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proliferation of mammary gland

Thierry Jardé, Bethan Lloyd-Lewis, Mairian Thomas, Howard Kendrick, Lorenzo Melchor, Lauriane Bougaret, Peter D Watson, Kenneth Ewan, Matthew J Smalley, Trevor C Dale
The development of in vitro culture systems quantitatively and qualitatively recapitulating normal breast biology is key to the understanding of mammary gland biology. Current three-dimensional mammary culture systems have not demonstrated concurrent proliferation and functional differentiation ex vivo in any system for longer than 2 weeks. Here, we identify conditions including Neuregulin1 and R-spondin 1, allowing maintenance and expansion of mammary organoids for 2.5 months in culture. The organoids comprise distinct basal and luminal compartments complete with functional steroid receptors and stem/progenitor cells able to reconstitute a complete mammary gland in vivo...
October 26, 2016: Nature Communications
Carrie S Shemanko, Yingying Cong, Amanda Forsyth
The normal developmental program that prolactin generates in the mammary gland is usurped in the cancerous process and can be used out of its normal cellular context at a site of secondary metastasis. Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone and cytokine that is secreted from the pituitary gland, as well as from normal and cancerous breast cells. Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest that prolactin is associated with mammary gland development, and also the increased risk of breast tumors and metastatic disease in postmenopausal women...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elizabeth M Kass, Pei Xin Lim, Hildur R Helgadottir, Mary Ellen Moynahan, Maria Jasin
The mammary gland undergoes significant proliferative stages after birth, but little is known about how the developmental changes impact DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Mutations in multiple genes involved in homology-directed repair (HDR), considered a particularly accurate pathway for repairing DSBs, are linked to breast cancer susceptibility, including BRCA2. Using reporter mice that express an inducible endonuclease, we find that HDR is particularly robust in mammary tissue during puberty and pregnancy, accounting for 34-40% of detected repair events, more than in other tissues examined...
October 25, 2016: Nature Communications
Ishfaq Ahmad Ganaie, Samar Husain Naqvi, Swatantra Kumar Jain, Saima Wajid
Breast cancer is a major global health concern, appealing for precise prognostic approaches. Thus, the need is to have studies focusing on the identification and recognition of preliminary events leading to the disease. The present study reports the tracing of precancerous progression and serum proteomic analysis in a breast cancer model developed as a result of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) administration. Mammary gland histological changes of prime importance were examined by histopathology, and immunohistochemical analysis with Ki-67 was performed to monitor enhanced cell proliferation, right from the onset of hyperplasia till neoplasia...
October 20, 2016: Protoplasma
Leandro Z Crivellenti, Gyl E B Silva, Sofia Borin-Crivellenti, Rachel Cianciolo, Christopher A Adin, Márcio Dantas, Denner S Dos Anjos, Mirela Tinucci-Costa, Aureo E Santana
The incidence and prevalence of paraneoplastic glomerulopathy, especially associated with carcinoma, are a matter of debate and the causal link between cancer and glomerular diseases remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate renal biopsies of selected bitches with spontaneous mammary gland carcinoma. We hypothesized that dogs with mammary carcinomas would show histologic evidence of glomerular pathology. A prospective study was performed in dogs with naturally occurring mammary carcinoma that were undergoing tumor resection and ovariohysterectomy...
2016: PloS One
Chao Luan, Xu Chen, Yu Hu, Zhimin Hao, Jared M Osland, Xundi Chen, Skyler D Gerber, Min Chen, Heng Gu
Nuclear receptor interacting protein 1 (NRIP1, also known as RIP140) is a co-regulator for various transcriptional factors and nuclear receptors, and has been shown to take part in many biological and pathological processes, such as regulating mammary gland development and inflammatory response.The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of NRIP1 and to explore its roles in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Thirty active psoriasis patients and 16 healthy volunteers were enrolled for this study. qRT-PCR analyses found that both NRIP1 and RelA/p65 were elevated in psoriatic lesions compared to psoriatic non-lesions and normal controls, and also overexpressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMCs) of psoriasis patients...
September 30, 2016: Oncotarget
C Farmer, M Comi, C R A Duarte, M Vignola, P Charagu, M-F Palin
The goal of this project was to determine if different body conditions in late gestation that are due to varying body conditions at mating affect mammary development and mammary gene expression of gilts. Gilts that were fed ad libitum in the growing period were selected based on their backfat depths to form 3 groups at mating, namely, low backfat (LBF; 12-15 mm; = 14), medium backfat (MBF; 17-19 mm; = 15), and high backfat (HBF; 22-26 mm; = 16). During gestation, LBF, MBF, and HBF gilts were fed approximately 1...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Neha Kapila, Ankita Sharma, Amit Kishore, Monika Sodhi, Pawan K Tripathi, Ashok K Mohanty, Manishi Mukesh
The present study aims to identify the heat responsive genes and biological pathways in heat stressed buffalo mammary epithelial cells (MECs). The primary mammary epithelial cells of riverine buffalo were exposed to thermal stress at 42°C for one hour. The cells were subsequently allowed to recover at 37°C and harvested at different time intervals (30 min to 48 h) along with control samples (un-stressed). In order to assess the impact of heat stress in buffalo MECs, several in-vitro cellular parameters (lactate dehydrogenase activity, cell proliferation assay, cellular viability, cell death and apoptosis) and transcriptional studies were conducted...
2016: PloS One
Wenyao Zhang, Xuezhong Li, Tong Xu, Mengru Ma, Yong Zhang, Ming-Qing Gao
Hypernomic secretion of epithelial cytokines has several effects on stromal cells. The contributions of inflammatory epithelial cells to stromal fibroblasts in bovine mammary glands with mastitis remain poorly understood. Here, we established an inflammatory epithelial cell model of bovine mastitis with gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gram-positive lipoteichoic acid (LTA) bacterial cell wall components. We characterized immune responses of mammary stromal fibroblasts induced by inflammatory epithelial cells...
September 25, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
J C L Alfonso, N S Schaadt, R Schönmeyer, N Brieu, G Forestier, C Wemmert, F Feuerhake, H Hatzikirou
Scattered inflammatory cells are commonly observed in mammary gland tissue, most likely in response to normal cell turnover by proliferation and apoptosis, or as part of immunosurveillance. In contrast, lymphocytic lobulitis (LLO) is a recurrent inflammation pattern, characterized by lymphoid cells infiltrating lobular structures, that has been associated with increased familial breast cancer risk and immune responses to clinically manifest cancer. The mechanisms and pathogenic implications related to the inflammatory microenvironment in breast tissue are still poorly understood...
2016: Scientific Reports
Matthew J Sikora, Britta M Jacobsen, Kevin Levine, Jian Chen, Nancy E Davidson, Adrian V Lee, Caroline M Alexander, Steffi Oesterreich
BACKGROUND: Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast typically presents with clinical biomarkers consistent with a favorable response to endocrine therapies, and over 90 % of ILC cases express the estrogen receptor (ER). However, a subset of ILC cases may be resistant to endocrine therapies, suggesting that ER biology is unique in ILC. Using ILC cell lines, we previously demonstrated that ER regulates a distinct gene expression program in ILC cells, and we hypothesized that these ER-driven pathways modulate the endocrine response in ILC...
2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Tito Panciera, Luca Azzolin, Atsushi Fujimura, Daniele Di Biagio, Chiara Frasson, Silvia Bresolin, Sandra Soligo, Giuseppe Basso, Silvio Bicciato, Antonio Rosato, Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Stefano Piccolo
The ability to induce autologous tissue-specific stem cells in culture could have a variety of applications in regenerative medicine and disease modeling. Here we show that transient expression of exogenous YAP or its closely related paralogue TAZ in primary differentiated mouse cells can induce conversion to a tissue-specific stem/progenitor cell state. Differentiated mammary gland, neuronal, and pancreatic exocrine cells, identified using a combination of cell sorting and lineage tracing approaches, efficiently convert to proliferating cells with properties of stem/progenitor cells of their respective tissues after YAP induction...
September 9, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
Peipei Lou, Chunlian Li, Liang Shi, Tian-Song Xia, Wenbin Zhou, Jing Wu, Xujie Zhou, Xiaoxia Li, Ying Wang, Ji-Fu Wei, Qiang Ding
Progesterone receptor (PR) could activate transcriptional process involved in normal mammary gland proliferation and breast cancer development. Moreover, PR expression is an important marker of luminal breast cancer, which is associated with good prognosis and indicates better responding to endocrine therapies. The regulation of PR expression was studied mainly on its post-translational levels. In this study, we found PR was positively regulated by RNA-binding region-containing protein 1 (RNPC1), a RNA-binding protein, in PR positive breast cancer...
September 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Takayo Yanagawa, Kimitoshi Denda, Takuya Inatani, Toshiaki Fukushima, Toshiaki Tanaka, Nobue Kumaki, Yutaka Inagaki, Masayuki Komada
The onset and/or growth of breast tumor are controlled, at least in part, by estrogen. Therefore, to prevent the development of breast tumor, estrogen-dependent proliferation of mammary epithelial cells during pregnancy needs to be suppressed once the mammary gland is fully developed to enable lactation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Nrk is an X-linked protein serine/threonine kinase in the germinal center kinase family. Herein, we demonstrate a frequent occurrence of breast tumors in homozygous and heterozygous Nrk mutant mice that have experienced pregnancy/parturition...
October 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Hiroyuki Minemura, Kiyoshi Takagi, Ai Sato, Hikaru Takahashi, Yasuhiro Miki, Yukiko Shibahara, Mika Watanabe, Takanori Ishida, Hironobu Sasano, Takashi Suzuki
CITED2 (Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain, 2) is a member of CITED family and involved in various cellular functions during development and differentiation. Mounting evidence suggests importance of CITEDs in the progression of human malignancies, but significance of CITED2 protein has not yet been examined in breast carcinoma. Therefore, in this study, we examined clinical significance and biological functions of CITED2 in breast carcinoma by immunohistochemistry and in vitro studies...
September 14, 2016: Cancer Science
Grace E Berryhill, Ingrid Brust-Mascher, Jill H Huynh, Thomas R Famula, Colin Reardon, Russell C Hovey
The mammary glands (MG) undergo rapid expansion of the ductal network during puberty in response to endocrine cues including the potent mitogenic effects of estrogen. The proliferation of mammary epithelial cells occurs in a spatially distinctive manner, where terminal end buds located at the ductal termini are the primary site of cell division. Here, we present a relatively high throughput approach to spatially assess epithelial cell proliferation in whole mouse MG using histochemical detection of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine in conjunction with a standard curve-based data deconvolution technique to semiquantitatively measure proliferation via wide-field epifluorescent microscopy...
October 2016: Endocrinology
Talita M M Raposo-Ferreira, Rosana C L Salvador, Erika M Terra, Juarez H Ferreira, Ivan José Vechetti-Junior, Mirela Tinucci-Costa, Silvia R Rogatto, Renée Laufer-Amorim
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor that could be associated with the induction of endothelial cell proliferation and metastasis. In this study, we evaluated VEGF gene and protein expression in canine mammary tumors (CMT), including metastatic carcinomas, to determine if there is an influence of this marker in the malignant processes and aggressiveness of CMT. We also compared VEGF protein levels with clinicopathological features. The VEGF gene and protein expression levels were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in normal mammary gland samples, benign mammary tumors, nonmetastatic mammary carcinomas, and metastatic mammary carcinomas...
August 20, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
B A Baibakov, T A Chipisheva, V I Guelstein, V D Ermilova, E B Polevaya, J M Vasiliev, L B Margolis
Blocks of breast tissue obtained during radical mastectomies from 23 patients with mammary gland carcinomas were used for cultivation in native-state, gel-supported histocultures. We show that the human mammary gland can be successfully maintained in this system so that normal epithelial breast structures proliferate and undergo differentiation for several weeks and a well-developed system of ducts and lobules is formed. Using antibodies to individual keratins 17 and 8 we have shown for the first time that ducts and alveoles developing in vitro undergo differentiation into the lining epithelium and myoepithelium in the same way as mammary gland epithelium in vivo...
August 1994: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Jose Russo
The hormonal milieu of an early full-term pregnancy induces lobular development, completing the cycle of differentiation of the breast. This process induces a specific genomic signature in the mammary gland that is represented by the stem cell containing a heterochomatin condensed nucleus (HTN). Even though differentiation significantly reduces cell proliferation in the mammary gland, the mammary epithelium remains capable of responding with proliferation to given stimuli, such as a new pregnancy. The stem cell HTN is able to metabolize the carcinogen and repair the induced DNA damage more efficiently than the stem cell containing an euchromatinic structure (EUN), as it has been demonstrated in the rodent experimental system...
July 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Hui Li, Huiling Zheng, Lihui Li, Xingai Shen, Wenjuan Zang, Yongsen Sun
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a zinc-dependent enzyme, and plays a crucial role in extracellular matrix degeneration, inflammation and tissue remodeling. However, the relationship between MMP-9 and somatic cell count (SCC) in goat milk and the role of MMP-9 in the regulation of mastitis are still unknown. In this study, we found MMP-9 was predominantly expressed in the spleen, intestine and mammary gland. The SCC in goat milk was positively correlated with MMP-9 expression, and staphylococcus aureus could markedly increase MMP-9 expression in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) in dosage and time dependent manner...
2016: PloS One
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