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kinesine motor protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808088/the-armadillo-protein-p0071-controls-kif3-motor-transport
#1
Alexander Becher, Tim Eiseler, Marc Porzner, Paul Walther, René Keil, Susanne Bobrovich, Mechthild Hatzfeld, Thomas Seufferlein
We here report a novel function of the armadillo protein p0071 during KIF3/kinesin-2-mediated transport. Secretion of chromogranin A and matrix metallopeptidase 9 from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor cells or pancreatic cancer cells, respectively, was substantially reduced following knockdown of p0071. Vesicle tracking indicated impaired directional persistence of vesicles upon p0071 depletion. This suggests a disturbed balance between plus- and minus-end directed microtubule transport in cells lacking p0071...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805800/optogenetic-control-of-kinetochore-function
#2
Huaiying Zhang, Chanat Aonbangkhen, Ekaterina V Tarasovetc, Edward R Ballister, David M Chenoweth, Michael A Lampson
Kinetochores act as hubs for multiple activities during cell division, including microtubule interactions and spindle checkpoint signaling. Each kinetochore can act autonomously, and activities change rapidly as proteins are recruited to, or removed from, kinetochores. Understanding this dynamic system requires tools that can manipulate kinetochores on biologically relevant temporal and spatial scales. Optogenetic approaches have the potential to provide temporal and spatial control with molecular specificity...
August 14, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754069/axonal-spheroids-in-ovine-neuroaxonal-dystrophy-are-immunopositive-to-kinesin-and-dynein
#3
John W Finnie, Jim Manavis
Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) is a neurologic disorder of sheep characterized by accumulation of numerous axonal swellings (spheroids) in specific regions of the brainstem and spinal cord. Disruption of axonal transport, which is driven in anterograde and retrograde directions by the molecular motors, kinesin and dynein, respectively, is believed to contribute to spheroid development. Accordingly, we examined spheroids in ovine NAD cases immunohistochemically for kinesin and dynein and found both motor proteins, with dynein more strongly expressed than kinesin...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747564/high-eg5-expression-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-breast-cancer
#4
Qin Jin, Fang Huang, Xudong Wang, Huijun Zhu, Yun Xian, Jieying Li, Shu Zhang, Qichao Ni
Eg5 is a motor protein belonging to the kinesin-5 family and has been suggested to exert important function in tumors. In this study, we determined the mRNA and protein expression levels of Eg5 in cancerous and non-cancerous breast tissue by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and tissue microarray immunohistochemistry analysis (TMA-IHC) respectively. The results of 20 fresh-frozen BC samples demonstrated that Eg5 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BC tissues compared with corresponding non-cancerous tissue (p = 0...
July 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736169/protein-interaction-analysis-provides-a-map-of-the-spatial-and-temporal-organization-of-the-ciliary-gating-zone
#5
Daisuke Takao, Liang Wang, Allison Boss, Kristen J Verhey
The motility and signaling functions of the primary cilium require a unique protein and lipid composition that is determined by gating mechanisms localized at the base of the cilium. Several protein complexes localize to the gating zone and may regulate ciliary protein composition; however, the mechanisms of ciliary gating and the dynamics of the gating components are largely unknown. Here, we used the BiFC (bimolecular fluorescence complementation) assay and report for the first time on the protein-protein interactions that occur between ciliary gating components and transiting cargoes during ciliary entry...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733669/high-resolution-imaging-of-a-single-gliding-protofilament-of-tubulins-by-hs-afm
#6
Jakia Jannat Keya, Daisuke Inoue, Yuki Suzuki, Toshiya Kozai, Daiki Ishikuro, Noriyuki Kodera, Takayuki Uchihashi, Arif Md Rashedul Kabir, Masayuki Endo, Kazuki Sada, Akira Kakugo
In vitro gliding assay of microtubules (MTs) on kinesins has provided us with valuable biophysical and chemo-mechanical insights of this biomolecular motor system. Visualization of MTs in an in vitro gliding assay has been mainly dependent on optical microscopes, limited resolution of which often render them insufficient sources of desired information. In this work, using high speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM), which allows imaging with higher resolution, we monitored MTs and protofilaments (PFs) of tubulins while gliding on kinesins...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731566/heterogeneity-in-kinesin-function
#7
Babu J N Reddy, Suvranta Tripathy, Michael Vershinin, Marvin Tanenbaum, Jing Xu, Michelle Mattson-Hoss, Karim Arabi, Dail Chapman, Tory Doolin, Changbong Hyeon, Steven P Gross
The kinesin family proteins are often studied as prototypical molecular motors; a deeper understanding of them can illuminate regulation of intracellular transport. It is typically assumed that they function identically. Here we find that this assumption of homogeneous function appears incorrect: variation among motors' velocities in vivo and in vitro is larger than the stochastic variation expected for an ensemble of 'identical" motors. When moving on microtubules, slow and fast motors are persistently slow, and fast, respectively...
July 21, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720664/dynein-efficiently-navigates-the-dendritic-cytoskeleton-to-drive-the-retrograde-trafficking-of-bdnf-trkb-signaling-endosomes
#8
Swathi Ayloo, Pedro Guedes-Dias, Amy E Ghiretti, Erika L F Holzbaur
The efficient transport of cargoes within axons and dendrites is critical for neuronal function. While we have a basic understanding of axonal transport, much less is known about transport in dendrites. We employed an optogenetic approach to recruit motor proteins to cargo in real time within axons or dendrites in hippocampal neurons. Kinesin-1, a robust axonal motor, moves cargo less efficiently in dendrites. In contrast, cytoplasmic dynein efficiently navigates both axons and dendrites; in both compartments, dynamic microtubule plus-ends enhance dynein-dependent transport...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716924/insights-into-the-red-algae-and-eukaryotic-evolution-from-the-genome-of-porphyra-umbilicalis-bangiophyceae-rhodophyta
#9
Susan H Brawley, Nicolas A Blouin, Elizabeth Ficko-Blean, Glen L Wheeler, Martin Lohr, Holly V Goodson, Jerry W Jenkins, Crysten E Blaby-Haas, Katherine E Helliwell, Cheong Xin Chan, Tara N Marriage, Debashish Bhattacharya, Anita S Klein, Yacine Badis, Juliet Brodie, Yuanyu Cao, Jonas Collén, Simon M Dittami, Claire M M Gachon, Beverley R Green, Steven J Karpowicz, Jay W Kim, Ulrich Johan Kudahl, Senjie Lin, Gurvan Michel, Maria Mittag, Bradley J S C Olson, Jasmyn L Pangilinan, Yi Peng, Huan Qiu, Shengqiang Shu, John T Singer, Alison G Smith, Brittany N Sprecher, Volker Wagner, Wenfei Wang, Zhi-Yong Wang, Juying Yan, Charles Yarish, Simone Zäuner-Riek, Yunyun Zhuang, Yong Zou, Erika A Lindquist, Jane Grimwood, Kerrie W Barry, Daniel S Rokhsar, Jeremy Schmutz, John W Stiller, Arthur R Grossman, Simon E Prochnik
Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702760/regulation-of-long-distance-transport-of-mitochondria-along-microtubules
#10
REVIEW
Anna Melkov, Uri Abdu
Mitochondria are cellular organelles of crucial importance, playing roles in cellular life and death. In certain cell types, such as neurons, mitochondria must travel long distances so as to meet metabolic demands of the cell. Mitochondrial movement is essentially microtubule (MT) based and is executed by two main motor proteins, Dynein and Kinesin. The organization of the cellular MT network and the identity of motors dictate mitochondrial transport. Tight coupling between MTs, motors, and the mitochondria is needed for the organelle precise localization...
July 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701465/the-yeast-kinesin-5-cin8-interacts-with-the-microtubule-in-a-noncanonical-manner
#11
Kayla M Bell, Hyo Keun Cha, Charles V Sindelar, Jared C Cochran
Kinesin motors play central roles in establishing and maintaining the mitotic spindle during cell division. Unlike most other kinesins, Cin8, a kinesin-5 motor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, can move bidirectionally along microtubules, switching directionality according to biochemical conditions, a behavior that remains largely unexplained. To this end, we used biochemical rate and equilibrium constant measurements as well as cryo-electron microscopy methodologies to investigate the microtubule interactions of the Cin8 motor domain...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678757/the-therapeutic-potential-of-cell-cycle-targeting-in-multiple-myeloma
#12
REVIEW
Anke Maes, Eline Menu, Kim De Veirman, Ken Maes, Karin Vanderkerken, Elke De Bruyne
Proper cell cycle progression through the interphase and mitosis is regulated by coordinated activation of important cell cycle proteins (including cyclin-dependent kinases and mitotic kinases) and several checkpoint pathways. Aberrant activity of these cell cycle proteins and checkpoint pathways results in deregulation of cell cycle progression, which is one of the key hallmarks of cancer. Consequently, intensive research on targeting these cell cycle regulatory proteins identified several candidate small molecule inhibitors that are able to induce cell cycle arrest and even apoptosis in cancer cells...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668932/molecular-mechanisms-of-kinesin-14-motors-in-spindle-assembly-and-chromosome-segregation
#13
REVIEW
Zhen-Yu She, Wan-Xi Yang
During eukaryote cell division, molecular motors are crucial regulators of microtubule organization, spindle assembly, chromosome segregation and intracellular transport. The kinesin-14 motors are evolutionarily conserved minus-end-directed kinesin motors that occur in diverse organisms from simple yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Members of the kinesin-14 motor family can bind to, crosslink or slide microtubules and, thus, regulate microtubule organization and spindle assembly. In this Commentary, we present the common subthemes that have emerged from studies of the molecular kinetics and mechanics of kinesin-14 motors, particularly with regard to their non-processive movement, their ability to crosslink microtubules and interact with the minus- and plus-ends of microtubules, and with microtubule-organizing center proteins...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643392/retroviruses-and-microtubule-associated-motor-proteins
#14
REVIEW
Gloria Arriagada
Retroviruses are obligate intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. After reverse transcription, the viral DNA contained in the preintegration complex is delivered to the nucleus of the host cell, where it integrates. Before reaching the nucleus, the incoming particle and the preintegration complex must travel throughout the cytoplasm. Likewise, the newly synthesized viral proteins and viral particles must transit the cytoplasm during exit. The cytoplasm is a crowded environment, and simple diffusion is difficult...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631604/vaccinia-virus-egress-mediated-by-virus-protein-a36-is-reliant-on-the-f12-protein
#15
David C J Carpentier, Alexander Van Loggerenberg, Nele M G Dieckmann, Geoffrey L Smith
Egress of vaccinia virus from its host cell is mediated by the microtubule-associated motor kinesin-1, and three viral proteins, A36 and the F12/E2 complex, have been implicated in this process. Deletion of F12 expression causes a more severe reduction in egress than deletion of A36 but whether these proteins are involved in the same or different mechanisms of kinesin-1 recruitment is unknown. Here it is shown that a virus lacking both proteins forms a smaller plaque than mutants lacking either gene alone, indicating non-redundant functions...
June 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618223/covalent-protein-labeling-and-improved-single-molecule-optical-properties-of-aqueous-cdse-cds-quantum-dots
#16
Sara M Wichner, Victor R Mann, Alexander S Powers, Maya A Segal, Mustafa Mir, Jigar N Bandaria, Mark A DeWitt, Xavier Darzacq, Ahmet Yildiz, Bruce E Cohen
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have proven to be superior probes for single-molecule imaging compared to organic or genetically encoded fluorophores, but they are limited by difficulties in protein targeting, their larger size, and on-off blinking. Here, we report compact aqueous CdSe/CdS QDs with significantly improved bioconjugation efficiency and superior single-molecule optical properties. We have synthesized covalent protein labeling ligands (i.e., SNAP tags) that are optimized for nanoparticle use, and QDs functionalized with these ligands label SNAP-tagged proteins ∼10-fold more efficiently than existing SNAP ligands...
July 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616658/high-kif2a-expression-predicts-unfavorable-prognosis-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#17
Yaping Zhang, Xuefen You, Hong Liu, Mengqi Xu, Qingxiu Dang, Li Yang, Jianfei Huang, Wenyu Shi
Kinesin family member 2A (KIF2A), a conserved motor protein, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and prognosis of several malignant tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate KIF2A expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), evaluate the association between KIF2A expression and the clinical parameters of the disease, and determine its prognostic value. KIF2A expression was evaluated in 134 DLBCL and 57 reactive hyperplasia samples using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray...
September 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614709/cytoplasmic-dynein-transports-axonal-microtubules-in-a-polarity-sorting-manner
#18
Anand N Rao, Ankita Patil, Mark M Black, Erin M Craig, Kenneth A Myers, Howard T Yeung, Peter W Baas
Axonal microtubules are predominantly organized into a plus-end-out pattern. Here, we tested both experimentally and with computational modeling whether a motor-based polarity-sorting mechanism can explain this microtubule pattern. The posited mechanism centers on cytoplasmic dynein transporting plus-end-out and minus-end-out microtubules into and out of the axon, respectively. When cytoplasmic dynein was acutely inhibited, the bi-directional transport of microtubules in the axon was disrupted in both directions, after which minus-end-out microtubules accumulated in the axon over time...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599311/c-terminal-kinesin-motor-kifc1-participates-in-facilitating-proper-cell-division-of-human-seminoma
#19
Yu-Xi Xiao, Hao-Qing Shen, Zhen-Yu She, Li Sheng, Qian-Qian Chen, Yu-Lan Chu, Fu-Qing Tan, Wan-Xi Yang
C-terminus kinesin motor KIFC1 is known for centrosome clustering in cancer cells with supernumerary centrosomes. KIFC1 crosslinks and glides on microtubules (MT) to assist normal bipolar spindle formation to avoid multi-polar cell division, which might be fatal. Testis cancer is the most common human cancer among young men. However, the gene expression profiles of testis cancer is still not complete and the expression of the C-terminus kinesin motor KIFC1 in testis cancer has not yet been examined. We found that KIFC1 is enriched in seminoma tissues in both mRNA level and protein level, and is specifically enriched in the cells that divide actively...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559319/myosin-va-s-adaptor-protein-melanophilin-enforces-track-selection-on-the-microtubule-and-actin-networks-in-vitro
#20
Angela Oberhofer, Peter Spieler, Yuliya Rosenfeld, Willi L Stepp, Augustine Cleetus, Alistair N Hume, Felix Mueller-Planitz, Zeynep Ökten
Pigment organelles, or melanosomes, are transported by kinesin, dynein, and myosin motors. As such, melanosome transport is an excellent model system to study the functional relationship between the microtubule- and actin-based transport systems. In mammalian melanocytes, it is well known that the Rab27a/melanophilin/myosin Va complex mediates actin-based transport in vivo. However, pathways that regulate the overall directionality of melanosomes on the actin/microtubule networks have not yet been delineated...
June 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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