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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247416/heavy-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-is-related-to-smaller-corpus-callosum-in-newborn-mri-scans
#1
Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Christopher M R Warton, Pia Wintermark, H Eugene Hoyme, Greetje De Jong, Paul Taylor, Fleur Warton, Nadine M Lindinger, R Colin Carter, Neil C Dodge, Ellen Grant, Simon K Warfield, Lilla Zöllei, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
BACKGROUND: MRI studies have consistently demonstrated disproportionately smaller corpus callosa in individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure but have not previously examined the feasibility of detecting this effect in infants. Tissue segmentation of the newborn brain is challenging because analysis techniques developed for the adult brain are not directly transferable, and segmentation for cerebral morphometry is difficult in neonates, due to the latter's incomplete myelination...
March 1, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215296/neurotrophins-in-the-brain-interaction-with-alcohol-exposure-during-development
#2
K E Boschen, A Y Klintsova
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a result of the teratogenic effects of alcohol on the developing fetus. Decades of research examining both individuals with FASDs and animal models of developmental alcohol exposure have revealed the devastating effects of alcohol on brain structure, function, behavior, and cognition. Neurotrophic factors have an important role in guiding normal brain development and cellular plasticity in the adult brain. This chapter reviews the current literature showing that alcohol exposure during the developmental period impacts neurotrophin production and proposes avenues through which alcohol exposure and neurotrophin action might interact...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203487/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-agonists-potential-therapeutics-for-neuropathology-associated-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#3
Paul D Drew, Cynthia J M Kane
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) result from fetal exposure to alcohol during pregnancy. These disorders present a variety of sequelae including involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) with lasting impact on cognitive function and behavior. FASD occur at an alarming rate and have significant personal and societal impact. There are currently no effective treatments for FASD. Recent studies demonstrate that ethanol induces potent neuroinflammation in many regions of the developing brain. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory agents such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonists suppress ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069796/high-dietary-folate-in-pregnant-mice-leads-to-pseudo-mthfr-deficiency-and-altered-methyl-metabolism-with-embryonic-growth-delay-and-short-term-memory-impairment-in-offspring
#4
Renata H Bahous, Nafisa M Jadavji, Liyuan Deng, Marta Cosín-Tomás, Jessica Lu, Olga Malysheva, Kit-Yi Leung, Ming-Kai Ho, Mercè Pallàs, Perla Kaliman, Nicholas DE Greene, Barry J Bedell, Marie A Caudill, Rima Rozen
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) generates methyltetrahydrofolate for methylation reactions. Severe MTHFR deficiency results in homocystinuria and neurologic impairment. Mild MTHFR deficiency (677C>T polymorphism) increases risk for complex traits, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Although low dietary folate impacts brain development, recent concerns have focused on high folate intake following food fortification and increased vitamin use. Our goal was to determine whether high dietary folate during pregnancy affects brain development in murine offspring...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925227/an-erp-study-of-response-inhibition-in-the-auditory-domain-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#5
Matthew M Gerhold, Sandra W Jacobson, Joseph L Jacobson, Christopher D Molteno, Ernesta M Meintjes, Colin M Andrew
BACKGROUND: Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies of response inhibition in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have used a visual Go/NoGo task to study the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition. No studies exist using auditory versions of the task; thus, it is unclear how the deficits observed in visual tasks translate into the auditory domain. METHODS: This study examined ERPs using an auditory Go/NoGo paradigm in a sample of 35 school-age children-18 with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and 17 normally developing controls...
January 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829119/social-perception-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#6
Sara A Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Kelly Nash, Joanne Rovet
Although the profile of social cognitive difficulties is well recognized in children with certain neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this profile is not as well established in other clinical pediatric populations. The objective of the present study is to examine patterns of social perception in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared to typically-developing (TD) control children. A total of 56 children between 8 and 12 years of age-35 with FASD and 21 TD-completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Children's Version (RMET-C)...
November 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806977/randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-choline-supplementation-in-school-aged-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#7
Tanya T Nguyen, Rashmi D Risbud, Sarah N Mattson, Christina D Chambers, Jennifer D Thomas
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure results in a broad range of cognitive and behavioral impairments. Because of the long-lasting problems that are associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), the development of effective treatment programs is critical. Preclinical animal studies have shown that choline, which is an essential nutrient, can attenuate the severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to translate preclinical findings to a clinical population to investigate whether choline supplementation can ameliorate the severity of memory, executive function, and attention deficits in children with FASDs...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736681/the-continuum-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-in-a-community-in-south-africa-prevalence-and-characteristics-in-a-fifth-sample
#8
Philip A May, Anna-Susan Marais, Marlene M de Vries, Wendy O Kalberg, David Buckley, Julie M Hasken, Colleen M Adnams, Ronel Barnard, Belinda Joubert, Marise Cloete, Barbara Tabachnick, Luther K Robinson, Melanie A Manning, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Heidre Bezuidenhout, Soraya Seedat, Charles D H Parry, H Eugene Hoyme
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in a fifth sample in a South African community. METHODS: An active case ascertainment approach was employed among all first grade learners in this community (n=862). Following individual examination by clinical geneticists/dysmorphologists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal interviews, final diagnoses were made in multidisciplinary case conferences...
November 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734306/functional-connectivity-abnormalities-and-associated-cognitive-deficits-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd
#9
Jeffrey R Wozniak, Bryon A Mueller, Sarah N Mattson, Claire D Coles, Julie A Kable, Kenneth L Jones, Christopher J Boys, Kelvin O Lim, Edward P Riley, Elizabeth R Sowell
Consistent with well-documented structural and microstructural abnormalities in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), recent studies suggest that functional connectivity (FC) may also be disrupted. We evaluated whole-brain FC in a large multi-site sample, examined its cognitive correlates, and explored its potential to objectively identify neurodevelopmental abnormality in individuals without definitive dysmorphic features. Included were 75 children with PAE and 68 controls from four sites. All participants had documented heavy prenatal alcohol exposure...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716964/immediate-neural-plasticity-involving-reaction-time-in-a-saccadic-eye-movement-task-is-intact-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#10
Angelina Paolozza, Douglas P Munoz, Donald Brien, James N Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Saccades are rapid eye movements that bring an image of interest onto the retina. Previous research has found that in healthy individuals performing eye movement tasks, the location of a previous visual target can influence performance of the saccade on the next trial. This rapid behavioral adaptation represents a form of immediate neural plasticity within the saccadic circuitry. Our studies have shown that children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are impaired on multiple saccade measures...
November 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371665/childhood-placement-in-out-of-home-care-in-relation-to-psychosocial-outcomes-in-adults-with-fetal-alcohol-syndrome
#11
Jenny Rangmar, Annika Dahlgren Sandberg, Marita Aronson, Claudia Fahlke
BACKGROUND: Even in adulthood, the disabilities associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) may have a major impact on life, but different environmental circumstances during childhood may also be influential. This study aimed to investigate placements in out-of-home care, and number of early separations from caregivers, related to psychosocial outcomes in adults with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Additional analyses were then done on a subgroup's cognitive development and mental health...
October 2016: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358653/dna-methylation-signature-of-human-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#12
Elodie Portales-Casamar, Alexandre A Lussier, Meaghan J Jones, Julia L MacIsaac, Rachel D Edgar, Sarah M Mah, Amina Barhdadi, Sylvie Provost, Louis-Philippe Lemieux-Perreault, Max S Cynader, Albert E Chudley, Marie-Pierre Dubé, James N Reynolds, Paul Pavlidis, Michael S Kobor
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure is the leading preventable cause of behavioral and cognitive deficits, which may affect between 2 and 5 % of children in North America. While the underlying mechanisms of alcohol's effects on development remain relatively unknown, emerging evidence implicates epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the range of symptoms observed in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Thus, we investigated the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on genome-wide DNA methylation in the NeuroDevNet FASD cohort, the largest cohort of human FASD samples to date...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334884/study-protocol-for-screening-and-diagnosis-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-fasd-among-young-people-sentenced-to-detention-in-western-australia
#13
Hayley M Passmore, Roslyn Giglia, Rochelle E Watkins, Raewyn C Mutch, Rhonda Marriott, Carmela Pestell, Stephen R Zubrick, Candice Rainsford, Noni Walker, James P Fitzpatrick, Jacinta Freeman, Natalie Kippin, Bernadette Safe, Carol Bower
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause lifelong disability, including physical, cognitive and behavioural deficits, known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Among individuals with FASD, engagement with justice services is common. Little is known about the prevalence of FASD among young people engaged with the Australian justice system. This study aims to establish FASD prevalence among sentenced young people in detention in Western Australia (WA), and use the findings to develop a screening tool for use among young people entering detention...
June 22, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318824/effects-of-moderate-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-during-early-gestation-in-rats-on-inflammation-across-the-maternal-fetal-immune-interface-and-later-life-immune-function-in-the-offspring
#14
Laurne S Terasaki, Jaclyn M Schwarz
During early brain development, microglial activation can negatively impact long-term neuroimmune and cognitive outcomes. It is well-known that significant alcohol exposure during early gestation results in a number of cognitive deficits associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Additionally, microglia are activated following high levels of alcohol exposure in rodent models of FASD. We sought to examine whether moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (70 mg/dL blood alcohol concentration) activates microglia in the fetal rat brain, and whether moderate fetal alcohol exposure has long-term negative consequences for immune function and cognitive function in the rat...
June 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282764/parent-rating-of-executive-function-in-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder-a-review-of-the-literature-and-new-data-on-aboriginal-canadian-children
#15
Jaspreet K Rai, Maurissa Abecassis, Joseph E Casey, Lloyd Flaro, Laszlo A Erdodi, Robert M Roth
Aboriginal children in Canada are at high risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) but there is little research on the cognitive impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in this population. This paper reviews the literature on parent report of executive functioning in children with FASD that used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). New data on the BRIEF is then reported in a sample of 52 Aboriginal Canadian children with FASD for whom a primary caregiver completed the BRIEF. The children also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests...
June 10, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27187986/neuropsychological-impairments-and-age-related-differences-in-children-and-adolescents-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders
#16
Sukhpreet Tamana, Jacqueline Pei, Donald Massey, Valerie Massey, Carmen Rasmussen
BackgroundChildren and adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) exhibit a range of physical, cognitive, behavioral, and/or learning deficits, as wells as poor executive functioning (EF). Children and adolescents with FASD often show greater impairments on complex neuropsychological tasks. However, little is known about age-related differences among children and adolescents with FASD.ObjectivesThe goals of this cross-sectional study were to explore the overall profile of neuropsychological impairments and extended previous reports on age-related differences among children and adolescents with FASD...
2014: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27186793/fishing-for-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorders-zebrafish-as-a-model-for-ethanol-teratogenesis
#17
Charles Ben Lovely, Yohaan Fernandes, Johann K Eberhart
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) describes a wide array of ethanol-induced developmental defects, including craniofacial dysmorphology and cognitive impairments. It affects ∼1 in 100 children born in the United States each year. Due to the pleiotropic effects of ethanol, animal models have proven critical in characterizing the mechanisms of ethanol teratogenesis. In this review, we focus on the utility of zebrafish in characterizing ethanol-induced developmental defects. A growing number of laboratories have focused on using zebrafish to examine ethanol-induced defects in craniofacial, cardiac, ocular, and neural development, as well as cognitive and behavioral impairments...
October 2016: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27090562/thyroxine-administration-prevents-matrilineal-intergenerational-consequences-of-in-utero-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#18
Elif Tunc-Ozcan, Kathryn M Harper, Evan N Graf, Eva E Redei
The neurodevelopmental fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is characterized by cognitive and behavioral deficits in the offspring. Conferring the deficits to the next generation would increase overall FASD disease burden and prevention of this transmission could be highly significant. Prior studies showed the reversal of these behavioral deficits by low dose thyroxine (T4) supplementation to the ethanol-consuming mothers. Here we aim to identify whether prenatal ethanol (PE) exposure impairs hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in the second-generation (F2) progeny, and whether T4 administration to the ethanol-consuming dam can prevent it...
June 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086780/overview-of-the-genetic-basis-and-epigenetic-mechanisms-that-contribute-to-fasd-pathobiology
#19
REVIEW
Vichithra R B Liyanage, Kyle Curtis, Robby M Zachariah, Albert E Chudley, Mojgan Rastegar
Prenatal alcohol (ethanol) exposure (PAE) is the underlying cause for a variety of birth defects and neurodevelopmental deficits referred to as "Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)". The more visible phenotypes caused by PAE include growth retardation, and characteristic craniofacial abnormalities associated with functional and structural damage to the central nervous system. Ethanol is a teratogenic agent itself; but it can also alter gene expression. These changes may contribute to the spectrum of effects and different phenotypes that are dependent on alcohol metabolism, as well as the timing and duration of alcohol exposure...
2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070644/epigenetic-mechanisms-in-developmental-alcohol-induced-neurobehavioral-deficits
#20
REVIEW
Balapal S Basavarajappa, Shivakumar Subbanna
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its damaging consequences on the developing infant brain are significant public health, social, and economic issues. The major distinctive features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans are cognitive and behavioral dysfunction due to damage to the central nervous system (CNS), which results in a continuum of disarray that is collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Many rodent models have been developed to understand the mechanisms of and to reproduce the human FASD phenotypes...
2016: Brain Sciences
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