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proliferation of mammary gland

Lucia Altucci, Vincenzo Carafa, Angela Nebbioso, Francesca Cuomo, Dante Rotili, Gilda Cobellis, Paola Bontempo, Alfonso Baldi, Enrico P Spugnini, Gennaro Citro, Angela Chambery, Rosita Russo, Menotti Ruvo, Paolo Ciana, Luca Maravigna, Jani Shaik, Enrico Radaelli, Pasqualino De Antonellis, Domenico Tarantino, Adele Pirolli, Rino Ragno, Massimo Zollo, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Antonello Mai
PURPOSE: Alteration in cell death is a hallmark of cancer. A functional role regulating survival, apoptosis and necroptosis has been attributed to RIP1/3 complexes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have investigated the role of RIP1 and the effects of MC2494 in cell death induction, using different methods as flow cytometry, transcriptome analysis, immunoprecipitation, enzymatic assays, transfections, mutagenesis and in vivo studies with different mice models. RESULTS: Here, we show that RIP1 is highly expressed in cancer and we define a novel RIP1/3-SIRT1/2-HAT1/4 complex...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Przemysław Janas, Iwona Kucybała, Małgorzata Radoń-Pokracka, Hubert Huras
Telocytes are emerging cell population localized in the stroma of numerous organs, characterized by a distinctive morphology - small cell body with very long, slender prolongations, termed telopodes. Those cells can be found in the whole female reproductive system: in the vagina, uterus, oviducts and ovaries, mammary glands and also in the placenta. In our review, we aim at complete and transparent revision of the current knowledge of telocytes' localization and function, enriched by the analysis of the possible future direction of development of their clinical applications...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Xóchitl Zambrano-Estrada, Brianda Landaverde-Quiroz, Andrés A Dueñas-Bocanegra, Marco A De Paz-Campos, Gerardo Hernández-Alberto, Benjamín Solorio-Perusquia, Manuel Trejo-Mandujano, Laura Pérez-Guerrero, Evangelina Delgado-González, Brenda Anguiano, Carmen Aceves
BACKGROUND: Mammary cancer has a high incidence in canines and is an excellent model of spontaneous carcinogenesis. Molecular iodine (I2 ) exerts antineoplastic effects on different cancer cells activating re-differentiation pathways. In co-administration with anthracyclines, I2 impairs chemoresistance installation and prevents the severity of side effects generated by these antineoplastic drugs. This study is a random and double-blind protocol that analyzes the impact of I2 (10 mg/day) in two administration schemes of Doxorubicin (DOX; 30 mg/m2) in 27 canine patients with cancer of the mammary gland...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
SriDurgaDevi Kolla, Mary Morcos, Brian Martin, Laura N Vandenberg
Throughout life, mammary tissue is strongly influenced by hormones. Scientists have hypothesized that synthetic chemicals with hormonal activities could disrupt mammary gland development and contribute to breast diseases and dysfunction. Bisphenol S (BPS) is an estrogenic compound used in many consumer products. In this study, CD-1 mice were exposed to BPS (2 or 200 μg/kg/day) during pregnancy and lactation. Mice exposed to 0.01 or 1 μg/kg/day ethinyl estradiol (EE2), a pharmaceutical estrogen, were also evaluated...
March 8, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Keitaro Fukuda, Takeru Funakoshi
Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is a rare, slow-growing, cutaneous adenocarcinoma that usually originates in the anogenital area and axillae outside the mammary glands. EMPD mostly progresses slowly and is often diagnosed as carcinoma in situ ; however, upon becoming invasive, it promptly and frequently metastasizes to regional lymph nodes, leading to subsequent distant metastasis. To date, several chemotherapy regimens have been used to treat metastatic EMPD; however, they present limited effect and patients with distant metastasis exhibit a poor prognosis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Lindsey A Miles, Nagyung Baik, Hongdong Bai, Helen P Makarenkova, William B Kiosses, Stan Krajewski, Francis J Castellino, Alex Valenzuela, Nissi M Varki, Barbara M Mueller, Robert J Parmer
BACKGROUND: Lactational competence requires plasminogen, the zymogen of the serine protease, plasmin. Plg-RKT is a unique transmembrane plasminogen receptor that promotes plasminogen activation to plasmin on cell surfaces. Plg-RKT -/- mice are viable, but no offspring of Plg-RKT -/- female mice survive to weaning. OBJECTIVES: We investigated potential lactational failure in Plg-RKT -/- mice and addressed causal mechanisms. METHODS: Fibrin accumulation, macrophage infiltration, processing of extracellular matrix components, effects of genetic deletion of fibrinogen, expression of fibrosis genes, and proliferation and apoptosis of epithelial cells were examined in lactating mammary glands of Plg-RKT -/- and Plg-RKT +/+ mice...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Hongyan Yuan, Xiaoyi Wang, Jin Lu, Qiongsi Zhang, Irina Brandina, Ilya Alexandrov, Robert I Glazer
One of the central challenges in cancer prevention is the identification of factors in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that increase susceptibility to tumorigenesis. One such factor is stromal fibrosis, a histopathologic negative prognostic criterion for invasive breast cancer. Since the stromal composition of the breast is largely adipose and fibroblast tissue, it is important to understand how alterations in these tissues affect cancer progression. To address this question, a novel transgenic animal model was developed by crossing MMTV-NeuT mice containing a constitutively active ErbB2 gene into the FAT-ATTAC (fat apoptosis through targeted activation of caspase 8) background, which expresses an inducible caspase 8 fusion protein targeted to mammary adipose tissue...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Philip J Coates, Rudolf Nenutil, Jitka Holcakova, Marta Nekulova, Jan Podhorec, Marek Svoboda, Borivoj Vojtesek
The TP63 gene encodes two major protein variants that differ in their N-terminal sequences and have opposing effects. In breast, ΔNp63 is expressed by immature stem/progenitor cells and mature myoepithelial/basal cells and is a characteristic feature of basal-like triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). The expression and potential role of TAp63 in the mammary gland and breast cancers is less clear, partly due to the lack of studies that employ p63 isoform-specific antibodies. We used immunohistochemistry with ΔNp63-specific or TAp63-specific monoclonal antibodies to investigate p63 isoforms in 236 TNBCs...
February 27, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Parul Mehta, Ramakant Kaushik, Karn Pratap Singh, Ankur Sharma, Manoj Kumar Singh, Manmohan Singh Chauhan, Prabhat Palta, Suresh Kumar Singla, Radhey Sham Manik
The aim of the present study was to compare transgenic cells, containing human insulin gene kept under the control of mammary gland-specific buffalo beta-lactoglobulin promoter, and their counterparts, that is, nontransgenic cells, for examining their potential for the production of embryos following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The gene construct was delivered into buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFF) by nucleofection following which, the transfected cells were selected by culture in the presence of G418 for 3 weeks...
February 15, 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
Abhishek Kumar, Priyashree Sunita, Shivesh Jha, Shakti P Pattanayak
Breast cancer (BC) is a persistent and impulsive metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in women, worldwide. 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) is a potent polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-based carcinogen producing mammary carcinomas in rats resembling the human hormone-dependent BC. 7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin (78DC) is a coumarin derivative that possesses diversified and favorable pharmacology profile to be considered in anticancer research against various malignancies. The present study was intended to investigate the antiproliferative and chemotherapeutic potentials of 78DC (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg BW) against DMBA (20 mg in olive oil)-induced mammary carcinoma Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Q Liu, C Wang, G Guo, W J Huo, S L Zhang, C X Pei, Y L Zhang, H Wang
Branched-chain volatile fatty acids (BCVFA) supplements could promote lactation performance and milk quality by improving ruminal fermentation and milk fatty acid synthesis. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of BCVFA supplementation on milk performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acid synthesis in mammary gland of dairy cows. A total of 36 multiparous Chinese Holstein cows averaging 606±4.7 kg of BW, 65±5.2 day in milk (DIM) with daily milk production of 30...
February 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Sarah A Sapouckey, Christopher D Kassotis, Susan C Nagel, Laura N Vandenberg
Unconventional oil and gas operations (UOG), which combine hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and directional drilling, involve the use of hundreds of chemicals including many with endocrine disrupting properties. Two previous studies examined mice exposed during early development to a 23-chemical mixture of UOG compounds (UOG-MIX) commonly used or produced in the process. Both male and female offspring exposed prenatally to one or more doses of UOG-MIX displayed alterations to endocrine organ function and serum hormone concentrations...
February 7, 2018: Endocrinology
Sivapriya Pavuluri, Julie A Sharp, Christophe Lefevre, Kevin R Nicholas
Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the normal physiology of tissues and progression to disease. Earlier studies and our external microarray data analysis indicated that mammary matrix from involuting tissue showed upregulation of genes involved in ECM remodeling. The present study examines the fate of mammary and oral cancer cells grown in the ECM from lactating mammary gland. Our findings show that non-tumorigenic cells, MCF10A and DOK cells did not proliferate but the tumorigenic and metastatic cells, SCC25 and MDA-MB-231, underwent apoptosis when grown on mammary ECM isolated from lactating mice...
January 27, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Wenlong Zhang, Zelin Zhang, Jinxuan Chen, Dewen Tong
Little is known about ghrelin's effects on cell proliferation in pregnant mammary epithelial cells (MECs) even though it is known 4 to be a mitogen for a variety of other cell types. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the expression and localization of ghrelin and its functional receptor, GHSR-1a, in the mammary glands of dairy goats during pregnancy and to investigate the direct role of ghrelin in cell proliferation of primary cultured MECs. Compared to the early stage (days 30) of pregnancy, the abundance of transcripts and protein of ghrelin and GHSR-1a were significantly greater in mid- and late-phases (between days 90 and days 120) of pregnancy (p < 0...
January 20, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Yan Zhang, Xiuge Wang, Qiang Jiang, Haisheng Hao, Zhihua Ju, Chunhong Yang, Yan Sun, Changfa Wang, Jifeng Zhong, Jinming Huang, Huabin Zhu
Interleukin-6 receptor-alpha (IL6R) interacts with IL6 and forms a ligand-receptor complex, which can stimulate various cellular responses, such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and activation of inflammatory processes. Both genetic mutation and epigenetic modification regulate gene transcription. We identified a novel splice variant of bovine IL6R, designated as IL6R-TV, which is characterized by the skipping of exon 2 of the NCBI-referenced IL6R gene (IL6R-reference). The expression levels of IL6R-TV and IL6R-reference transcripts were lower in normal mammary gland tissues...
January 20, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Alberto Gandarillas, Rut Molinuevo, Natalia Sanz-Gómez
Among the most intriguing and relevant questions in physiology is how developing tissues correctly coordinate proliferation with differentiation. Endoreplication, in a broad sense, is a consequence of a cell division block in the presence of an active cell cycle, and it typically occurs as cells differentiate terminally to fulfill a specialised function. Until recently, endoreplication was thought to be a rare variation of the cell cycle in mammals, more common in invertebrates and plants. However, in the last years, endoreplication has been uncovered in various tissues in mammalian organisms, including human...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Mingxiu Guan, Yingna Tong, Minghua Guan, Xiaobin Liu, Meng Wang, Ruifang Niu, Fei Zhang, Dong Dong, Jie Shao, Yunli Zhou
Pyruvate kinase type M2, which is expressed in multiple tumor cell types and plays a key role in aerobic glycolysis, also has nonglycolytic functions and can regulate transcription and cell proliferation. The results of this study show that epidermal growth factor receptor activation induces pyruvate kinase type M2 nuclear translocation. To further determine the relationship between pyruvate kinase type M2 and epidermal growth factor receptor, we analyzed pathological data from mammary glands and performed epidermal growth factor receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 knockdown to reveal that pyruvate kinase type M2 is associated with epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
S Tao, R M Orellana, X Weng, T N Marins, G E Dahl, J K Bernard
Heat stress reduces cow milk yield and results in a significant economic loss for the dairy industry. During lactation, heat stress lowers milk production by 25 to 40% with half of the decrease in milk synthesis resulting from the reduced feed intake. In vitro studies indicate that primary bovine mammary epithelial cells display greater rates of programmed cell death when exposed to high ambient temperatures, which may lead to a decrease in the total number of mammary epithelial cells in the mammary gland, partially explaining the lower milk production of lactating cows under heat stress...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yang Liao, Wei Du
E2F transcription factors are regulated by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins. Previously, we reported an E2FLQ mutation that disrupts the binding with Rb proteins without affecting E2F's transcriptional activity. We also showed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with an E2F3LQ mutation exhibit increased E2F activity and more rapid cell proliferation. In this report, we analyzed E2F3LQ mice to further characterize the in vivo consequences of Rb family-independent E2F3 activity...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Janelle Mapes, Lavanya Anandan, Quanxi Li, Alison Neff, Charles V Clevenger, Indrani C Bagchi, Milan K Bagchi
The peptide hormone prolactin (PRL) and certain members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family play central roles in mammary gland development and physiology, and their dysregulation has been implicated in mammary tumorigenesis. Our recent studies have revealed that the CUB and zona pellucida-like domain-containing protein 1 (CUZD1) is a critical factor for PRL-mediated activation of the transcription factor STAT5 in mouse mammary epithelium. CUZD1 controls production of a specific subset of the EGF family growth factors and consequent activation of their receptors...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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