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proliferation of mammary gland

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353404/dna-methylation-rather-than-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-regulates-the-production-of-an-aberrant-splice-variant-of-il6r-in-mastitic-cows
#1
Yan Zhang, Xiuge Wang, Qiang Jiang, Haisheng Hao, Zhihua Ju, Chunhong Yang, Yan Sun, Changfa Wang, Jifeng Zhong, Jinming Huang, Huabin Zhu
Interleukin-6 receptor-alpha (IL6R) interacts with IL6 and forms a ligand-receptor complex, which can stimulate various cellular responses, such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and activation of inflammatory processes. Both genetic mutation and epigenetic modification regulate gene transcription. We identified a novel splice variant of bovine IL6R, designated as IL6R-TV, which is characterized by the skipping of exon 2 of the NCBI-referenced IL6R gene (IL6R-reference). The expression levels of IL6R-TV and IL6R-reference transcripts were lower in normal mammary gland tissues...
January 20, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352263/mammalian-endoreplication-emerges-to-reveal-a-potential-developmental-timer
#2
REVIEW
Alberto Gandarillas, Rut Molinuevo, Natalia Sanz-Gómez
Among the most intriguing and relevant questions in physiology is how developing tissues correctly coordinate proliferation with differentiation. Endoreplication, in a broad sense, is a consequence of a cell division block in the presence of an active cell cycle, and it typically occurs as cells differentiate terminally to fulfill a specialised function. Until recently, endoreplication was thought to be a rare variation of the cell cycle in mammals, more common in invertebrates and plants. However, in the last years, endoreplication has been uncovered in various tissues in mammalian organisms, including human...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343208/lapatinib-inhibits-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation-by-influencing-pkm2-expression
#3
Mingxiu Guan, Yingna Tong, Minghua Guan, Xiaobin Liu, Meng Wang, Ruifang Niu, Fei Zhang, Dong Dong, Jie Shao, Yunli Zhou
Pyruvate kinase type M2, which is expressed in multiple tumor cell types and plays a key role in aerobic glycolysis, also has nonglycolytic functions and can regulate transcription and cell proliferation. The results of this study show that epidermal growth factor receptor activation induces pyruvate kinase type M2 nuclear translocation. To further determine the relationship between pyruvate kinase type M2 and epidermal growth factor receptor, we analyzed pathological data from mammary glands and performed epidermal growth factor receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 knockdown to reveal that pyruvate kinase type M2 is associated with epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331468/symposium-review-the-influences-of-heat-stress-on-bovine-mammary-gland-function
#4
S Tao, R M Orellana, X Weng, T N Marins, G E Dahl, J K Bernard
Heat stress reduces cow milk yield and results in a significant economic loss for the dairy industry. During lactation, heat stress lowers milk production by 25 to 40% with half of the decrease in milk synthesis resulting from the reduced feed intake. In vitro studies indicate that primary bovine mammary epithelial cells display greater rates of programmed cell death when exposed to high ambient temperatures, which may lead to a decrease in the total number of mammary epithelial cells in the mammary gland, partially explaining the lower milk production of lactating cows under heat stress...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330306/an-rb-family-independent-e2f3-transcription-factor-variant-impairs-stat5-signaling-and-mammary-gland-remodeling-during-pregnancy-in-mice
#5
Yang Liao, Wei Du
E2F transcription factors are regulated by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins. Previously, we reported an E2FLQ mutation that disrupts the binding with Rb proteins without affecting E2F's transcriptional activity. We also showed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with an E2F3LQ mutation exhibit increased E2F activity and more rapid cell proliferation. In this report, we analyzed E2F3LQ mice to further characterize the in vivo consequences of Rb family-independent E2F3 activity...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321207/aberrantly-high-expression-of-the-cub-and-zona-pellucida-like-domain-containing-protein-1-cuzd1-in-mammary-epithelium-leads-to-breast-tumorigenesis
#6
Janelle Mapes, Lavanya Anandan, Quanxi Li, Alison Neff, Charles V Clevenger, Indrani C Bagchi, Milan K Bagchi
The peptide hormone prolactin (PRL) and certain members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family play central roles in mammary gland development and physiology, and their dysregulation has been implicated in mammary tumorigenesis. Our recent studies have revealed that the CUB and zona pellucida-like domain-containing protein 1 (CUZD1) is a critical factor for PRL-mediated activation of the transcription factor STAT5 in mouse mammary epithelium. CUZD1 controls production of a specific subset of the EGF family growth factors and consequent activation of their receptors...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315680/solexa-sequencing-and-custom-microrna-chip-reveal-repertoire-of-micrornas-in-mammary-gland-of-bovine-suffering-from-natural-infectious-mastitis
#7
Zhihua Ju, Qiang Jiang, Gang Liu, Xiuge Wang, Guojing Luo, Yan Zhang, Jibin Zhang, Jifeng Zhong, Jinming Huang
Identification of microRNAs (miRNAs), target genes and regulatory networks associated with innate immune and inflammatory responses and tissue damage is essential to elucidate the molecular and genetic mechanisms for resistance to mastitis. In this study, a combination of Solexa sequencing and custom miRNA chip approaches was used to profile the expression of miRNAs in bovine mammary gland at the late stage of natural infection with Staphylococcus aureus, a widespread mastitis pathogen. We found 383 loci corresponding to 277 known and 49 putative novel miRNAs, two potential mitrons and 266 differentially expressed miRNAs in the healthy and mastitic cows' mammary glands...
January 8, 2018: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315249/bacteriophage-%C3%AE-sa012-has-a-broad-host-range-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-effective-lytic-capacity-in-a-mouse-mastitis-model
#8
Hidetomo Iwano, Yusuke Inoue, Takuji Takasago, Hironori Kobayashi, Takaaki Furusawa, Kotomi Taniguchi, Jumpei Fujiki, Hiroshi Yokota, Masaru Usui, Yasunori Tanji, Katsuro Hagiwara, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Yutaka Tamura
Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial infection in dairy cattle. It is the most costly disease in the dairy industry because of the high use of antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causative agents of bovine mastitis and antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, new strategies to control bacterial infection are required in the dairy industry. One potential strategy is bacteriophage (phage) therapy. In the present study, we examined the host range of previously isolated S...
January 9, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310736/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-isomers-and-essential-fatty-acids-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#9
D Dipasquale, L Basiricò, P Morera, R Primi, A Tröscher, U Bernabucci
Fatty acids are important modulators of inflammatory responses, in particular, n-3 and n-6 essential fatty acids and CLA have received particular attention for their ability to modulate inflammation. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of CLA and essential fatty acids on the expression of pro and anti- inflammatory cytokines and their protective efficacy against inflammatory status in mammary gland by an in vitro model based on bovine mammary epithelial cells (BME-UV1). Bovine mammary epithelial cells were treated with complete medium containing either 50 µM of cis-9, trans-11 CLA (c9,t11 CLA) or trans-10, cis-12 CLA (t10,c12 CLA) or (α)-linolenic acid (aLnA) or (γ)-linolenic acid (gLnA) or linoleic acid (LA)...
January 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279718/lannea-acida-a-rich-anacardiaceae-ethanol-extract-exhibits-estrogenic-effects-and-prevents-bone-loss-in-an-ovariectomized-rat-model-of-osteoporosis
#10
Mouchili Riepouo Oumarou, Stéphane Zingue, Berlise Yengwa Bakam, Sylvin Benjamin Ateba, Simplice Harquin Foyet, Fritz Teddy Tchaptchet Mbakop, Dieudonné Njamen
Phytoestrogens have been shown to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis. Lannea acida is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Cameroon to treat infertility, gynaecological complaints, and rheumatism. These uses prompted us to evaluate estrogenic activity of Lannea acida bark ethanolic extract and its antiosteoporotic potential in ovariectomized Wistar rats. In vitro, the E-screen assay was used to assess the ability of L. acida extract to induce MCF-7 cells proliferation. In vivo, a 3-day uterotrophic assay and a 12-week oral treatment in ovariectomized adult rats were carried out to evaluate the ability of L...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275436/transcriptomic-profiles-of-the-bovine-mammary-gland-during-lactation-and-the-dry-period
#11
Wen-Ting Dai, Yi-Xuan Zou, Robin R White, Jian-Xin Liu, Hong-Yun Liu
The initiation and maintenance of lactation are complex phenomena governed by biochemical and endocrine processes in the mammary gland (MG). Although DNA-based approaches have been used to study the onset of lactation, more comprehensive RNA-based techniques may be critical in furthering our understanding of gene alterations that occur to support lactation in the bovine MG. To further determine how gene profiles vary during lactation compared with the dry period, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) in bovine MG tissues from animals that were lactating and not lactating...
December 23, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249731/histochemical-properties-of-bovine-and-ovine-mammary-glands-during-fetal-development
#12
Asuka Hara, Tomoyuki Abe, Atsushi Hirao, Kazuhiro Sanbe, Hiromichi Ayakawa, Borjigin Sarantonglaga, Mio Yamaguchi, Akane Sato, Atchalalt Khurchabilig, Kazuko Ogata, Rika Fukumori, Shoei Sugita, Yoshikazu Nagao
In order to obtain more information on the development of bovine and ovine fetal mammary glands, a series of mammary glands from fetuses of different ages were analyzed. A total of 16 bovine fetuses with curved crown rump lengths ranging from 12 cm (80 days) to 75 cm (240 days) and 15 ovine fetuses ranging from 55 days to 131 days were examined. We used hematoxylin and eosin stain and Oil-Red-O stain to analyze the developmental and morphogenetic processes of mammary glands. In addition, we used immunohistochemical staining to determine the pattern of expression of cytokeratin 18 (CK18) during luminal epithelial differentiation, α-smooth-muscle actin (α-SMA) for myoepithelial differentiation, Ki-67 for cell proliferation, and estrogen receptor α (ERα)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248227/d-glucose-and-amino-acid-deficiency-inhibits-casein-synthesis-through-jak2-stat5-and-ampk-mtor-signaling-pathways-in-mammary-epithelial-cells-of-dairy-cows
#13
M C Zhang, S G Zhao, S S Wang, C C Luo, H N Gao, N Zheng, J Q Wang
Amino acids and energy deficiency lead to lower milk protein content in dairy cows. However, the known mechanisms involved in this process do not adequately explain the variability of milk protein concentration in the mammary gland. We hypothesized that a deficiency in d-glucose (d-Glc) or AA would inhibit casein synthesis by regulating signaling pathways in mammary epithelial cells. Cow mammary epithelial cells (CMEC) were subjected to combinations of 1 of 3 concentrations of d-Glc (0, 2.50, or 17.5 mM) and 1 of 3 concentrations of AA (0, 1...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246496/mirnas-as-biomarkers-for-predicting-the-progression-of-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#14
REVIEW
Bethany N Hannafon, Wei-Qun Ding
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is defined as a proliferation of neoplastic cells within the duct of the mammary gland that have not invaded into the surrounding stroma. DCIS is considered a precursor to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC); however, approximately half of DCIS may progress to IDC, if left untreated. Current research has shown that the genomic and transcriptomic changes are present in DCIS before the emergence of invasive disease, indicating that the malignant nature of the DCIS is defined before invasion...
December 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246124/transcriptome-analysis-of-genes-associated-with-breast-cancer-cell-motility-in-response-to-artemisinin-treatment
#15
Kanchan Kumari, Sunita Keshari, Debomita Sengupta, Surendra C Sabat, Sandip K Mishra
BACKGROUND: Well-known anti-malarial drug artemisinin exhibits potent anti-cancerous activities. In-vivo and in-vitro studies showed its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory properties signifying it as a potent drug candidate for study. The studies of mechanisms of cell movement are relevant which can be understood by knowing the involvement of genes in an effect of a drug. Although cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative activity of artemisinin is evident, the genes participating in its anti-migratory and reduced invasive effect are not well studied...
December 15, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236949/seipin-deficiency-leads-to-increased-er-stress-and-apoptosis-in-mammary-gland-alveolar-epithelial-cells-during-lactation
#16
Ahmed E El Zowalaty, Rong Li, Weiqin Chen, Xiaoqin Ye
Seipin is an integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein encoded by Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2/Bscl2) gene. Most litters (59%) from Bscl2-/- dams mated with WT (Bscl2+/+) males didn't survive PND5 and pups (Bscl2+/-) lacked milk in their stomachs. The survived litters had reduced pup survival rate at PND21. It was hypothesized that seipin was critical for lactation. Bscl2 was upregulated and highly detected in the lactation day 1 (LD1) WT mammary gland alveolar epithelial cells...
December 11, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233185/phosphoproteomics-reveals-network-rewiring-to-a-pro-adhesion-state-in-annexin-1-deficient-mammary-epithelial-cells
#17
Asfa Alli-Shaik, Sheena Wee, Lina H K Lim, Jayantha Gunaratne
BACKGROUND: Annexin-1 (ANXA1) plays pivotal roles in regulating various physiological processes including inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis, and deregulation of ANXA1 functions has been associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis events in several types of cancer. Though ANXA1 levels correlate with breast cancer disease status and outcome, its distinct functional involvement in breast cancer initiation and progression remains unclear. We hypothesized that ANXA1-responsive kinase signaling alteration and associated phosphorylation signaling underlie early events in breast cancer initiation events and hence profiled ANXA1-dependent phosphorylation changes in mammary gland epithelial cells...
December 12, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188494/menin-modulates-mammary-epithelial-cell-numbers-in-bovine-mammary-glands-through-cyclin-d1
#18
Kerong Shi, Xue Liu, Honghui Li, Xueyan Lin, Zhengui Yan, Qiaoqiao Cao, Meng Zhao, Zhongjin Xu, Zhonghua Wang
Menin, the protein encoded by the MEN1 gene, is abundantly expressed in the epithelial cells of mammary glands. Here, we found MEN1/menin expression slowly decreased with advancing lactation but increased by the end of lactation. It happened that the number of bovine mammary epithelial cells decreases since lactation, suggesting a role of menin in the control of mammary epithelial cell growth. Indeed, reduction of menin expression through MEN1-specific siRNA transfection in the bovine mammary epithelial cells caused cell growth arrest in G1/S phase...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187227/obesity-reversibly-depletes-the-basal-cell-population-and-enhances-mammary-epithelial-cell-estrogen-receptor-alpha-expression-and-progenitor-activity
#19
Tamara Chamberlin, Joseph V D'Amato, Lisa M Arendt
BACKGROUND: Obesity is correlated with an increased risk for developing postmenopausal breast cancer. Since obesity rates continue to rise worldwide, it is important to understand how the obese microenvironment influences normal mammary tissue to increase breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that obesity increases the proportion of luminal progenitor cells, which are thought to be the cells of origin for the most common types of breast cancer, potentially leading to an increased risk for breast cancer...
November 29, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181608/immunolocalization-patterns-of-cytokeratins-during-salivary-acinar-cell-development-in-mice
#20
Nirpesh Adhikari, Sanjiv Neupane, Jiyeon Roh, Jong Hwa Jun, Jae-Kwang Jung, Wern-Joo Sohn, Jae-Young Kim, Ji-Youn Kim
Embryonic development of the mouse salivary glands begins with epithelial thickening and continues with sequential changes from the pre-bud to terminal bud stages. After birth, morphogenesis proceeds, and the glands develop into a highly branched epithelial structure that terminates with saliva-producing acinar cells at the adult stage. Acinar cells derived from the epithelium are differentiated into serous, mucous, and seromucous types. During differentiation, cytokeratins, intermediate filaments found in most epithelial cells, play vital roles...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
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