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kinesine motor protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891669/a-molecular-dynamics-study-of-the-binary-complexes-of-app-jip1-and-the-cargo-binding-domain-of-klc
#1
Cooper A Taylor, Bill R Miller, Soleil S Shah, Carol A Parish
Mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) are responsible for the formation of amyloid-β peptides. These peptides play a role in Alzheimer's and other dementia-related diseases. The cargo binding domain of the kinesin-1 light chain motor protein (KLC1) may be responsible for transporting APP either directly or via interaction with C-jun N-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1 (JIP1). However, to date there has been no direct experimental or computational assessment of such binding at the atomistic level...
November 7, 2016: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882699/controlled-retention-and-release-of-biomolecular-transport-systems-using-shape-changing-polymer-bilayers
#2
Georgi Stoychev, Cordula Reuther, Stefan Diez, Leonid Ionov
Biomolecular transport systems based on cytoskeletal filaments and motor proteins have become promising tools for a wide range of nanotechnological applications. In this paper, we report control of such transport systems using substrates with switchable shape. We demonstrate this approach on the example of microtubules gliding on surfaces of self-folding polymer bilayers with adsorbed kinesin motors. The polymer bilayers are able to undergo reversible transitions between flat and tube-like shapes that allow the externally controlled retention and release of gliding microtubules...
November 24, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879481/role-of-non-motile-microtubule-associated-proteins-in-virus-trafficking
#3
Débora M Portilho, Roger Persson, Nathalie Arhel
Viruses are entirely dependent on their ability to infect a host cell in order to replicate. To reach their site of replication as rapidly and efficiently as possible following cell entry, many have evolved elaborate mechanisms to hijack the cellular transport machinery to propel themselves across the cytoplasm. Long-range movements have been shown to involve motor proteins along microtubules (MTs) and direct interactions between viral proteins and dynein and/or kinesin motors have been well described. Although less well-characterized, it is also becoming increasingly clear that non-motile microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), including structural MAPs of the MAP1 and MAP2 families, and microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs), can also promote viral trafficking in infected cells, by mediating interaction of viruses with filaments and/or motor proteins, and modulating filament stability...
November 23, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852894/regulation-of-kif15-localization-and-motility-by-the-c-terminus-of-tpx2-and-microtubule-dynamics
#4
Barbara J Mann, Sai K Balchand, Patricia Wadsworth
Mitotic motor proteins generate force to establish and maintain spindle bipolarity but how they are temporally and spatially regulated in vivo is unclear. Prior work demonstrated that the microtubule-associated protein, TPX2, targets Kinesin-5 and Kinesin-12 motors to spindle microtubules. The C-terminal domain of TPX2 regulates the localization and motility of Kinesin-5, Eg5, but if this domain regulates Kinesin-12, Kif15, is not known. We found that the C-terminal domain of TPX2 contributes to the localization of Kif15 to spindle microtubules in cells and suppresses motor walking in vitro Kif15 and Eg5 are partially redundant motors, and overexpressed Kif15 can drive spindle formation in the absence of Eg5 activity...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844443/measuring-molecular-forces-using-calibrated-optical-tweezers-in-living-cells
#5
Adam G Hendricks, Yale E Goldman
Optical tweezers have been instrumental in uncovering the mechanisms motor proteins use to generate and react to force. While optical traps have primarily been applied to purified, in vitro systems, emerging methods enable measurements in living cells where the actively fluctuating, viscoelastic environment and varying refractive index complicate calibration of the instrument. Here, we describe techniques to calibrate optical traps in living cells using the forced response to sinusoidal oscillations and spontaneous fluctuations, and to measure the forces exerted by endogenous ensembles of kinesin and dynein motor proteins as they transport cargoes in the cell...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844440/measurement-of-force-dependent-release-rates-of-cytoskeletal-motors
#6
Sinan Can, Ahmet Yildiz
Optical tweezers permit measuring motor-filament rupture forces with piconewton sensitivity. For deeper structural and mechanistic understanding of motors, different structural constraints can be induced by pulling motor proteins at various positions and manipulating the direction of the exerted force. Here, we present an optical-trapping approach to investigate the effect of the magnitude and direction of tension applied to the linker element of cytoskeletal motors on motor-filament interactions. Using this approach, force-dependent microtubule release rates of monomeric kinesins can be directly measured by pulling on kinesin's "neck linker" with a constant force...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842896/kinesin-family-member-11-mrna-expression-predicts-prostate-cancer-aggressiveness
#7
Xuan-Mei Piao, Young Joon Byun, Pildu Jeong, Yun-Sok Ha, Eun Sang Yoo, Seok Joong Yun, Wun-Jae Kim
BACKGROUND: KIF11 (kinesin family member 11), a molecular motor protein, is essential to mitosis and cell cycle progression. Inhibitors of KIF11 have been developed as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of various cancers. Regarding prostate cancer (PCa), clinical trials using KIF11 inhibitors for the treatment of castration-resistant PCa have been initiated. We hypothesized that a relationship might exist between KIF11 expression and PCa. To investigate the functional activities and clinical usefulness of KIF11 in PCa, we used quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to monitor the KIF11 expression patterns...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834216/schizosaccharomyces-pombe-kinesin-5-switches-direction-using-a-steric-blocking-mechanism
#8
Mishan Britto, Adeline Goulet, Syeda Rizvi, Ottilie von Loeffelholz, Carolyn A Moores, Robert A Cross
Cut7, the sole kinesin-5 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is essential for mitosis. Like other yeast kinesin-5 motors, Cut7 can reverse its stepping direction, by mechanisms that are currently unclear. Here we show that for full-length Cut7, the key determinant of stepping direction is the degree of motor crowding on the microtubule lattice, with greater crowding converting the motor from minus end-directed to plus end-directed stepping. To explain how high Cut7 occupancy causes this reversal, we postulate a simple proximity sensing mechanism that operates via steric blocking...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812098/interrogating-emergent-transport-properties-for-molecular-motor-ensembles-a-semi-analytical-approach
#9
Shreyas Bhaban, Donatello Materassi, Mingang Li, Thomas Hays, Murti Salapaka
Intracellular transport is an essential function in eucaryotic cells, facilitated by motor proteins-proteins converting chemical energy into kinetic energy. It is understood that motor proteins work in teams enabling unidirectional and bidirectional transport of intracellular cargo over long distances. Disruptions of the underlying transport mechanisms, often caused by mutations that alter single motor characteristics, are known to cause neurodegenerative diseases. For example, phosphorylation of kinesin motor domain at the serine residue is implicated in Huntington's disease, with a recent study of phosphorylated and phosphomimetic serine residues indicating lowered single motor stalling forces...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803325/transport-efficiency-of-membrane-anchored-kinesin-1-motors-depends-on-motor-density-and-diffusivity
#10
Rahul Grover, Janine Fischer, Friedrich W Schwarz, Wilhelm J Walter, Petra Schwille, Stefan Diez
In eukaryotic cells, membranous vesicles and organelles are transported by ensembles of motor proteins. These motors, such as kinesin-1, have been well characterized in vitro as single molecules or as ensembles rigidly attached to nonbiological substrates. However, the collective transport by membrane-anchored motors, that is, motors attached to a fluid lipid bilayer, is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the influence of motors' anchorage to a lipid bilayer on the collective transport characteristics...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802411/gene-expression-profile-in-heat-shocked-holstein-and-nelore-oocytes-and-cumulus-cells
#11
J S Ticianelli, I P Emanuelli, R A Satrapa, A C S Castilho, B Loureiro, M J Sudano, P K Fontes, R F P Pinto, E M Razza, R S Surjus, R Sartori, M E O A Assumpção, J A Visintin, C M Barros, F F Paula-Lopes
The present study determined the transcriptome profile in Nelore and Holstein oocytes subjected to heat shock during IVM and the mRNA abundance of selected candidate genes in Nelore and Holstein heat-shocked oocytes and cumulus cells (CC). Holstein and Nelore cows were subjected to in vivo follicle aspiration. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were assigned to control (38.5°C, 22h) or heat shock (41°C for 12h, followed by 38.5°C for 10h) treatment during IVM. Denuded oocytes were subjected to bovine microarray analysis...
November 2, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802167/a-new-isoform-of-drosophila-non-muscle-tropomyosin-1-interacts-with-kinesin-1-and-functions-in-oskar-mrna-localization
#12
Rajalakshmi Veeranan-Karmegam, Devi Prasad Boggupalli, Guojun Liu, Graydon B Gonsalvez
Recent studies have revealed that diverse cell types use mRNA localization as a means to establish polarity. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, much less is known regarding the mechanism by which mRNAs are localized. The Drosophila melanogaster oocyte provides a useful model for examining the process of mRNA localization. oskar (osk) mRNA is localized at the posterior of the oocyte, thus restricting the expression of Oskar protein to this site. The localization of osk mRNA is microtubule dependent and requires the plus-end-directed motor Kinesin-1...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802164/nuclear-alignment-in-myotubes-requires-centrosome-proteins-recruited-by-nesprin-1
#13
Aude Espigat-Georger, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Cécile Chemin, Laurent Emorine, Andreas Merdes
Myotubes are syncytial cells generated by fusion of myoblasts. Among the numerous nuclei in myotubes of skeletal muscle fibres, the majority are equidistantly positioned at the periphery, except for clusters of multiple nuclei underneath the motor endplate. The correct positioning of nuclei is thought to be important for muscle function and requires nesprin-1 (also known as SYNE1), a protein of the nuclear envelope. Consistent with this, mice lacking functional nesprin-1 show defective nuclear positioning and present aspects of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793291/interferometric-scattering-microscopy-for-the-study-of-molecular-motors
#14
J Andrecka, Y Takagi, K J Mickolajczyk, L G Lippert, J R Sellers, W O Hancock, Y E Goldman, P Kukura
Our understanding of molecular motor function has been greatly improved by the development of imaging modalities, which enable real-time observation of their motion at the single-molecule level. Here, we describe the use of a new method, interferometric scattering microscopy, for the investigation of motor protein dynamics by attaching and tracking the motion of metallic nanoparticle labels as small as 20nm diameter. Using myosin-5, kinesin-1, and dynein as examples, we describe the basic assays, labeling strategies, and principles of data analysis...
2016: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791088/hepatitis-c-virus-promotes-virion-secretion-through-cleavage-of-the-rab7-adaptor-protein-rilp
#15
Ann L Wozniak, Abby Long, Kellyann N Jones-Jamtgaard, Steven A Weinman
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an enveloped RNA virus that modifies intracellular trafficking processes. The mechanisms that HCV and other viruses use to modify these events are poorly understood. In this study, we observed that two different RNA viruses, HCV and Sendai, cause inhibition of ras-related protein Rab-7 (Rab7)-dependent endosome-lysosome fusion. In both cases, viral infection causes cleavage of the Rab7 adaptor protein RILP (Rab interacting lysosomal protein), which is responsible for linking Rab7 vesicles to dynein motor complexes...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785507/spatiotemporal-control-of-kinesin-motor-protein-by-photoswitches-enabling-selective-single-microtubule-regulations
#16
K R Sunil Kumar, Ammathnadu S Amrutha, Nobuyuki Tamaoki
Artificial control of bio-nanomachines should have a major impact on the development of controllable transport systems for specific cargo transport on chips. Precise spatiotemporal control and local regulation of the bio-motor activity will, however, be necessary if we are to accomplish such a goal. In this study, we exploited the photoswitching properties of azobenzene-based high-energy molecules and inhibitors to control a single kinesin-driven microtubule that has potential to work as a nanocarrier for molecular cargos...
October 27, 2016: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779252/ntkrp-a-kinesin-12-protein-regulates-embryo-seed-size-and-seed-germination-via-involving-in-cell-cycle-progression-at-the-g2-m-transition
#17
Shujuan Tian, Jingjing Wu, Fen Li, Jianwei Zou, Yuwen Liu, Bing Zhou, Yang Bai, Meng-Xiang Sun
Kinesins comprise a superfamily of microtubule-based motor proteins involved in essential processes in plant development, but few kinesins have been functionally identified during seed development. Especially, few kinesins that regulate cell division during embryogenesis have been identified. Here we report the functional characterization of NtKRP, a motor protein of the kinesin-12 family. NtKRP is predominantly expressed in embryos and embryonic roots. NtKRP RNAi lines displayed reductions in cell numbers in the meristematic zone, in embryonic root length, and in mature embryo and seed sizes...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770501/kymoanalyzer-a-software-tool-for-the-quantitative-analysis-of-intracellular-transport-in-neurons
#18
Sylvia Neumann, Romain Chassefeyre, George E Campbell, Sandra E Encalada
In axons, proper localization of proteins, vesicles, organelles, and other cargoes is accomplished by the highly regulated coordination of kinesins and dyneins, molecular motors that bind to cargoes and translocate them along microtubule (MT) tracks. Impairment of axonal transport is implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. To understand how MT-based cargo motility is regulated and to delineate its role in neurodegeneration, it is critical to analyze the detailed dynamics of moving cargoes inside axons...
October 22, 2016: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747449/recurrent-kif2a-mutations-are-responsible-for-classic-lissencephaly
#19
Mara Cavallin, Emilia K Bijlsma, Adrienne El Morjani, Sébastien Moutton, Els A J Peeters, Camille Maillard, Jean Michel Pedespan, Anne-Marie Guerrot, Valérie Drouin-Garaud, Christine Coubes, David Genevieve, Christine Bole-Feysot, Cecile Fourrage, Julie Steffann, Nadia Bahi-Buisson
Kinesins play a critical role in the organization and dynamics of the microtubule cytoskeleton, making them central players in neuronal proliferation, neuronal migration, and postmigrational development. Recently, KIF2A mutations were identified in cortical malformation syndromes associated with microcephaly. Here, we detected two de novo p.Ser317Asn and p.His321Pro mutations in KIF2A in two patients with lissencephaly and microcephaly. In parallel, we re-evaluated the two previously reported cases showing de novo mutations of the same residues...
October 17, 2016: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729532/working-stroke-of-the-kinesin-14-ncd-comprises-two-substeps-of-different-direction
#20
Bert Nitzsche, Elzbieta Dudek, Lukasz Hajdo, Andrzej A Kasprzak, Andrej Vilfan, Stefan Diez
Single-molecule experiments have been used with great success to explore the mechanochemical cycles of processive motor proteins such as kinesin-1, but it has proven difficult to apply these approaches to nonprocessive motors. Therefore, the mechanochemical cycle of kinesin-14 (ncd) is still under debate. Here, we use the readout from the collective activity of multiple motors to derive information about the mechanochemical cycle of individual ncd motors. In gliding motility assays we performed 3D imaging based on fluorescence interference contrast microscopy combined with nanometer tracking to simultaneously study the translation and rotation of microtubules...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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