA) during consolidation of aversive Pavlovian conditioning, and that this memory requires cap-dependent initiation, a primary point of translational control in eukaryotic cells...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080261/performance-of-hispanics-and-non-hispanic-whites-on-the-nih-toolbox-cognition-battery-the-roles-of-ethnicity-and-language-backgrounds
#4
Ilse Flores, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Maria J Marquine, Anya Umlauf, David J Moore, Dan Mungas, Richard C Gershon, Jennifer L Beaumont, Robert K Heaton
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and language/cultural background on performance on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). METHOD: Participants included healthy, primarily English-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-English), primarily Spanish-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-Spanish), and English speaking Non-Hispanic white (n = 93; NH white) adults matched on age, sex, and education levels. All participants were in the NIH Toolbox national norming project and completed the Fluid and Crystallized components of the NIHTB-CB...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080086/attentional-capture-by-taboo-words-a-functional-view-of-auditory-distraction
#5
Jan P Röer, Ulrike Körner, Axel Buchner, Raoul Bell
It is well established that task-irrelevant, to-be-ignored speech adversely affects serial short-term memory (STM) for visually presented items compared with a quiet control condition. However, there is an ongoing debate about whether the semantic content of the speech has the capacity to capture attention and to disrupt memory performance. In the present article, we tested whether taboo words are more difficult to ignore than neutral words. Taboo words or neutral words were presented as (a) steady state sequences in which the same distractor word was repeated, (b) changing state sequences in which different distractor words were presented, and (c) auditory deviant sequences in which a single distractor word deviated from a sequence of repeated words...
January 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078977/emotion-cognition-interaction-in-nonhuman-primatescognitive-avoidance-of-negative-stimuli-in-baboons-papio-papio
#6
Isabelle Blanchette, Yousri Marzouki, Nicolas Claidière, Julie Gullstrand, Joël Fagot
It is well established that emotion and cognition interact in humans, but such an interaction has not been extensively studied in nonhuman primates. We investigated whether emotional value can affect nonhuman primates' processing of stimuli that are only mentally represented, not visually available. In a short-term memory task, baboons memorized the location of two target squares of the same color, which were presented with a distractor of a different color. Through prior long-term conditioning, one of the two colors had acquired a negative valence...
January 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077721/temporal-expectations-guide-dynamic-prioritization-in-visual-working-memory-through-attenuated-%C3%AE-oscillations
#7
Freek van Ede, Marcel Niklaus, Anna C Nobre
: Although working memory is generally considered a highly dynamic mnemonic store, popular laboratory tasks used to understand its psychological and neural mechanisms (such as change detection and continuous reproduction) often remain relatively "static," involving the retention of a set number of items throughout a shared delay interval. In the current study, we investigated visual working memory in a more dynamic setting, and assessed the following: (1) whether internally guided temporal expectations can dynamically and reversibly prioritize individual mnemonic items at specific times at which they are deemed most relevant; and (2) the neural substrates that support such dynamic prioritization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077714/formation-of-long-term-locomotor-memories-is-associated-with-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical-network
#8
Firas Mawase, Simona Bar-Haim, Lior Shmuelof
: Although motor adaptation is typically rapid, accumulating evidence shows that it is also associated with long-lasting behavioral and neuronal changes. Two processes were suggested to explain the formation of long-term motor memories: recall, reflecting a retrieval of previous motor actions, and faster relearning, reflecting an increased sensitivity to errors. Although these manifestations of motor memories were initially demonstrated in the context of adaptation experiments in reaching, indications of long-term motor memories were also demonstrated recently in other kinds of adaptation such as in locomotor adaptation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077707/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#9
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. Although studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077292/general-and-specific-factors-in-the-processing-of-faces
#10
Roeland J Verhallen, Jenny M Bosten, Patrick T Goodbourn, Adam J Lawrance-Owen, Gary Bargary, J D Mollon
The ability to recognize faces varies considerably between individuals, but does performance co-vary for tests of different aspects of face processing? For 397 participants (of whom the majority were university students) we obtained scores on the Mooney Face Test, Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT), Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and Composite Face Test. Overall performance was significantly correlated for each pair of tests, and we suggest the term f for the factor underlying this pattern of positive correlations...
January 7, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077263/learning-in-mosquito-larvae-aedes-aegypti-habituation-to-a-visual-danger-signal
#11
Hugo Baglan, Claudio Lazzari, Fernando Guerrieri
In spite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti being a vector of several infectious diseases, a limited number of studies has been undertaken on learning in this species. Moreover, larval stages have been neglected as model organisms, although they are active, aquatic and perform stereotyped behavioural responses, e.g. the escape response when disturbed. To study the learning abilities of mosquito larvae, we focused on habituation, a form of non-associative learning widely studied in vertebrates and invertebrates. Habituation was defined as the progressive and reversible decrease in response to a reiterative stimulus...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075381/the-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-supplementation-improved-the-cognitive-function-in-the-chinese-elderly-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Yacong Bo, Xueyuan Zhang, Youli Wang, Jie You, Han Cui, Yiwei Zhu, Wei Pang, Wei Liu, Yugang Jiang, Quanjun Lu
OBJECTIVE: Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may protect against mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, there is still a lack of the n-3 PUFAs intervention in the elderly with MCI in China. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on cognitive function in the Chinese elderly with MCI. METHODS: Eighty six MCI individuals aged 60 years or older were randomly assigned to receive either n-3 PUFAs (480 mg DHA and 720 mg EPA per day, n = 44) or placebo (olive oil, n = 42) capsules...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073940/vividness-of-visual-imagery-depends-on-the-neural-overlap-with-perception-in-visual-areas
#13
Nadine Dijkstra, Sander Bosch, Marcel A J van Gerven
: Research into the neural correlates of individual differences in imagery vividness point to an important role of the early visual cortex. However, there is also great fluctuation of vividness within individuals, such that only looking at differences between people necessarily obscures the picture. In this study we show that variation in moment-to-moment experienced vividness of visual imagery, within human subjects, depends on the activity of a large network of brain areas, including frontal, parietal and visual areas...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073651/i-know-i-ve-seen-you-before-distinguishing-recent-single-exposure-based-familiarity-from-pre-existing-familiarity
#14
Sarah I Gimbel, James B Brewer, Anat Maril
This study examines how individuals differentiate recent-single-exposure-based familiarity from pre-existing familiarity. If these are two distinct cognitive processes, are they supported by the same neural bases? This study examines how recent-single-exposure-based familiarity and multiple-previous-exposure-based familiarity are supported and represented in the brain using functional MRI. In a novel approach, we first behaviorally show that subjects can divide retrieval of items in pre-existing memory into judgments of recollection and familiarity...
January 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073491/gray-matter-neuritic-microstructure-deficits-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#15
Arash Nazeri, Benoit H Mulsant, Tarek K Rajji, Melissa L Levesque, Jon Pipitone, Laura Stefanik, Saba Shahab, Tina Roostaei, Anne L Wheeler, Sofia Chavez, Aristotle N Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Postmortem studies have demonstrated considerable dendritic pathologies among persons with schizophrenia and to some extent among those with bipolar I disorder. Modeling gray matter (GM) microstructural properties is now possible with a recently proposed diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging modeling technique: neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging. This technique may bridge the gap between neuroimaging and histopathological findings. METHODS: We performed an extended series of multishell diffusion-weighted imaging and other structural imaging series using 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
December 8, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072451/the-impact-of-salience-and-visual-working-memory-on-the-monitoring-and-control-of-saccadic-behavior-an-eye-tracking-and-eeg-study
#16
Matthew D Weaver, Clayton Hickey, Wieske van Zoest
In a concurrent eye-tracking and EEG study, we investigated the impact of salience on the monitoring and control of eye movement behavior and the role of visual working memory (VWM) capacity in mediating this effect. Participants made eye movements to a unique line-segment target embedded in a search display also containing a unique distractor. Target and distractor salience was manipulated by varying degree of orientation offset from a homogenous background. VWM capacity was measured using a change-detection task...
January 10, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072410/pre-trauma-methylphenidate-in-rats-reduces-ptsd-like-reactions-one-month-later
#17
G Ritov, G Richter-Levin
In basic research, the etiology of fear-related pathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), is conceptualized using fear-conditioning protocols that pair environmental stimuli (that is, a conditioned stimulus-CS) with an aversive, unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit an assessable conditioned fear response. Although pathophysiological models agree that regulatory dysfunctions in this associative process may instigate fear-related pathology, current opinions differ in regard to the nature of these dysfunctions...
January 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069523/a-chronic-increase-of-corticosterone-age-dependently-reduces-systemic-dna-damage-from-oxidation-in-rats
#18
Anders Jorgensen, Otto Kalliokoski, Kristin Forsberg, Katrine Breitenstein, Allan Weimann, Trine Henriksen, Jann Hau, Gitta Wörtwein, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Martin Balslev Jorgensen
Stress and depression are associated with an acceleration of brain and bodily aging; effects which have been attributed to chronic elevations of glucocorticoids. We tested the hypothesis that a three week administration of stress-associated levels of corticosterone (CORT, the principal rodent glucocorticoid) would increase systemic and CNS DNA and RNA damage from oxidation; a phenomenon known to be centrally involved in the aging process. We also hypothesized that older individuals would be more sensitive to this effect and that the chronic CORT administration would exacerbate age-related memory decline...
January 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069385/changes-of-renin-angiotensin-system-related-aminopeptidases-in-early-stage-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Paul Richard Gard, Sara Fidalgo, Isabelle Lotter, Cassandra Richardson, Nicolas Farina, Jennifer Rusted, Naji Tabet
Activities of aminopeptidases A, B, and N (ApA, ApB & ApN) and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) have been seen to be decreased amongst patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). All of these enzymes are involved with the brain renin-angiotensin system which is believed to be involved with learning and memory. This study aimed to explore the time course and the mechanisms underlying these changes. Serum samples were collected from 45 AD patients at the start of the study, and again 13months later (n=37)...
January 6, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067183/hippocampal-and-entorhinal-structures-in-subjective-memory-impairment-a-combined-mri-volumetric-and-dti-study
#20
Seon Young Ryu, Eun Ye Lim, Seunghee Na, Yong Soo Shim, Jung Hee Cho, Bora Yoon, Yun Jeong Hong, Dong Won Yang
BACKGROUND: Subjective memory impairment (SMI) is common among older adults. Increasing evidence suggests that SMI is a risk factor for future cognitive decline, as well as for mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Medial temporal lobe structures, including the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, are affected in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease. The current study examined the gray matter (GM) volume and microstructural changes of hippocampal and entorhinal regions in individuals with SMI, compared with elderly control participants without memory complaints...
January 9, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
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