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FASD recognition

Miguel Del Campo, Kenneth Lyons Jones
The fetal alcohol spectrum of disorders (FASD) includes four diagnostic categories for the clinical consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the unborn child. Physical features are necessary for the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial pFAS. Moreover, these features are specific and a diagnosis of FAS can be made even in the absence of knowledge of PAE. Not only growth deficits, microcephaly and the 3 facial features (short palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum and narrow vermillion of the upper lip) are characteristic, since other dysmorphic features particularly in the hands are key to the recognition of FAS...
October 8, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Shery Goril, Dora Zalai, Louise Scott, Colin M Shapiro
OBJECTIVES: Caregivers describe significant sleep disturbances in the vast majority of children and adolescents, which is diagnosed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but objective data on sleep disorders in this population are almost completely lacking. Animal models suggest that intrauterine alcohol exposure may disrupt sleep wake patterns, cause sleep fragmentation, and specifically affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus, thus disrupting melatonin secretion. The objective of this pioneering study was to evaluate sleep and melatonin abnormalities in children with FASD using objective, gold-standard measures...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
Janet F Williams, Vincent C Smith
Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure...
November 2015: Pediatrics
Ami C Bax, Carrie D Geurts, Tatiana N Balachova
Early identification of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is important for providing services and preventing secondary disabilities. Recent studies indicate that many FASDs are undiagnosed, partly because there is a need to improve detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). The aims of this review are to characterize existing practices for assessing PAE in pediatric care, identify the most efficient, promising methods of detecting PAE, and recognize the knowledge and practice gaps. This review indicates that maternal self-reports remain the most common method utilized in routine clinical practice and highlights promising methods of PAE identification, including a single binge drinking question...
September 1, 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Nathen J Murawski, Eileen M Moore, Jennifer D Thomas, Edward P Riley
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a number of physical, behavioral, cognitive, and neural impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This article examines basic research that has been or could be translated into practical applications for the diagnosis or treatment of FASD. Diagnosing FASD continues to be a challenge, but advances are being made at both basic science and clinical levels. These include identification of biomarkers, recognition of subtle facial characteristics of exposure, and examination of the relation between face, brain, and behavior...
2015: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
James N Reynolds, C Fernando Valenzuela, Alex E Medina, Jeffrey R Wozniak
The 2014 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting focused on the dual themes of the risks associated with low to moderate alcohol exposure during pregnancy and knowledge translation practices to enhance the impact of scientific research. The meeting theme was titled "Low drinking versus no drinking: Matching science with policy and public perception." Despite decades of basic science and clinical evidence that has documented the risks associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, there still exists confusion and uncertainty on the part of health professionals and the public regarding the question of whether or not there is a "safe" level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy...
August 2015: Alcohol
Elizabeth J Elliott
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are increasingly recognised throughout Australia as important, but preventable, disorders that result in lifelong problems with health and learning, mental health, behaviour and substance misuse. The role of this article is to highlight current efforts, which are in their infancy, to recognise and prevent FASD in Australia. A federal parliamentary inquiry into FASD (2011), development of an Australian Government 'action plan' to prevent FASD (2013) and the announcement in June 2014 of government funding to progress the plan and appoint a National FASD Technical Network have focused attention on the need for FASD prevention in Australia...
2015: Public Health Research & Practice
Kimberly A Kerns, Susan Siklos, Lesley Baker, Ulrich Müller
There is a limited amount of research that examines social-emotional functioning in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), and the majority of it relies on parent and teacher reports of social impairments. Because these provide broad measures of social function, they fail to elucidate the underlying specific skills with which this group of children has difficulty. The current study examines emotion-recognition abilities in children with FASD, as it plays a central role in social interaction. Participants were 22 children with diagnosed FASD (ages 8-14), and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls...
2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Philip A May, Amy Baete, Jaymi Russo, Amy J Elliott, Jason Blankenship, Wendy O Kalberg, David Buckley, Marita Brooks, Julie Hasken, Omar Abdul-Rahman, Margaret P Adam, Luther K Robinson, Melanie Manning, H Eugene Hoyme
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community. METHODS: From a consented sample of 70.5% of all first graders enrolled in public and private schools, an oversample of small children (≤ 25th percentile on height, weight, and head circumference) and randomly selected control candidates were examined for physical growth, development, dysmorphology, cognition, and behavior...
November 2014: Pediatrics
Shivakumar Subbanna, Balapal S Basavarajappa
It has been widely accepted that deficits in neuronal plasticity underlie the cognitive abnormalities observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Exposure of rodents to acute ethanol on postnatal day 7 (P7), which is equivalent to the third trimester of fetal development in human, induces long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory deficits in adult animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Recently, we found that histone H3 dimethylation (H3K9me2), which is mediated by G9a (lysine dimethyltransferase), is responsible for the neurodegeneration caused by ethanol exposure in P7 mice...
November 2014: Experimental Neurology
Nicole Crocker, Edward P Riley, Sarah N Mattson
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. METHOD: Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory)...
January 2015: Neuropsychology
Melissa H Watt, Lisa A Eaton, Karmel W Choi, Jennifer Velloza, Seth C Kalichman, Donald Skinner, Kathleen J Sikkema
The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n = 12) or recently post-partum (n = 12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013...
September 2014: Social Science & Medicine
Yasmin Senturias, Alexander Asamoah
FASDs are the most common preventable cause of developmental and intellectual disabilities in the United States and yet can easily be overlooked in pediatric and adolescent practices. Early diagnosis, presence of developmental and educational services, and a nurturing home environment have been associated with decreased occurrence of secondary disabilities such as substance use and criminal involvement.23 Therefore, it is important for providers to know how to go about the identification, diagnostic, and evaluation process...
April 2014: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
Karmel W Choi, Laurie A Abler, Melissa H Watt, Lisa A Eaton, Seth C Kalichman, Donald Skinner, Desiree Pieterse, Kathleen J Sikkema
BACKGROUND: South Africa has one of the world's highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and interpersonal trauma. These co-occurring public health problems raise the need to understand alcohol consumption among trauma-exposed pregnant women in this setting. Since a known predictor of drinking during pregnancy is drinking behavior before pregnancy, this study explored the relationship between women's drinking levels before and after pregnancy recognition, and whether traumatic experiences - childhood abuse or recent intimate partner violence (IPV) - moderated this relationship...
2014: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Rajesh C Miranda, Julie Kable, James N Reynolds, C Fernando Valenzuela
The 2012 meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) focused on the development and ethics of biomarkers for fetal alcohol exposure. This one-day international conference brought students and trainees together with clinicians and researchers to discuss the latest research on FASD. One keynote speaker discussed the value of profiling epigenetic modifications in readily available fetal tissues to diagnose fetal exposure to environmental agents, while the second speaker discussed the ethics of biomarker development within the context of core principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence...
December 2013: Alcohol
Kenta Kajimoto, Andrea Allan, Lee Anna Cunningham
Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and associated behavioral impairments that may be linked to disruptions in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Social and physical enrichment has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach toward reversing behavioral deficits associated with FASD and is also a potent stimulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In the present study, we utilized a genetic fate mapping approach in nestin-CreER(T2)/YFP bitransgenic mice to identify the stage-specific impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on the stepwise maturation of adult hippocampal progenitors...
2013: PloS One
Lucy Burns, Courtney Breen, Carol Bower, Colleen O' Leary, Elizabeth Jane Elliott
ISSUES: Alcohol exposure in utero is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in pregnancy and can cause long-term disability. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term to describe a range of effects from prenatal alcohol exposure including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Determining the prevalence of FASD is challenging. APPROACH: This narrative review collates information on the prevalence of FASD in Australia and documents the various methods used for attaining estimates and the limitations of the available data...
September 2013: Drug and Alcohol Review
Osman S Ipsiroglu, William H McKellin, Norma Carey, Christine Loock
Children and adolescents with a Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) are at high-risk for developing sleep problems (SPs) triggering daytime behavioral co-morbidities such as inattention, hyperactivity, and cognitive and emotional impairments. However, symptoms of sleep deprivation are solely associated with typical daytime diagnosis, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with psychotropic medications. To understand how and why SPs are missed, we conducted qualitative interviews (QIs) with six parents and seven health care professionals (HCPs), and performed comprehensive clinical sleep assessments (CCSAs) in 27 patients together with their caregivers referred to our clinic for unresolved SPs...
February 2013: Social Science & Medicine
T Shirasaka, E Hashimoto, W Ukai, T Yoshinaga, T Ishii, M Tateno, T Saito
To better understand the cellular pathogenetic mechanisms of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and the therapeutic benefit of stem cell treatment, we exposed pregnant rats to ethanol followed by intravenous administration of neural stem cells (NSCs) complexed with atelocollagen to the new born rats and studied recovery of GABAergic interneuron numbers and synaptic protein density in the anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. Prenatal ethanol exposure reduced both parvalbumin-positive phenotype of GABAergic interneurons and postsynaptic density protein 95 levels in these areas...
2012: Translational Psychiatry
Devon Kuehn, Sofía Aros, Fernando Cassorla, Maria Avaria, Nancy Unanue, Cecilia Henriquez, Karin Kleinsteuber, Barbara Conca, Alejandra Avila, Tonia C Carter, Mary R Conley, James Troendle, James L Mills
BACKGROUND: Most children who are exposed to large quantities of alcohol in utero do not develop fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Population-based prospective data on the risk of developing components of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), however, are limited. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 9,628 women screened during their first prenatal appointment in Chile, which identified 101 who consumed at least 4 drinks/d (exposed) matched with 101 women with no reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy (unexposed)...
October 2012: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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