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kinesine motor protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092503/propagation-modeling-and-analysis-of-molecular-motors-in-molecular-communication
#1
Youssef Chahibi, Ian F Akyildiz, Ilangko Balasingham
Molecular motor networks (MMNs) are networks constructed from molecular motors to enable nanomachines to perform coordinated tasks of sensing, computing, and actuation at the nano- and micro- scales. Living cells are naturally enabled with this same mechanism to establish point-to-point communication between different locations inside the cell. Similar to a railway system, the cytoplasm contains an intricate infrastructure of tracks, named microtubules, interconnecting different internal components of the cell...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077622/ciliary-entry-of-kif17-is-dependent-on-its-binding-to-the-ift-b-complex-via-ift46-ift56-as-well-as-on-its-nuclear-localization-signal
#2
Teruki Funabashi, Yohei Katoh, Saki Michisaka, Masaya Terada, Maho Sugawa, Kazuhisa Nakayama
Cilia function as cellular antennae to sense and transduce extracellular signals. A number of proteins are specifically localized in cilia. Anterograde and retrograde ciliary protein trafficking are mediated by the IFT-B and IFT-A complexes in concert with kinesin-2 and dynein-2 motors, respectively. However, the role of KIF17, a homodimeric kinesin-2 protein, in protein trafficking has not been fully understood in vertebrate cilia. In this study, we first demonstrated by taking advantage of the visible immunoprecipitation assay, that KIF17 interacts with the IFT46-IFT56 dimer in the IFT-B complex through its C-terminal sequence located immediately upstream of the nuclear localization signal (NLS)...
January 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065317/preparation-of-centralspindlin-as-an-active-heterotetramer-of-kinesin-and-gtpase-activating-protein-subunits-for-in-vitro-structural-and-functional-assays
#3
M Mishima
Centralspindlin is a crucial regulator of animal cytokinesis, consisting of MKLP1 kinesin-6 and CYK4 Rho-family GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP). As a microtubule-bundling protein, it plays a crucial role in the formation of the central spindle. Through distinct accumulation to the antiparallel microtubule overlaps at the central spindle and the midbody, it recruits various downstream factors to the site of cell division as well as anchors the plasma membrane to maintain the narrow intercellular channels between the daughter cells until their final separation (abscission)...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061449/central-spindle-proteins-and-mitotic-kinesins-are-direct-transcriptional-targets-of-muvb-b-myb-and-foxm1-in-breast-cancer-cell-lines-and-are-potential-targets-for-therapy
#4
Patrick Wolter, Steffen Hanselmann, Grit Pattschull, Eva Schruf, Stefan Gaubatz
The MuvB multiprotein complex, together with B-MYB and FOXM1 (MMB-FOXM1), plays an essential role in cell cycle progression by regulating the transcription of genes required for mitosis and cytokinesis. In many tumors, B-MYB and FOXM1 are overexpressed as part of the proliferation signature. However, the transcriptional targets that are important for oncogenesis have not been identified. Given that mitotic kinesins are highly expressed in cancer cells and that selected kinesins have been reported as target genes of MMB-FOXM1, we sought to determine which mitotic kinesins are directly regulated by MMB-FOXM1...
January 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028052/an-rna-binding-atypical-tropomyosin-recruits-kinesin-1-dynamically-to-oskar-mrnps
#5
Imre Gáspár, Vasiliy Sysoev, Artem Komissarov, Anne Ephrussi
Localization and local translation of oskar mRNA at the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte directs abdominal patterning and germline formation in the embryo. The process requires recruitment and precise regulation of motor proteins to form transport-competent mRNPs. We show that the posterior-targeting kinesin-1 is loaded upon nuclear export of oskar mRNPs, prior to their dynein-dependent transport from the nurse cells into the oocyte. We demonstrate that kinesin-1 recruitment requires the DmTropomyosin1-I/C isoform, an atypical RNA-binding tropomyosin that binds directly to dimerizing oskar 3'UTRs...
December 27, 2016: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000714/mechanical-splitting-of-microtubules-into-protofilament-bundles-by-surface-bound-kinesin-1
#6
Virginia VanDelinder, Peter G Adams, George D Bachand
The fundamental biophysics of gliding microtubule (MT) motility by surface-tethered kinesin-1 motor proteins has been widely studied, as well as applied to capture and transport analytes in bioanalytical microdevices. In these systems, phenomena such as molecular wear and fracture into shorter MTs have been reported due the mechanical forces applied on the MT during transport. In the present work, we show that MTs can be split longitudinally into protofilament bundles (PFBs) by the work performed by surface-bound kinesin motors...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974640/fidgetin-regulates-cultured-astrocyte-migration-by-severing-tyrosinated-microtubules-at-the-leading-edge
#7
Zunlu Hu, Jie Feng, Weijuan Bo, Ronghua Wu, Zhangji Dong, Yan Liu, Liang Qiang, Mei Liu
Microtubule (MT) organization is essential for many cellular events including mitosis, migration and cell polarity. Fidgetin (Fign), an ATP-dependent MT-severing protein, contributes to the regulation of MT configuration by cutting and trimming MT polymers. Functions of Fign have been indicated in neurite outgrowth, mitosis, meiosis, and cellular migration. Here we focused on migration of astrocytes. We report that Fign plays an essential role in cultured astrocyte migration by preferentially targeting MTs (or regions of MTs) that are rich in tyrosinated tubulin, a marker for especially dynamic MTs or especially dynamic regions of MTs...
December 14, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941648/anaphase-b
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan M Scholey, Gul Civelekoglu-Scholey, Ingrid Brust-Mascher
Anaphase B spindle elongation is characterized by the sliding apart of overlapping antiparallel interpolar (ip) microtubules (MTs) as the two opposite spindle poles separate, pulling along disjoined sister chromatids, thereby contributing to chromosome segregation and the propagation of all cellular life. The major biochemical "modules" that cooperate to mediate pole-pole separation include: (i) midzone pushing or (ii) braking by MT crosslinkers, such as kinesin-5 motors, which facilitate or restrict the outward sliding of antiparallel interpolar MTs (ipMTs); (iii) cortical pulling by disassembling astral MTs (aMTs) and/or dynein motors that pull aMTs outwards; (iv) ipMT plus end dynamics, notably net polymerization; and (v) ipMT minus end depolymerization manifest as poleward flux...
December 8, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939310/opposing-activities-of-aurora-b-kinase-and-b56-pp2a-phosphatase-on-mklp2-determine-abscission-timing
#9
Suet Yin Sarah Fung, Mayumi Kitagawa, Pei-Ju Liao, Jasmine Wong, Sang Hyun Lee
After cleavage furrow ingression during cytokinesis, nascent daughter cells remain connected by an intercellular bridge (ICB) and the midbody [1, 2]. The midbody becomes an assembly platform for ESCRT complexes that split apart the plasma membrane (PM) anchored to the ICB and complete abscission, which is the final step of cell division [3-5]. Aurora B governs abscission by regulating its timing as a checkpoint [6-10]. However, the underlying mechanisms for this process remain unknown. Here, we reveal the mechanism controlling abscission through integration of Aurora B kinase and B56-bound PP2A phosphatase activities on the kinesin motor protein MKlp2...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932541/cooperation-between-kinesin-motors-promotes-spindle-symmetry-and-chromosome-organization-in-oocytes
#10
Sarah J Radford, Allysa Marie M Go, Kim S McKim
The oocyte spindle in most animal species is assembled in the absence of the microtubule-organizing centers called centrosomes. Without the organization provided by centrosomes, acentrosomal meiotic spindle organization may rely heavily on the bundling of microtubules by kinesin motor proteins. Indeed, the minus-end directed kinesin-14 NCD and the plus-end directed kinesin-6 Subito are known to be required for oocyte spindle organization in Drosophila melanogaster How multiple microtubule-bundling kinesins interact to produce a functional acentrosomal spindle is not known...
December 7, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930687/mathematical-characterization-of-protein-sequences-using-patterns-as-chemical-group-combinations-of-amino-acids
#11
Jayanta Kumar Das, Provas Das, Korak Kumar Ray, Pabitra Pal Choudhury, Siddhartha Sankar Jana
Comparison of amino acid sequence similarity is the fundamental concept behind the protein phylogenetic tree formation. By virtue of this method, we can explain the evolutionary relationships, but further explanations are not possible unless sequences are studied through the chemical nature of individual amino acids. Here we develop a new methodology to characterize the protein sequences on the basis of the chemical nature of the amino acids. We design various algorithms for studying the variation of chemical group transitions and various chemical group combinations as patterns in the protein sequences...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930654/whole-organism-developmental-expression-profiling-identifies-rab-28-as-a-novel-ciliary-gtpase-associated-with-the-bbsome-and-intraflagellar-transport
#12
Victor L Jensen, Stephen Carter, Anna A W M Sanders, Chunmei Li, Julie Kennedy, Tiffany A Timbers, Jerry Cai, Noemie Scheidel, Breandán N Kennedy, Ryan D Morin, Michel R Leroux, Oliver E Blacque
Primary cilia are specialised sensory and developmental signalling devices extending from the surface of most eukaryotic cells. Defects in these organelles cause inherited human disorders (ciliopathies) such as retinitis pigmentosa and Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), frequently affecting many physiological and developmental processes across multiple organs. Cilium formation, maintenance and function depend on intracellular transport systems such as intraflagellar transport (IFT), which is driven by kinesin-2 and IFT-dynein motors and regulated by the Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) cargo-adaptor protein complex, or BBSome...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920150/heterotrimeric-kinesin-2-together-with-kinesin-1-steers-vesicular-acetylcholinesterase-movements-toward-the-synapse
#13
Anuttama Kulkarni, Yasmin Khan, Krishanu Ray
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is implicated in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, is distributed along the axon and enriched at the presynaptic basal lamina. It hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which inhibits synaptic transmission. Aberrant AChE activity and ectopic axonal accumulation of the enzyme are associated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism that underlies AChE transport is still unclear. Here, we show that expression of Drosophila AChE tagged with photoactivable green fluorescent protein and m-Cherry (GPAC) in cholinergic neurons compensates for the RNA interference-mediated knockdown of endogenous AChE activity...
December 5, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891669/a-molecular-dynamics-study-of-the-binary-complexes-of-app-jip1-and-the-cargo-binding-domain-of-klc
#14
Cooper A Taylor, Bill R Miller, Soleil S Shah, Carol A Parish
Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) are responsible for the formation of amyloid-β peptides. These peptides play a role in Alzheimer's and other dementia-related diseases. The cargo binding domain of the kinesin-1 light chain motor protein (KLC1) may be responsible for transporting APP either directly or via interaction with C-jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1 (JIP1). However, to date there has been no direct experimental or computational assessment of such binding at the atomistic level...
November 7, 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882699/controlled-retention-and-release-of-biomolecular-transport-systems-using-shape-changing-polymer-bilayers
#15
Georgi Stoychev, Cordula Reuther, Stefan Diez, Leonid Ionov
Biomolecular transport systems based on cytoskeletal filaments and motor proteins have become promising tools for a wide range of nanotechnological applications. In this paper, we report control of such transport systems using substrates with switchable shape. We demonstrate this approach on the example of microtubules gliding on surfaces of self-folding polymer bilayers with adsorbed kinesin motors. The polymer bilayers are able to undergo reversible transitions between flat and tube-like shapes that allow the externally controlled retention and release of gliding microtubules...
December 23, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879481/role-of-non-motile-microtubule-associated-proteins-in-virus-trafficking
#16
Débora M Portilho, Roger Persson, Nathalie Arhel
Viruses are entirely dependent on their ability to infect a host cell in order to replicate. To reach their site of replication as rapidly and efficiently as possible following cell entry, many have evolved elaborate mechanisms to hijack the cellular transport machinery to propel themselves across the cytoplasm. Long-range movements have been shown to involve motor proteins along microtubules (MTs) and direct interactions between viral proteins and dynein and/or kinesin motors have been well described. Although less well-characterized, it is also becoming increasingly clear that non-motile microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), including structural MAPs of the MAP1 and MAP2 families, and microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs), can also promote viral trafficking in infected cells, by mediating interaction of viruses with filaments and/or motor proteins, and modulating filament stability...
December 1, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852894/regulation-of-kif15-localization-and-motility-by-the-c-terminus-of-tpx2-and-microtubule-dynamics
#17
Barbara J Mann, Sai K Balchand, Patricia Wadsworth
Mitotic motor proteins generate force to establish and maintain spindle bipolarity, but how they are temporally and spatially regulated in vivo is unclear. Prior work demonstrated that a microtubule-associated protein, TPX2, targets kinesin-5 and kinesin-12 motors to spindle microtubules. The C-terminal domain of TPX2 contributes to the localization and motility of the kinesin-5, Eg5, but it is not known whether this domain regulates kinesin-12, Kif15. We found that the C-terminal domain of TPX2 contributes to the localization of Kif15 to spindle microtubules in cells and suppresses motor walking in vitro...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844443/measuring-molecular-forces-using-calibrated-optical-tweezers-in-living-cells
#18
Adam G Hendricks, Yale E Goldman
Optical tweezers have been instrumental in uncovering the mechanisms motor proteins use to generate and react to force. While optical traps have primarily been applied to purified, in vitro systems, emerging methods enable measurements in living cells where the actively fluctuating, viscoelastic environment and varying refractive index complicate calibration of the instrument. Here, we describe techniques to calibrate optical traps in living cells using the forced response to sinusoidal oscillations and spontaneous fluctuations, and to measure the forces exerted by endogenous ensembles of kinesin and dynein motor proteins as they transport cargoes in the cell...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844440/measurement-of-force-dependent-release-rates-of-cytoskeletal-motors
#19
Sinan Can, Ahmet Yildiz
Optical tweezers permit measuring motor-filament rupture forces with piconewton sensitivity. For deeper structural and mechanistic understanding of motors, different structural constraints can be induced by pulling motor proteins at various positions and manipulating the direction of the exerted force. Here, we present an optical-trapping approach to investigate the effect of the magnitude and direction of tension applied to the linker element of cytoskeletal motors on motor-filament interactions. Using this approach, force-dependent microtubule release rates of monomeric kinesins can be directly measured by pulling on kinesin's "neck linker" with a constant force...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842896/kinesin-family-member-11-mrna-expression-predicts-prostate-cancer-aggressiveness
#20
Xuan-Mei Piao, Young Joon Byun, Pildu Jeong, Yun-Sok Ha, Eun Sang Yoo, Seok Joong Yun, Wun-Jae Kim
BACKGROUND: KIF11 (kinesin family member 11), a molecular motor protein, is essential to mitosis and cell cycle progression. Inhibitors of KIF11 have been developed as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of various cancers. Regarding prostate cancer (PCa), clinical trials using KIF11 inhibitors for the treatment of castration-resistant PCa have been initiated. We hypothesized that a relationship might exist between KIF11 expression and PCa. To investigate the functional activities and clinical usefulness of KIF11 in PCa, we used quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to monitor the KIF11 expression patterns...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
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