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proliferation of mammary gland

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769144/contributions-of-the-rhoa-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-net1-to-polyoma-middle-t-antigen-mediated-mammary-gland-tumorigenesis-and-metastasis
#1
Yan Zuo, Arzu Ulu, Jeffrey T Chang, Jeffrey A Frost
BACKGROUND: The RhoA activating protein Net1 contributes to breast cancer cell proliferation, motility, and invasion in vitro, yet little is known about its roles in mammary gland tumorigenesis and metastasis. METHODS: Net1 knockout (KO) mice were bred to mice with mammary gland specific expression of the polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) oncogene. Mammary gland tumorigenesis and lung metastasis were monitored. Individual tumors were assessed for proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, RhoA activation, and activation of PyMT-dependent signaling pathways...
May 16, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750295/endogenous-leu332gln-mutation-in-p53-disrupts-the-tetramerization-ability-in-a-canine-mammary-gland-tumor-cell-line
#2
Kazuhiko Ochiai, Daigo Azakami, Masami Morimatsu, Hinako Hirama, Shota Kawakami, Takayuki Nakagawa, Masaki Michishita, Ai S Egusa, Takanori Sasaki, Masami Watanabe, Toshinori Omi
Mutations in the p53 gene are associated with more than half of all human cancers. These mutations often cause a disruption of the tumor-suppressor function of p53 and induce genomic instabilities. Wild‑type p53 requires tetramerization to function as an initiator of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Although alterations in p53 tetramerization caused by mutation have been well studied, there are few cell lines containing an endogenous mutation in the tetramerization domain of p53. Here, we report the discovery of a canine mammary gland tumor cell line CTB‑m2, which contains the Leu332Gln (L332Q) mutation corresponding to Leu344 in the tetramerization domain of human p53...
May 2, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746933/postnatal-exposure-to-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-modifies-mammary-gland-growth-and-development-in-wistar-male-rats
#3
Gabriela A Altamirano, Melisa B Delconte, Ayelen L Gomez, Paola Ingaramo, Verónica L Bosquiazzo, Enrique H Luque, Mónica Muñoz-de-Toro, Laura Kass
Our aim was to evaluate whether postnatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) modifies mammary gland development in pre- and post-pubertal male rats. From postnatal day 1 (PND1) to PND7, male rats were injected subcutaneously every 48 h with either saline solution (vehicle) or 2 mg GBH/kg·bw. On PND21 and PND60, mammary gland and blood samples were collected. Estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) serum levels, mammary gland histology, collagen fiber organization, mast cell infiltration, proliferation index, and estrogen (ESR1) and androgen receptor (AR) expression levels were evaluated...
May 7, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744857/exogenous-h-2-s-exerts-biphasic-effects-on-porcine-mammary-epithelial-cells-proliferation-through-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#4
Jing Zhang, Jiayi Ye, Cong Yuan, Qin Fu, Fenglin Zhang, Xiaotong Zhu, Lina Wang, Ping Gao, Gang Shu, Qingyan Jiang, Songbo Wang
This study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous H2 S on the proliferation of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells (PMECs) and explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that exposure of PMECs to NaHS, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 µM, stimulated cell proliferation. However, high concentration of NaHS (600 µM) inhibited PMECs proliferation. Accordingly, 10 µM NaHS significantly increased the percentage of cells undergoing DNA replication, elevated the mRNA and/or protein expression of Cyclin A2, Cyclin D1/3, Cyclin E2 and PCNA, and decreased p21 mRNA expression...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741670/cadmium-exposure-inhibits-branching-morphogenesis-and-causes-alterations-consistent-with-hif-1%C3%AE-inhibition-in-human-primary-breast-organoids
#5
Sabrina A Rocco, Lada Koneva, Lauren Y M Middleton, Tasha Thong, Sumeet Solanki, Sarah Karram, Kowit Nambunmee, Craig Harris, Laura S Rozek, Maureen A Sartor, Yatrik M Shah, Justin A Colacino
Developmental cadmium exposure in vivo disrupts mammary gland differentiation, while exposure of breast cell lines to cadmium causes invasion consistent with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The effects of cadmium on normal human breast stem cells have not been measured. Here, we quantified the effects of cadmium exposure on reduction mammoplasty patient-derived breast stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Using the mammosphere assay and organoid formation in 3D hydrogels, we tested two physiologically relevant doses of cadmium, 0...
May 7, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736914/sinus-like-dilatations-of-the-mammary-milk-ducts-ki67-expression-and-cd3-positive-t-lymphocyte-infiltration-in-the-mammary-gland-of-wild-european-rabbits-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#6
Katherine Hughes, Christine J Watson
Sinus-like dilatations of the mammary duct are recognisable in the mammary gland of pregnant and lactating wild European rabbits. These dilatations exhibit a bilaminar epithelial lining, with luminal epithelial cells expressing basal and lateral E-cadherin. Occasional binucleated mammary epithelial cells are present in the luminal layer. Underlying the luminal epithelial cells is a basal layer of cytokeratin 14-positive cells, supported by a thin layer of fibrous tissue. Multi-segmental epithelial proliferation, as indicated by Ki67 expression, is apparent in the luminal epithelial cells, suggesting a capacity for division during pregnancy and lactation...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706427/effect-of-acute-stressors-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-administration-and-cortisol-release-on-milk-yield-the-expression-of-key-genes-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-goat-mammary-epithelial-cells
#7
G F Bomfim, G K F Merighe, S A de Oliveira, J A Negrao
Cortisol is essential to milk synthesis; however, different acute stressors and the exogenous administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decrease milk yield. Therefore, the effect of cortisol on milk yield and its influence on the survival of mammary epithelial cells have not been fully elucidated. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cortisol on the expression of growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF1), insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF1R), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 and 5 (IGFBP3 and IGFBP5), BAX, and BCL2 genes on the proliferation and apoptotic rates of mammary epithelial cells, and on milk yield in Saanen goats...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695833/chronic-expression-of-wild-type-ret-receptor-in-the-mammary-gland-induces-luminal-tumors-that-are-sensitive-to-ret-inhibition
#8
Albana Gattelli, Martín E García Solá, Tim C Roloff, Robert D Cardiff, Edith C Kordon, Lewis A Chodosh, Nancy E Hynes
The receptor tyrosine kinase Ret, a key gain-of-function mutated oncoprotein in thyroid carcinomas, has recently been implicated in other cancer types. While Ret copy number gains and mutations have been reported at low frequencies in breast tumors, we and others have reported that Ret is overexpressed in about 40% of human tumors and this correlates with poor patient prognosis. Ret activation regulates numerous intracellular pathways related to proliferation and inflammation, but it is not known whether abnormal Ret expression is sufficient to induce mammary carcinomas...
April 26, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691438/the-hippo-signaling-transducer-taz-regulates-mammary-gland-morphogenesis-and-carcinogen-induced-mammary-tumorigenesis
#9
Kayla E Denson, Ashley L Mussell, He Shen, Alexander Truskinovsky, Nuo Yang, Natesh Parashurama, Yanmin Chen, Costa Frangou, Fajun Yang, Jianmin Zhang
Hippo signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and stem cell self-renewal. TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with the PDZ-binding motif) is a key downstream effector of the mammalian Hippo pathway. Here, using a transgenic mouse model with mammary-gland-specific expression of constitutively active TAZ, we found that TAZ induction in mammary epithelial cells was associated with an increase in mammary glandular size, which probably resulted from adipocyte hypertrophy...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687293/psychosocial-stress-exposure-disrupts-mammary-gland-development
#10
Marianna B Johnson, Joscelyn N Hoffmann, Hannah M You, Ricardo R Lastra, Sully Fernandez, Jordan W Strober, Ahmad B Allaw, Matthew J Brady, Suzanne D Conzen, Martha K McClintock
Exposure to psychosocial stressors and ensuing stress physiology have been associated with spontaneous invasive mammary tumors in the Sprague-Dawley rat model of human breast cancer. Mammary gland (MG) development is a time when physiologic and environmental exposures influence breast cancer risk. However, the effect of psychosocial stress exposure on MG development remains unknown. Here, in the first comprehensive longitudinal study of MG development in nulliparous female rats (from puberty through young adulthood; 8-25 wks of age), we quantify the spatial gradient of differentiation within the MG of socially stressed (isolated) and control (grouped) rats...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681851/duclox-2-5-inhibition-attenuates-inflammatory-response-and-induces-mitochondrial-apoptosis-for-mammary-gland-chemoprevention
#11
Swetlana Gautam, Atul K Rawat, Shreesh R Sammi, Subhadeep Roy, Manjari Singh, Uma Devi, Rajnish K Yadav, Lakhveer Singh, Jitendra K Rawat, Mohd N Ansari, Abdulaziz S Saeedan, Dinesh Kumar, Rakesh Pandey, Gaurav Kaithwas
The present study is a pursuit to define implications of dual cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) (DuCLOX-2/5) inhibition on various aspects of cancer augmentation and chemoprevention. The monotherapy and combination therapy of zaltoprofen (COX-2 inhibitor) and zileuton (5-LOX inhibitor) were validated for their effect against methyl nitrosourea (MNU) induced mammary gland carcinoma in albino wistar rats. The combination therapy demarcated significant effect upon the cellular proliferation as evidenced through decreased in alveolar bud count and restoration of the histopathological architecture when compared to toxic control...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680643/phosphorylation-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-like-2-nfe2l2-in-mammary-tissue-of-holstein-cows-during-the-periparturient-period-is-associated-with-mrna-abundance-of-antioxidant-gene-networks
#12
L Q Han, Z Zhou, Y Ma, F Batistel, J S Osorio, J J Loor
Changes in the production of reactive oxygen species in the mammary gland of dairy cows during the periparturient period could lead to oxidative stress and potentially impair mammary function. Phosphorylation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), also known as nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2, controls mRNA abundance of genes encoding antioxidant proteins and enzymes. The hypothesis was that NFE2L2 phosphorylation status and target gene mRNA abundance in the mammary gland of dairy cows is altered around parturition...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671937/quercetin-improves-postpartum-hypogalactia-in-milk-deficient-mice-via-stimulating-prolactin-production-in-pituitary-gland
#13
Man Lin, Na Wang, Bei Yao, Yao Zhong, Yan Lin, Tianhui You
Postpartum dysgalactia is a common clinical problem for lactating women. Seeking out the safe and efficient phytoestrogens will be a promising strategy for postpartum dysgalactia therapy. In this study, the postpartum mice within four groups, including control group, the model group, and the treatment groups intragastrically administrated with normal saline, bromocriptine, bromocriptine plus 17α-ethinyl estradiol, and bromocriptine plus quercetin, respectively, were used. The results showed that quercetin, a kind of natural phytoestrogen, could efficiently promote lactation yield and mammary gland development in the agalactosis mice produced by bromocriptine administration...
April 19, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658576/paclitaxel-suppresses-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-through-regulation-of-ros-and-the-akt-mapk-signaling-pathway-in-canine-mammary-gland-tumor-cells
#14
Xiaoli Ren, Bingbing Zhao, Hongjian Chang, Min Xiao, Yuhong Wu, Yun Liu
Paclitaxel is a diterpenoid compound, derived from the pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) berry, which exhibits antineoplastic effects against various types of cancer. However, the antitumor effects and the molecular mechanisms of paclitaxel on canine CHMm cells remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor effects of paclitaxel on CHMm cells and identify relevant signal transduction pathways modulated by paclitaxel using multiple methods including MTT assay, flow cytometry, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, transmission electron microscopy, determination of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondiadehyde (MDA) and western blotting, the data indicated that paclitaxel decreased cell viability, induced G2/M‑phase cell cycle arrest, suppressed the expression of cyclin B1 and induced apoptosis in a dose‑dependent manner...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605320/symposium-review-amino-acid-uptake-by-the-mammary-glands-where-does-the-control-lie
#15
John P Cant, Julie J M Kim, Scott R L Cieslar, John Doelman
Milk protein yield responses to changes in the profile of essential amino acids absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract or circulating in blood plasma do not follow the classic limiting amino acid response, in part because of an ability of the mammary glands to modify their blood flow rate and net clearance of amino acids out of plasma. The hypothesis that mammary blood flow is locally regulated to maintain ATP balance accounts for observed changes in flow due to postruminal glucose, insulin, and essential amino acid (EAA) infusions...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594259/17-%C3%AE-estradiol-and-ici182-780-differentially-regulate-stat5-isoforms-in-female-mammary-epithelium-with-distinct-outcomes
#16
Fatou Jallow, Jennifer L Brockman, Kyle T Helzer, Debra E Rugowski, Vincent Goffin, Elaine T Alarid, Linda A Schuler
Prolactin (PRL) and estrogen cooperate in lobuloalveolar development of the mammary gland and jointly regulate gene expression in breast cancer cells in vitro . Canonical PRL signaling activates STAT5A/B, homologous proteins that have different target genes and functions. Although STAT5A/B are important for physiological mammary function and tumor pathophysiology, little is known about regulation of their expression, particularly of STAT5B, and the consequences for hormone action. In this study, we examined the effect of two estrogenic ligands, 17 β -estradiol (E2) and the clinical antiestrogen, ICI182,780 (ICI, fulvestrant) on expression of STAT5 isoforms and resulting crosstalk with PRL in normal and tumor murine mammary epithelial cell lines...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590203/reprogramming-of-the-estrogen-responsive-transcriptome-contributes-to-tamoxifen-dependent-protection-against-tumorigenesis-in-the-p53-null-mammary-epithelial-cells
#17
Murugesan Palaniappan, David Edwards, Chad J Creighton, Daniel Medina, Orla M Conneely
The tumor suppressor gene p53 is frequently mutated in human breast cancer and is a marker for poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy. Transplantation of p53 null mouse mammary epithelium into syngeneic wild-type mice leads to normal mammary gland development followed by spontaneous mammary tumors that recapitulate many of the phenotypic, molecular and genetic features of human breast cancer. Transient exposure of p53 null mice to the anti-estrogen, tamoxifen leads to sustained and robust protection against tumor development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574638/long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-modulate-mammary-gland-composition-and-inflammation
#18
Saraswoti Khadge, Geoffrey M Thiele, John Graham Sharp, Timothy R McGuire, Lynell W Klassen, Paul N Black, Concetta C DiRusso, James E Talmadge
Studies in rodents have shown that dietary modifications as mammary glands (MG) develop, regulates susceptibility to mammary tumor initiation. However, the effects of dietary PUFA composition on MGs in adult life, remains poorly understood. This study investigated morphological alterations and inflammatory microenvironments in the MGs of adult mice fed isocaloric and isolipidic liquid diets with varying compositions of omega (ω)-6 and long-chain (Lc)-ω3FA that were pair-fed. Despite similar consumption levels of the diets, mice fed the ω-3 diet had significantly lower body-weight gains, and abdominal-fat and mammary fat pad (MFP) weights...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568542/mammary-fibroadenomatous-hyperplasia-in-a-male-cat
#19
Saray Lorna Mayayo, Stefano Bo, Maria Carmela Pisu
Case summary: Mammary fibroadenomatous hyperplasia (MFH) is a benign pathology characterised by extensive proliferation of the ductal epithelium and mammary stroma. It typically occurs in young female cats, and seems to result from hypersensitivity to progesterone. A 2-year-old entire male European Shorthair cat presented to the veterinary clinic with enlargement of several mammary glands, which had developed within the previous 10 days. There was no prior administration of progestin in the cat's medical history...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560125/oleic-acid-stimulates-hc11-mammary-epithelial-cells-proliferation-and-mammary-gland-development-in-peripubertal-mice-through-activation-of-cd36-ca-2-and-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#20
Yingying Meng, Jing Zhang, Cong Yuan, Fenglin Zhang, Qin Fu, Han Su, Xiaotong Zhu, Lina Wang, Ping Gao, Gang Shu, Qingyan Jiang, Songbo Wang
This study aimed to investigate the effects of oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid, on HC11 mammary epithelial cells proliferation and peripubertal mammary gland development and explore the underlying mechanisms. HC11 cells and C57BL/6J mice were treated with OA. HC11 proliferation, peripubertal mammary gland development, and the involvement of CD36 and PI3K/Akt were assessed. In vitro , 100 μM OA significantly promoted HC11 proliferation by increasing Cyclin D1/3 and PCNA expression and decreasing p21 expression...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
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