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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915379/nr2a-and-nr2b-nmda-receptors-and-drebrin-within-postsynaptic-spines-of-the-hippocampus-correlate-with-hunger-evoked-exercise
#1
Yi-Wen Chen, Hannah Actor-Engel, Ang Doma Sherpa, Lauren Klingensmith, Tara G Chowdhury, Chiye Aoki
Hunger evokes foraging. This innate response can be quantified as voluntary wheel running following food restriction (FR). Paradoxically, imposing severe FR evokes voluntary FR, as some animals choose to run rather than eat, even during limited periods of food availability. This phenomenon, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), has been used to identify brain changes associated with FR and excessive exercise (EX), two core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN), and to explore neurobiological bases of AN vulnerability...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824163/the-role-of-p2x7-receptors-in-a-rodent-pcp-induced-schizophrenia-model
#2
Bence Koványi, Cecilia Csölle, Stefano Calovi, Adrienn Hanuska, Erzsébet Kató, László Köles, Anindya Bhattacharya, József Haller, Beáta Sperlágh
P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are ligand-gated ion channels sensitive to extracellular ATP. Here we examined for the first time the role of P2X7R in an animal model of schizophrenia. Using the PCP induced schizophrenia model we show that both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of P2X7Rs alleviate schizophrenia-like behavioral alterations. In P2rx7+/+ mice, PCP induced hyperlocomotion, stereotype behavior, ataxia and social withdrawal. In P2X7 receptor deficient mice (P2rx7-/-), the social interactions were increased, whereas the PCP induced hyperlocomotion and stereotype behavior were alleviated...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807032/nr2a-containing-nmdars-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-are-required-for-working-memory-and-associated-with-age-related-cognitive-decline
#3
Joseph A McQuail, B Sofia Beas, Kyle B Kelly, Kailey L Simpson, Charles J Frazier, Barry Setlow, Jennifer L Bizon
: Working memory, the ability to temporarily maintain representational knowledge, is a foundational cognitive process that can become compromised in aging and neuropsychiatric disease. NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) is necessary for the pyramidal neuron activity believed to enable working memory. However, the distinct biophysical properties and localization of NMDARs containing NR2A and NR2B subunits suggest unique roles for NMDAR subtypes in PFC neural activity and working memory...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798707/a-single-postnatal-dose-of-dexamethasone-enhances-memory-of-rat-pups-later-in-life
#4
Kuen-Jer Tsai, Chun-I Sze, Yung-Chieh Lin, Yuh-Jyh Lin, Ting-Hui Hsieh, Chyi-Her Lin
Postnatal dexamethasone (Dex) therapy is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, which might be related to its timing of administration. We used time-dated pregnant Wistar albino rats, whose litters were divided into experimental (Dex) and control groups intraperitoneally administered one dose of Dex (0.5 mg/kg) or normal saline (NS), respectively, at either day 1 (P1) or 7 (P7). The magnitude of the contextual freezing response and performance on the Morris water maze were significantly higher in the Dex-P7 group than in those of the other groups at P56...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771532/intrastriatal-injection-of-ionomycin-profoundly-changes-motor-response-to-l-dopa-and-its-underlying-molecular-mechanisms
#5
Chao Han, Shuke Nie, Guiqin Chen, Kai Ma, Nian Xiong, Zhentao Zhang, Yan Xu, Tao Wang, Stella M Papa, Xuebing Cao
Long-term l-DOPA treatment of Parkinson's disease is accompanied with fluctuations of motor responses and l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Phosphorylation of the dopamine and c-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of 32kDa (DARPP-32) plays a role in the pathogenesis of LID, and thus dephosphorylation of this protein by activated calcineurin may help reduce LID. One important activator of calcineurin is the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin. Here, we investigated whether intrastriatal injection of ionomycin to hemiparkinsonian rats produced changes in l-DOPA responses including LID...
October 19, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731509/microrna-139-5p-negatively-regulates-nr2a-containing-nmda-receptor-in-the-rat-pilocarpine-model-and-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Walid A Alsharafi, Bo Xiao, Jing Li
OBJECTIVES: Regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subunits NR2A and NR2B expression during status epilepticus (SE) remains incompletely understood. Here we explored the role of brain-enriched microRNA (miR)-139-5p in this process. METHODS: miRNA microarray was performed to examine changes in miRNA expression in the rat pilocarpine model following NMDA-receptor blockade. The dynamic expression patterns of miR-139-5p, NR2A, and NR2B levels were measured in rats during the three phases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) development using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot...
November 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707974/glutamate-clearance-is-locally-modulated-by-presynaptic-neuronal-activity-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#7
Moritz Armbruster, Elizabeth Hanson, Chris G Dulla
: Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) are abundantly expressed by astrocytes, rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular environment, and restrict the temporal and spatial extent of glutamate signaling. Studies probing EAAT function suggest that their capacity to remove glutamate is large and does not saturate, even with substantial glutamate challenges. In contrast, we report that neuronal activity rapidly and reversibly modulates EAAT-dependent glutamate transport. To date, no physiological manipulation has shown changes in functional glutamate uptake in a nonpathological state...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693609/neural-oscillations-as-a-bridge-between-glutamatergic-system-and-emotional-behaviors-in-simulated-microgravity-induced-mice
#8
Xueliang Shang, Bo Xu, Qun Li, Baohui Zhai, Xiaxia Xu, Tao Zhang
This study aims to investigate if neural oscillations can play a role as a bridge between the alteration of glutamatergic system and emotional behaviors in simulated microgravity (SM) mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: SM and control groups. The animal model was established by hindlimb unloading (HU). The mice were exposed to HU continued for 14days. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured. The degree of anxious and depressive was evaluated by Open field test and Elevated plus maze test...
September 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664962/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-expression-patterns-in-the-human-fetal-cerebral-cortex
#9
Inseyah Bagasrawala, Fani Memi, Nevena V Radonjić, Nada Zecevic
N-methyl d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a subtype of glutamate receptor, have important functional roles in cellular activity and neuronal development. They are well-studied in rodent and adult human brains, but limited information is available about their distribution in the human fetal cerebral cortex. Here we show that 3 NMDAR subunits, NR1, NR2A, and NR2B, are expressed in the human cerebral cortex during the second trimester of gestation, a period of intense neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. With increasing fetal age, expression of the NMDAR-encoding genes Grin1 (NR1) and Grin2a (NR2A) increased while Grin2b (NR2B) expression decreased...
September 24, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639321/the-decrease-of-nmdar-subunit-expression-and-nmdar-epsc-in-hippocampus-by-neonatal-exposure-to-desflurane-in-mice
#10
Xinyu Xu, Chen Zheng, Nan Li, Hui Shen, Guolin Wang
Desflurane is one of the third generation inhaled anesthetics and can be used in obstetric and pediatric medicine. However, effects of exposure to desflurane on neonatal brain are largely unknown. In this work, 6-day-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1MAC or 1.5MAC desflurane for 2h. When the mice were 28-day-old, the open-field, spontaneous alternation Y-maze and fear conditioning tests were performed to evaluate general activity, working memory and long term memory, respectively. Levels of NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B expression in hippocampus were evaluated by western blot...
September 14, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639119/a-ketogenic-diet-accelerates-neurodegeneration-in-mice-with-induced-mitochondrial-dna-toxicity-in-the-forebrain
#11
Knut H Lauritzen, Md Mahdi Hasan-Olive, Christine E Regnell, Liv Kleppa, Morten Scheibye-Knudsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Klungland, Vilhelm A Bohr, Jon Storm-Mathisen, Linda H Bergersen
Mitochondrial genome maintenance plays a central role in preserving brain health. We previously demonstrated accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage and severe neurodegeneration in transgenic mice inducibly expressing a mutated mitochondrial DNA repair enzyme (mutUNG1) selectively in forebrain neurons. Here, we examine whether severe neurodegeneration in mutUNG1-expressing mice could be rescued by feeding the mice a ketogenic diet, which is known to have beneficial effects in several neurological disorders...
August 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620814/melatonin-attenuates-the-high-fat-diet-and-streptozotocin-induced-reduction-in-rat-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#12
Prapimpun Wongchitrat, Niyada Lansubsakul, Utcharaporn Kamsrijai, Kwankanit Sae-Ung, Sujira Mukda, Piyarat Govitrapong
A deviant level of melatonin in blood circulation has been associated with the development of diabetes and with learning and memory deficiencies. Melatonin might have an important function in diabetes control; however, the mechanism of melatonin in diabetes remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the hyperglycemic condition induced by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and streptozotocin (STZ) injection and to examine the effect of melatonin on adult hippocampal functions. HFD-fed and STZ-treated rats significantly increased blood glucose level...
September 13, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620812/oxidative-stress-and-glutamate-excitotoxicity-contribute-to-apoptosis-in-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis
#13
Hari Shanker Tiwari, Usha Kant Misra, Jayantee Kalita, Akanksha Mishra, Shubha Shukla
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an important cause of stroke in young especially in the developing countries. There is paucity of studies on the mechanism of cell damage in CVST. Aim of this study is to explore the role of glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress; and apoptosis in an experimental model of CVST. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis was induced by putting a strip of filter paper soaked in 40% ferric chloride on superior sagittal sinus. Brain was removed on day 1, 2 and 7 and oxidative stress markers (Mn-SOD, Catalase, GPx, LPO and GSH) were estimated spectrophotometrically...
September 19, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614006/downregulation-of-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-proteins-in-valproric-acid-associated-social-impairment-during-adolescence-in-mice
#14
Davor Kin-Fan Chau, Angus Yiu-Ting Choi, Wen Yang, Wing Nang Leung, Chun Wai Chan
The etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) remains controversial. Deficits in social communication are one of the key criteria for ASD diagnosis. Valproic acid (VPA), which is an anti-epileptic and anti-depressive drug, is one of the teratogens to cause ASD onset. Moreover, synaptic dysfunction is suggested as one of the major causative factor in VPA-induced ASD in vitro and in vivo studies. Herein, this study aimed to determine the excitatory/inhibitory synaptic mRNA and protein expression in VPA-induced autistic mice...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531839/involvement-of-protein-phosphatases-in-the-destabilization-of-methamphetamine-associated-contextual-memory
#15
Yang-Jung Yu, Chien-Hsuan Huang, Chih-Hua Chang, Po-Wu Gean
Destabilization refers to a memory that becomes unstable when reactivated and is susceptible to disruption by amnestic agents. Here we delineated the cellular mechanism underlying the destabilization of drug memory. Mice were conditioned with methamphetamine (MeAM) for 3 d, and drug memory was assessed with a conditioned place preference (CPP) protocol. Anisomycin (ANI) was administered 60 min after the CPP retrieval to disrupt reconsolidation. We found that destabilization of MeAM CPP after the application of ANI was blocked by the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist MK-801 and the NR2B antagonist ifenprodil (IFN) but not by the NR2A antagonist NVP-AAM077 (NVP)...
September 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519930/effects-of-peptides-from-phascolosoma-esculenta-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-via-anti-oxidative-character-in-mice
#16
Lianliang Liu, Jinxuan Cao, Jiong Chen, Xin Zhang, Zufang Wu, Huan Xiang
This study was aimed to evaluate effects of peptides from Phascolosoma esculenta and its ferrous-chelating peptides on spatial learning and memory in mice by Morris water maze test. 100mg/kg peptide on spatial learning and memory function about quadrant time and passing times through the platform better than 50 and 150mg/kg group during exploration period (P<0.05), without body weight between the weight and visual ability. 100mg/kg ferrous-chelating peptide group performed better ability of spatial learning and memory than 100mg/kg peptide group (P<0...
September 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495014/memantine-an-nmda-receptor-antagonist-improves-working-memory-deficits-in-dgk%C3%AE-knockout-mice
#17
Kenichi Kakefuda, Mitsue Ishisaka, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) β is a type 1 isozyme of the DGK family. We previously reported that DGKβ was deeply involved in neurite spine formation, and DGKβ knockout (KO) mice exhibited behavioral abnormalities concerning spine formation, such as cognitive, emotional, and attentional impairment. Moreover, some of these abnormalities were ameliorated by the administration of a mood stabilizer. However, there is no data about how memory-improving drugs used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease affect DGKβ KO mice...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435909/chronic-administration-of-aripiprazole-activates-gsk3%C3%AE-dependent-signalling-pathways-and-up-regulates-gabaa-receptor-expression-and-creb1-activity-in-rats
#18
Bo Pan, Xu-Feng Huang, Chao Deng
Aripiprazole is a D2-like receptor (D2R) partial agonist with a favourable clinical profile. Previous investigations indicated that acute and short-term administration of aripiprazole had effects on PKA activity, GSK3β-dependent pathways, GABAA receptors, NMDA receptor and CREB1 in the brain. Since antipsychotics are used chronically in clinics, the present study investigated the long-term effects of chronic oral aripiprazole treatment on these cellular signalling pathways, in comparison with haloperidol (a D2R antagonist) and bifeprunox (a potent D2R partial agonist)...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391358/extended-neuroleptic-administration-modulates-nmda-r-subunit-immunoexpression-in-the-rat-neocortex-and-diencephalon
#19
Marek Krzystanek, Katarzyna Bogus, Artur Pałasz, Anna Wiaderkiewicz, Łukasz Filipczyk, Ewa Rojczyk, John Worthington, Ryszard Wiaderkiewicz
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of extended olanzapine, clozapine and haloperidol administration on NMDA-R subunit immunoexpression in the rat neocortex and diencephalon. METHODS: To explore NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunit protein expression, densytometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained brain slices was performed. RESULTS: Interestingly, all neuroleptics caused a downregulation of NMDA-R subunit expression in the thalamus but increased the level of NR1 in the hypothalamus...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388219/nmda-receptors-as-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-diabetic-nephropathy-increased-renal-nmda-receptor-subunit-expression-in-akita-mice-and-reduced-nephropathy-following-sustained-treatment-with-memantine-or-mk-801
#20
Hila Roshanravan, Eun Young Kim, Stuart E Dryer
N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are expressed throughout the kidney, and the abundance of these receptors and some of their endogenous agonists are increased in diabetes. Moreover, sustained activation of podocyte NMDA receptors induces Ca(2+) influx, oxidative stress, loss of slit diaphragm proteins, and apoptosis. We observed that NMDA receptor subunits and their transcripts are increased in podocytes and mesangial cells cultured in elevated glucose compared with controls. A similar increase in NMDA subunits, especially NR1, NR2A, and NR2C, was observed in glomeruli and tubules of Akita mice...
October 2016: Diabetes
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