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FASD recognition

Berardino Petrelli, Joanne Weinberg, Geoffrey G Hicks
The potential impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) varies considerably among exposed individuals, with some displaying serious alcohol-related effects and many others showing few or no overt signs of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). In animal models, variables such as nutrition, genetic background, health, other drugs, and stress, as well as dosage, duration, and gestational timing of exposure to alcohol can all be controlled in a way that is not possible in a clinical situation. In this review we examine mouse models of PAE and focus on those with demonstrated craniofacial malformations, abnormal brain development, or behavioral phenotypes that may be considered FASD-like outcomes...
April 2018: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
Matthew Valentine, Dustin C J Bihm, Lior Wolf, H Eugene Hoyme, Philip A May, David Buckley, Wendy Kalberg, Omar A Abdul-Rahman
OBJECTIVES: To compare the detection of facial attributes by computer-based facial recognition software of 2-D images against standard, manual examination in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). METHODS: Participants were gathered from the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Epidemiology Research database. Standard frontal and oblique photographs of children were obtained during a manual, in-person dysmorphology assessment. Images were submitted for facial analysis conducted by the facial dysmorphology novel analysis technology (an automated system), which assesses ratios of measurements between various facial landmarks to determine the presence of dysmorphic features...
December 2017: Pediatrics
Angela Nash, Leah Davies
Prenatal alcohol exposure is the cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), the prevalence of which is similar to that of other developmental disabilities like Down syndrome and autism. Children, adolescents, and adults who live with the disabilities associated with prenatal alcohol exposure face extraordinary challenges throughout their lives. Pediatric providers need to be able to identify patients with FASD because early recognition and intervention is known to improve life outcomes for affected individuals...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
Lídia Cantacorps, Silvia Alfonso-Loeches, Maria Moscoso-Castro, Javier Cuitavi, Irene Gracia-Rubio, Raúl López-Arnau, Elena Escubedo, Consuelo Guerri, Olga Valverde
Alcohol binge drinking is on the increase in the young adult population, and consumption during pregnancy can be deleterious for foetal development. Maternal alcohol consumption leads to a wide range of long-lasting morphological and behavioural deficiencies known as foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities. We sought to test the effects of alcohol on neuroimmune system activation and its potential relation to alcohol-induced neurodevelopmental and persistent neurobehavioural effects in offspring after maternal alcohol binge drinking during the prenatal period or in combination with lactation...
June 29, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Nicole M MacIlvane, Joseph M Pochiro, Nicole R Hurwitz, Molly J Goodfellow, Derick H Lindquist
Exposure to alcohol in utero can induce a variety of physical and mental impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This study explores the persistent cognitive consequences of ethanol administration in rat pups over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, modeling human third trimester consumption. Between PD65-70, ethanol-exposed (5E) and control rats were evaluated in two variants of recognition memory, the spontaneous novel object recognition (NOR) task, using 20 and 240 min sample-to-test delays, and the associative object-in-context (OIC) task, using a 20 min delay...
December 2016: Alcohol
Natasha Reid, Doug Shelton, Judith Warner, Frances O'Callaghan, Sharon Dawe
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a significant public health concern, and growing recognition in Australia led to the establishment of a specialist service for young children. The aim of the current study was to report on the diagnostic profile of a group of children who attended the service, to document the extent to which there were comorbid diagnoses and to provide information on the neurocognitive functioning of the children. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a retrospective chart review conducted by the diagnostic service...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Vincent C Smith, Phillip Matthias, Yasmin N Senturias, Renee M Turchi, Janet F Williams
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is the United States' most common preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and developmental disabilities collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify gaps in pediatric providers' knowledge and practices regarding FASD patient identification, diagnosis, management and referral, and to inform needs-based FASD resource development. METHODS: Pediatric providers (pediatricians, trainees, nurse practitioners) were exposed to survey links embedded in newsletters electronically distributed to the membership of two national professional societies...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
Miguel Del Campo, Kenneth Lyons Jones
The fetal alcohol spectrum of disorders (FASD) includes four diagnostic categories for the clinical consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the unborn child. Physical features are necessary for the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial pFAS. Moreover, these features are specific and a diagnosis of FAS can be made even in the absence of knowledge of PAE. Not only growth deficits, microcephaly and the 3 facial features (short palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum and narrow vermillion of the upper lip) are characteristic, since other dysmorphic features particularly in the hands are key to the recognition of FAS...
January 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Shery Goril, Dora Zalai, Louise Scott, Colin M Shapiro
OBJECTIVES: Caregivers describe significant sleep disturbances in the vast majority of children and adolescents, which is diagnosed as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), but objective data on sleep disorders in this population are almost completely lacking. Animal models suggest that intrauterine alcohol exposure may disrupt sleep wake patterns, cause sleep fragmentation, and specifically affect the suprachiasmatic nucleus, thus disrupting melatonin secretion. The objective of this pioneering study was to evaluate sleep and melatonin abnormalities in children with FASD using objective, gold-standard measures...
July 2016: Sleep Medicine
Janet F Williams, Vincent C Smith
Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure...
November 2015: Pediatrics
Ami C Bax, Carrie D Geurts, Tatiana N Balachova
Early identification of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is important for providing services and preventing secondary disabilities. Recent studies indicate that many FASDs are undiagnosed, partly because there is a need to improve detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). The aims of this review are to characterize existing practices for assessing PAE in pediatric care, identify the most efficient, promising methods of detecting PAE, and recognize the knowledge and practice gaps. This review indicates that maternal self-reports remain the most common method utilized in routine clinical practice and highlights promising methods of PAE identification, including a single binge drinking question...
September 1, 2015: Current Developmental Disorders Reports
Nathen J Murawski, Eileen M Moore, Jennifer D Thomas, Edward P Riley
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a number of physical, behavioral, cognitive, and neural impairments, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This article examines basic research that has been or could be translated into practical applications for the diagnosis or treatment of FASD. Diagnosing FASD continues to be a challenge, but advances are being made at both basic science and clinical levels. These include identification of biomarkers, recognition of subtle facial characteristics of exposure, and examination of the relation between face, brain, and behavior...
2015: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
James N Reynolds, C Fernando Valenzuela, Alex E Medina, Jeffrey R Wozniak
The 2014 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting focused on the dual themes of the risks associated with low to moderate alcohol exposure during pregnancy and knowledge translation practices to enhance the impact of scientific research. The meeting theme was titled "Low drinking versus no drinking: Matching science with policy and public perception." Despite decades of basic science and clinical evidence that has documented the risks associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, there still exists confusion and uncertainty on the part of health professionals and the public regarding the question of whether or not there is a "safe" level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy...
August 2015: Alcohol
Elizabeth J Elliott
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are increasingly recognised throughout Australia as important, but preventable, disorders that result in lifelong problems with health and learning, mental health, behaviour and substance misuse. The role of this article is to highlight current efforts, which are in their infancy, to recognise and prevent FASD in Australia. A federal parliamentary inquiry into FASD (2011), development of an Australian Government 'action plan' to prevent FASD (2013) and the announcement in June 2014 of government funding to progress the plan and appoint a National FASD Technical Network have focused attention on the need for FASD prevention in Australia...
March 30, 2015: Public Health Research & Practice
Kimberly A Kerns, Susan Siklos, Lesley Baker, Ulrich Müller
There is a limited amount of research that examines social-emotional functioning in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), and the majority of it relies on parent and teacher reports of social impairments. Because these provide broad measures of social function, they fail to elucidate the underlying specific skills with which this group of children has difficulty. The current study examines emotion-recognition abilities in children with FASD, as it plays a central role in social interaction. Participants were 22 children with diagnosed FASD (ages 8-14), and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls...
2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Philip A May, Amy Baete, Jaymi Russo, Amy J Elliott, Jason Blankenship, Wendy O Kalberg, David Buckley, Marita Brooks, Julie Hasken, Omar Abdul-Rahman, Margaret P Adam, Luther K Robinson, Melanie Manning, H Eugene Hoyme
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community. METHODS: From a consented sample of 70.5% of all first graders enrolled in public and private schools, an oversample of small children (≤ 25th percentile on height, weight, and head circumference) and randomly selected control candidates were examined for physical growth, development, dysmorphology, cognition, and behavior...
November 2014: Pediatrics
Shivakumar Subbanna, Balapal S Basavarajappa
It has been widely accepted that deficits in neuronal plasticity underlie the cognitive abnormalities observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Exposure of rodents to acute ethanol on postnatal day 7 (P7), which is equivalent to the third trimester of fetal development in human, induces long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory deficits in adult animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Recently, we found that histone H3 dimethylation (H3K9me2), which is mediated by G9a (lysine dimethyltransferase), is responsible for the neurodegeneration caused by ethanol exposure in P7 mice...
November 2014: Experimental Neurology
Nicole Crocker, Edward P Riley, Sarah N Mattson
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. METHOD: Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory)...
January 2015: Neuropsychology
Melissa H Watt, Lisa A Eaton, Karmel W Choi, Jennifer Velloza, Seth C Kalichman, Donald Skinner, Kathleen J Sikkema
The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n = 12) or recently post-partum (n = 12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013...
September 2014: Social Science & Medicine
Yasmin Senturias, Alexander Asamoah
FASDs are the most common preventable cause of developmental and intellectual disabilities in the United States and yet can easily be overlooked in pediatric and adolescent practices. Early diagnosis, presence of developmental and educational services, and a nurturing home environment have been associated with decreased occurrence of secondary disabilities such as substance use and criminal involvement.23 Therefore, it is important for providers to know how to go about the identification, diagnostic, and evaluation process...
April 2014: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
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