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Individual differences memory

Julia Braverman, Rita Dunn, Andrey Vyshedskiy
Mental synthesis is the conscious purposeful process of synthesizing novel mental images from objects stored in memory. Mental synthesis ability is essential for understanding complex syntax, spatial prepositions, and verb tenses. In typical children, the timeline of mental synthesis acquisition is highly correlated with an increasing vocabulary. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), on the other hand, may learn hundreds of words but never acquire mental synthesis. In these individuals, tests assessing vocabulary comprehension may fail to demonstrate the profound deficit in mental synthesis...
May 20, 2018: Children
Kati Peltonen, Matti Vartiainen, Tiina Laitala-Leinonen, Sanna Koskinen, Teemu Luoto, Jon Pertab, Laura Hokkanen
Previous research has reported lower cognitive test scores on baseline testing in athletes reporting multiple previous concussions or a history of learning disability (LD). Age also has an important influence on cognitive performance. While these factors have been considered individually in previous studies, the present study is the first to explore the interaction of age, self-reported LD, and history of concussion on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT®) in a nationwide study of adolescent athletes...
May 21, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Luca Moretti, Carlo Semenza, Antonino Vallesi
Objective: This study considered the potential role of both protective factors (cognitive reserve, CR) and adverse ones (general slowing) in modulating cognitive flexibility in the adult life-span. Method: Ninety-eight individuals performed a task-switching (TS) paradigm in which we adopted a manipulation concerning the timing between the cue and the target. Working memory demands were minimized by using transparent cues. Additionally, indices of cognitive integrity, depression, processing speed and different CR dimensions were collected and used in linear models accounting for TS performance under the different time constraints...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rob Udale, Simon Farrell, Christopher Kent
When detecting changes in visual features (e.g., colour or shape), object locations, represented as points within a configuration, might also be automatically represented in working memory. If the configuration of a scene is represented automatically, the locations of individual items might form part of this representation, irrespective of their relevance to the task. Participants took part in a change-detection task in which they studied displays containing different sets of items (shapes, letters, objects), which varied in their task relevance...
May 17, 2018: Memory & Cognition
Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Mauricio Toro, Pedro E Maldonado, María de la L Aylwin
Through same-different judgements, we can discriminate an immense variety of stimuli and consequently, they are critical in our everyday interaction with the environment. The quality of the judgements depends on familiarity with stimuli. A way to improve the discrimination is through learning, but to this day, we lack direct evidence of how learning shapes the same-different judgments with complex stimuli. We studied unsupervised visual discrimination learning in 42 participants, as they performed same-different judgments with two types of unfamiliar complex stimuli in the absence of labeling or individuation...
May 15, 2018: Vision Research
Matias Mariani, Mark William Glister Collins
PURPOSE: As developments in cancer treatment have improved outcomes, research has increasingly focused on the role of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) in quality of life for cancer survivors. Impairment profiles have been heterogeneous across studies, necessitating the study of these effects across different cohorts. The purpose of this preliminary study is to compare the memory profiles of Northeast Ontario breast and CNS cancer patients, as there is no literature which exists for profiling CRCI within this largely rural region...
May 17, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Le Shi, Wenhao Chen, Jiahui Deng, Sijing Chen, Ying Han, Muhammad Z Khan, Jiajia Liu, Jianyu Que, Yanping Bao, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Recently the role of the orexin system in the learning and memory, especially orexin A, which could enhance fear memory through regulating the activity of amygdala, has drawn considerable attention. However, the relationship between orexin A and extinction memory remains unclear. To investigate the effect of orexin A on extinction memory in humans, we recruited 43 male subjects and divided them into a recent group and remote group. After acquiring Pavlovian fear conditioning, individuals in recent group experienced fear extinction 24 h after acquisition, and remote group underwent extinction 2 weeks later...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Edoardo Balzani, Matteo Falappa, Fuat Balcà, Valter Tucci
Genetically modified mice are used as models for a variety of human behavioral conditions. However, behavioral phenotyping can be a major bottleneck in mouse genetics because many of the classic protocols are too long and/or are vulnerable to unaccountable sources of variance, leading to inconsistent results between centers. We developed a home-cage approach using a Chora feeder that is controlled by-and sends data to-software. In this approach, mice are tested in the standard cages in which they are held for husbandry, which removes confounding variables such as the stress induced by out-of-cage testing...
June 2018: Nature Protocols
Cristina Cacciari, Paola Corrardini, Fabio Ferlazzo
In this exploratory study, we investigated whether and to what extent individual differences in cognitive and personality variables are associated with spoken idiom comprehension in context. Language unimpaired participants were enrolled in a cross-modal lexical decision study in which semantically ambiguous Italian idioms (i.e., strings with both a literal and an idiomatic interpretation as, for instance, break the ice ), predictable or unpredictable before the string offset, were embedded in idiom-biasing contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jamie E Knight, David A Bennett, Andrea M Piccinin
Objectives: To determine whether assessment-to-assessment fluctuations in episodic memory (EM) reflect fluctuations in olfaction over time. Methods: Within-person coupled variation in EM and the Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) was examined in 565 participants aged 58-106 with autopsy data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. A growth model for up to 15 years of EM data, with BSIT as time-varying covariate, was estimated accounting for main effects of sex, education, ε4 allele, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, BSIT and time-varying BSIT, as well as the interaction between AD pathology and time-varying BSIT...
May 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Taro Kishi, Toshikazu Ikuta, Kazuto Oya, Shinji Matsunaga, Yuki Matsuda, Nakao Iwata
Background: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of anti-dementia drugs plus antipsychotics (ADD+AP) for schizophrenia. Methods: Primary outcomes of efficacy and safety included improving overall symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores) and all-cause discontinuation, respectively. Other outcomes included psychopathology subscales (positive, negative, general, and anxiety/depressive symptoms), cognitive function (attention/vigilance, reasoning/problem solving, social cognition, speed of processing, verbal learning, visual learning, working memory, and cognitive control/executive function), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, treatment discontinuation due to adverse events and inefficacy, and individual adverse events...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Jaclyn H Ford, Haley D DiBiase, Ehri Ryu, Elizabeth A Kensinger
Age is associated with shifts toward more positive memory retrieval. The current study examined these shifts following a negative public event. Participants completed two surveys examining emotional responses to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, one immediately following the attack and another 6 months later. Age was associated with different effects of time on how individuals reflected on this event. Time was associated with an increased focus on negative components in young adults but a decreased focus in older adults...
May 2018: Psychology and Aging
Paul Engelhardt, Mhairi E G McMullon, Martin Corley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Mariel A Moauro, M Sol Balbuena, Walter M Farina
Honey bees transfer different informational components of the discovered feeding source to their nestmates during the waggle dance. To decode the multicomponent information of this complex behavior, dance followers have to attend to the most relevant signal elements while filtering out less relevant ones. To achieve that, dance followers should present improved abilities to acquire information compared with those bees not engaged in this behavior. Through proboscis extension response assays, sensory and cognitive abilities were tested in follower and non-follower bees...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Alecia D Dager, Madelynn R Tice, Gregory A Book, Howard Tennen, Sarah A Raskin, Carol S Austad, Rebecca M Wood, Carolyn R Fallahi, Keith A Hawkins, Godfrey D Pearlson
Marijuana (MJ) is widely used among college students, with peak use between ages 18-22. Research suggests memory dysfunction in adolescent and young adult MJ users, but the neural correlates are unclear. We examined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response during a memory task among college students with varying degrees of MJ involvement. Participants were 64 college students, ages 18-20, who performed a visual encoding and recognition task during fMRI. MJ use was ascertained for 3 months prior to scanning; 27 individuals reported past 3-month MJ use, and 33 individuals did not...
April 26, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Pengfei Han, Mohebbat Mohebbi, Manja Unrath, Cornelia Hummel, Thomas Hummel
There is a large inter-individual variation for umami taste perception. However the neural mechanism for this variability is not well understood. This study investigated brain responses to umami and salty taste among individuals with different umami identification abilities and the effect of repeated oral umami exposure on umami identification and neural processing of taste perceptions. Fifteen participants with high umami identification ability ("High Tasters, HT) and fifteen with low umami identification ability ("Low Tasters", LT) underwent three weeks of controlled exposure to umami taste (umami training)...
May 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Brooke M Okada, L Robert Slevc
Learning and performing music draw on a host of cognitive abilities, and previous research has postulated that musicians might have advantages in related cognitive processes. One such aspect of cognition that may be related to musical training is executive functions (EFs), a set of top-down processes that regulate behavior and cognition according to task demands. Previous studies investigating the link between musical training and EFs have yielded mixed results and are difficult to compare. In part, this is because most studies have looked at only one specific cognitive process, and even studies looking at the same process have used different experimental tasks...
May 11, 2018: Memory & Cognition
L Grau-Guinea, C Pérez-Enríquez, G García-Escobar, C Arrondo-Elizarán, B Pereira-Cutiño, M Florido-Santiago, J Piqué-Candini, A Planas, M Paez, J Peña-Casanova, G Sánchez-Benavides
INTRODUCTION: The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is widely used for the assessment of verbal episodic memory, mainly in patients with Alzheimer disease. A Spanish version of the FCSRT and normative data were developed within the NEURONORMA project. Availability of alternative, equivalent versions is useful for following patients up in clinical settings. This study aimed to develop an alternative version of the original FCSRT (version B) and to study its equivalence to the original Spanish test (version A), and its performance in a sample of healthy individuals, in order to develop reference data...
May 8, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Weizhen Xie, Marcus Cappiello, Ming Meng, Robert Rosenthal, Weiwei Zhang
This meta-analytical review examines whether a deletion variant in ADRA2B, a gene that encodes α2B adrenoceptor in the regulation of norepinephrine availability, influences cognitive processing of emotional information in human observers. Using a multilevel modeling approach, this meta-analysis of 16 published studies with a total of 2,752 participants showed that ADRA2B deletion variant was significantly associated with enhanced perceptual and cognitive task performance for emotional stimuli. In contrast, this genetic effect did not manifest in overall task performance when non-emotional content was used...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Madalena S Kozachuk, Maria O Avilés, Ronald R Martin, Brianne Potts, Tsun-Kong Sham, François Lagugné-Labarthet
Daguerreotypes are valued artifacts that constitute a unique historical photographic memory of the 19th century. Understanding their surface chemistry is important in order to conserve and, when necessary, to restore them. Colored highlights were often added by hand to emphasize different features on the daguerreotype's subjects. In the present work, we report on a daguerreotype that was hand-colored with a red pigment that was added to the cheeks of the two individuals. A series of experiments using micro-Raman and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and absorption spectroscopy are used to analyze the surface and to determine the nature of the pigment used as well as the common elements present in the fabrication of the daguerreotypes...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
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