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kinesine motor protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731566/heterogeneity-in-kinesin-function
#1
Babu J N Reddy, Suvranta Tripathy, Michael Vershinin, Marvin Tanenbaum, Jing Xu, Michelle Mattson-Hoss, Karim Arabi, Dail Chapman, Tory Doolin, Changbong Hyeon, Steven P Gross
The kinesin family proteins are often studied as prototypical molecular motors; a deeper understanding of them can illuminate regulation of intracellular transport. It is typically assumed that they function identically. Here we find that this assumption of homogeneous function appears incorrect: variation among motors' velocities in vivo and in vitro is larger than the stochastic variation expected for an ensemble of 'identical" motors. When moving on microtubules, slow and fast motors are persistently slow, and fast, respectively...
July 21, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720664/dynein-efficiently-navigates-the-dendritic-cytoskeleton-to-drive-the-retrograde-trafficking-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-endosomes
#2
Swathi Ayloo, Pedro Guedes-Dias, Amy E Ghiretti, Erika L F Holzbaur
The efficient transport of cargoes within axons and dendrites is critical for neuronal function. While we have a basic understanding of axonal transport, much less is known about transport in dendrites. We employed an optogenetic approach to recruit motor proteins to cargo in real time within axons or dendrites in hippocampal neurons. Kinesin-1, a robust axonal motor, moves cargo less efficiently in dendrites. In contrast, cytoplasmic dynein efficiently navigates both axons and dendrites; in both compartments, dynamic microtubule plus-ends enhance dynein-dependent transport...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716924/insights-into-the-red-algae-and-eukaryotic-evolution-from-the-genome-of-porphyra-umbilicalis-bangiophyceae-rhodophyta
#3
Susan H Brawley, Nicolas A Blouin, Elizabeth Ficko-Blean, Glen L Wheeler, Martin Lohr, Holly V Goodson, Jerry W Jenkins, Crysten E Blaby-Haas, Katherine E Helliwell, Cheong Xin Chan, Tara N Marriage, Debashish Bhattacharya, Anita S Klein, Yacine Badis, Juliet Brodie, Yuanyu Cao, Jonas Collén, Simon M Dittami, Claire M M Gachon, Beverley R Green, Steven J Karpowicz, Jay W Kim, Ulrich Johan Kudahl, Senjie Lin, Gurvan Michel, Maria Mittag, Bradley J S C Olson, Jasmyn L Pangilinan, Yi Peng, Huan Qiu, Shengqiang Shu, John T Singer, Alison G Smith, Brittany N Sprecher, Volker Wagner, Wenfei Wang, Zhi-Yong Wang, Juying Yan, Charles Yarish, Simone Zäuner-Riek, Yunyun Zhuang, Yong Zou, Erika A Lindquist, Jane Grimwood, Kerrie W Barry, Daniel S Rokhsar, Jeremy Schmutz, John W Stiller, Arthur R Grossman, Simon E Prochnik
Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702760/regulation-of-long-distance-transport-of-mitochondria-along-microtubules
#4
REVIEW
Anna Melkov, Uri Abdu
Mitochondria are cellular organelles of crucial importance, playing roles in cellular life and death. In certain cell types, such as neurons, mitochondria must travel long distances so as to meet metabolic demands of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is essentially microtubule (MT) based and is executed by two main motor proteins, Dynein and Kinesin. The organization of the cellular MT network and the identity of motors dictate mitochondrial transport. Tight coupling between MTs, motors, and the mitochondria is needed for the organelle precise localization...
July 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701465/the-yeast-kinesin-5-cin8-interacts-with-the-microtubule-in-a-noncanonical-manner
#5
Kayla M Bell, Hyo Keun Cha, Charles V Sindelar, Jared C Cochran
Kinesin motors play central roles in establishing and maintaining the mitotic spindle during cell division. Unlike most other kinesins, Cin8, a kinesin-5 motor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, can move bidirectionally along microtubules, switching directionality according to biochemical conditions, a behavior that remains largely unexplained. To this end, we used biochemical rate and equilibrium constant measurements as well as cryo-electron microscopy methodologies to investigate the microtubule interactions of the Cin8 motor domain...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678757/the-therapeutic-potential-of-cell-cycle-targeting-in-multiple-myeloma
#6
REVIEW
Anke Maes, Eline Menu, Kim De Veirman, Ken Maes, Karin Vanderkerken, Elke De Bruyne
Proper cell cycle progression through the interphase and mitosis is regulated by coordinated activation of important cell cycle proteins (including cyclin-dependent kinases and mitotic kinases) and several checkpoint pathways. Aberrant activity of these cell cycle proteins and checkpoint pathways results in deregulation of cell cycle progression, which is one of the key hallmarks of cancer. Consequently, intensive research on targeting these cell cycle regulatory proteins identified several candidate small molecule inhibitors that are able to induce cell cycle arrest and even apoptosis in cancer cells...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668932/molecular-mechanisms-of-kinesin-14-motors-in-spindle-assembly-and-chromosome-segregation
#7
REVIEW
Zhen-Yu She, Wan-Xi Yang
During eukaryote cell division, molecular motors are crucial regulators of microtubule organization, spindle assembly, chromosome segregation and intracellular transport. The kinesin-14 motors are evolutionarily conserved minus-end-directed kinesin motors that occur in diverse organisms from simple yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Members of the kinesin-14 motor family can bind to, crosslink or slide microtubules and, thus, regulate microtubule organization and spindle assembly. In this Commentary, we present the common subthemes that have emerged from studies of the molecular kinetics and mechanics of kinesin-14 motors, particularly with regard to their non-processive movement, their ability to crosslink microtubules and interact with the minus- and plus-ends of microtubules, and with microtubule-organizing center proteins...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643392/retroviruses-and-microtubule-associated-motor-proteins
#8
REVIEW
Gloria Arriagada
Retroviruses are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. After reverse transcription, the viral DNA contained in the preintegration complex (PIC) is delivered to the nucleus of the host cell, where it integrates. Before reaching the nucleus, the incoming particle and the PIC must travel throughout the cytoplasm. Likewise the newly synthesized viral proteins and viral particles must transit the cytoplasm during exit. The cytoplasm is a crowded environment and simple diffusion is difficult. Therefore, viruses have evolved to utilize the cellular mechanisms of movement through the cytoplasm, where microtubules are the roads, and the ATP dependent motors dynein and kinesin are the vehicles for retrograde and anterograde trafficking...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631604/vaccinia-virus-egress-mediated-by-virus-protein-a36-is-reliant-on-the-f12-protein
#9
David C J Carpentier, Alexander Van Loggerenberg, Nele M G Dieckmann, Geoffrey L Smith
Egress of vaccinia virus from its host cell is mediated by the microtubule-associated motor kinesin-1, and three viral proteins, A36 and the F12/E2 complex, have been implicated in this process. Deletion of F12 expression causes a more severe reduction in egress than deletion of A36 but whether these proteins are involved in the same or different mechanisms of kinesin-1 recruitment is unknown. Here it is shown that a virus lacking both proteins forms a smaller plaque than mutants lacking either gene alone, indicating non-redundant functions...
June 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618223/covalent-protein-labeling-and-improved-single-molecule-optical-properties-of-aqueous-cdse-cds-quantum-dots
#10
Sara M Wichner, Victor R Mann, Alexander S Powers, Maya A Segal, Mustafa Mir, Jigar N Bandaria, Mark A DeWitt, Xavier Darzacq, Ahmet Yildiz, Bruce E Cohen
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have proven to be superior probes for single-molecule imaging compared to organic or genetically encoded fluorophores, but they are limited by difficulties in protein targeting, their larger size, and on-off blinking. Here, we report compact aqueous CdSe/CdS QDs with significantly improved bioconjugation efficiency and superior single-molecule optical properties. We have synthesized covalent protein labeling ligands (i.e., SNAP tags) that are optimized for nanoparticle use, and QDs functionalized with these ligands label SNAP-tagged proteins ∼10-fold more efficiently than existing SNAP ligands...
June 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616658/high-kif2a-expression-predicts-unfavorable-prognosis-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#11
Yaping Zhang, Xuefen You, Hong Liu, Mengqi Xu, Qingxiu Dang, Li Yang, Jianfei Huang, Wenyu Shi
Kinesin family member 2A (KIF2A), a conserved motor protein, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of several malignant tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate KIF2A expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), evaluate the association between KIF2A expression and the clinical parameters of the disease, and determine its prognostic value. KIF2A expression was evaluated in 134 DLBCL and 57 reactive hyperplasia samples using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614709/cytoplasmic-dynein-transports-axonal-microtubules-in-a-polarity-sorting-manner
#12
Anand N Rao, Ankita Patil, Mark M Black, Erin M Craig, Kenneth A Myers, Howard T Yeung, Peter W Baas
Axonal microtubules are predominantly organized into a plus-end-out pattern. Here, we tested both experimentally and with computational modeling whether a motor-based polarity-sorting mechanism can explain this microtubule pattern. The posited mechanism centers on cytoplasmic dynein transporting plus-end-out and minus-end-out microtubules into and out of the axon, respectively. When cytoplasmic dynein was acutely inhibited, the bi-directional transport of microtubules in the axon was disrupted in both directions, after which minus-end-out microtubules accumulated in the axon over time...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599311/c-terminal-kinesin-motor-kifc1-participates-in-facilitating-proper-cell-division-of-human-seminoma
#13
Yu-Xi Xiao, Hao-Qing Shen, Zhen-Yu She, Li Sheng, Qian-Qian Chen, Yu-Lan Chu, Fu-Qing Tan, Wan-Xi Yang
C-terminus kinesin motor KIFC1 is known for centrosome clustering in cancer cells with supernumerary centrosomes. KIFC1 crosslinks and glides on microtubules (MT) to assist normal bipolar spindle formation to avoid multi-polar cell division, which might be fatal. Testis cancer is the most common human cancer among young men. However, the gene expression profiles of testis cancer is still not complete and the expression of the C-terminus kinesin motor KIFC1 in testis cancer has not yet been examined. We found that KIFC1 is enriched in seminoma tissues in both mRNA level and protein level, and is specifically enriched in the cells that divide actively...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559319/myosin-va-s-adaptor-protein-melanophilin-enforces-track-selection-on-the-microtubule-and-actin-networks-in-vitro
#14
Angela Oberhofer, Peter Spieler, Yuliya Rosenfeld, Willi L Stepp, Augustine Cleetus, Alistair N Hume, Felix Mueller-Planitz, Zeynep Ökten
Pigment organelles, or melanosomes, are transported by kinesin, dynein, and myosin motors. As such, melanosome transport is an excellent model system to study the functional relationship between the microtubule- and actin-based transport systems. In mammalian melanocytes, it is well known that the Rab27a/melanophilin/myosin Va complex mediates actin-based transport in vivo. However, pathways that regulate the overall directionality of melanosomes on the actin/microtubule networks have not yet been delineated...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537258/exploiting-the-kinesin-1-molecular-motor-to-generate-a-virus-membrane-penetration-site
#15
Madhu Sudhan Ravindran, Martin F Engelke, Kristen J Verhey, Billy Tsai
Viruses exploit cellular machineries to penetrate a host membrane and cause infection, a process that remains enigmatic for non-enveloped viruses. Here we probe how the non-enveloped polyomavirus SV40 penetrates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to reach the cytosol, a crucial infection step. We find that the microtubule-based motor kinesin-1 is recruited to the ER membrane by binding to the transmembrane J-protein B14. Strikingly, this motor facilitates SV40 ER-to-cytosol transport by constructing a penetration site on the ER membrane called a 'focus'...
May 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534180/the-c-terminal-kinesin-motor-kifc1-may-participate-in-nuclear-reshaping-and-flagellum-formation-during-spermiogenesis-of-larimichthys-crocea
#16
Dan-Dan Zhang, Xin-Ming Gao, Yong-Qiang Zhao, Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Spermatogenesis is a highly ordered process in the differentiation of male germ cells. Nuclear morphogenesis is one of the most fundamental cellular transformations to take place during spermatogenesis. These striking transformations from spermatogonia to spermatozoa are a result of phase-specific adaption of the cytoskeleton and its association with molecular motor proteins. KIFC1 is a C-terminal kinesin motor protein that plays an essential role in acrosome formation and nuclear reshaping during spermiogenesis in mammals...
May 23, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505371/the-arm-domain-of-armadillo-repeat-kinesin-1-is-not-required-for-microtubule-catastrophe-but-can-negatively-regulate-nima-related-kinase-6-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Ryan C Eng, Laryssa S Halat, Samuel J Livingston, Tatsuya Sakai, Hiroyasu Motose, Geoffrey Wasteneys
Microtubules are dynamic filaments, the assembly and disassembly of which are under precise control of various associated proteins, including motor proteins and regulatory enzymes. In Arabidopsis thaliana, two such proteins are the ARMADILLO-REPEAT KINESIN 1 (ARK1), which promotes microtubule disassembly, and the NIMA-RELATED KINASE 6 (NEK6), which has a role in organizing microtubule arrays. Previous yeast 2-hybrid and in vitro pull-down assays determined that NEK6 can interact with ARK1 through the latter protein's Armadillo-repeat (ARM) cargo domain...
May 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496990/mtorc1-regulates-mannose-6-phosphate-receptor-transport-and-t-cell-vulnerability-to-regulatory-t-cells-by-controlling-kinesin-kif13a
#18
Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Jim Xiang
Mannose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR) that facilitates cellular uptake of M6P-bearing proteins, including serine-protease granzyme-B (Gzm-B) has an important role in T-cell activation, migration and contraction. However, molecular mechanisms controlling M6PR expression in T cells remain poorly understood. Here, we show that M6PR expression on T cells is distinctively controlled by two common γ-chain cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-7, and the differential M6PR expression is not caused by an altered synthesis of M6PR protein, but is a result of distinct regulation of kinesin-3 motor-protein KIF13A that transport M6PR onto cell surfaces...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490438/inefficient-recruitment-of-kinesin-1-to-melanosomes-precludes-it-from-facilitating-their-transport
#19
Christopher L Robinson, Richard D Evans, Deborah A Briggs, Jose S Ramalho, Alistair N Hume
Microtubules and F-actin, and their associated motor proteins, are considered to play complementary roles in long- and short-range organelle transport. However, there is growing appreciation that myosin/F-actin networks can drive long-range transport. In melanocytes, myosin-Va and kinesin-1 have both been proposed as long-range centrifugal transporters moving melanosomes into the peripheral dendrites. Here, we investigated the role of kinesin-1 heavy chain (Kif5b) and its suggested targeting factor Rab1a in transport...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484025/common-general-anesthetic-propofol-impairs-kinesin-processivity
#20
Brandon M Bensel, Stephanie Guzik-Lendrum, Erin M Masucci, Kellie A Woll, Roderic G Eckenhoff, Susan P Gilbert
Propofol is the most widely used i.v. general anesthetic to induce and maintain anesthesia. It is now recognized that this small molecule influences ligand-gated channels, including the GABAA receptor and others. Specific propofol binding sites have been mapped using photoaffinity ligands and mutagenesis; however, their precise target interaction profiles fail to provide complete mechanistic underpinnings for the anesthetic state. These results suggest that propofol and other common anesthetics, such as etomidate and ketamine, may target additional protein networks of the CNS to contribute to the desired and undesired anesthesia end points...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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