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Cardiac mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724040/cardiac-remodeling-indicators-in-adolescent-athletes
#1
Joaquim Castanheira, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Daniela Costa, Diogo Martinho, Jorge Fernandes, João Duarte, Nuno Sousa, Vasco Vaz, Luis Rama, António Figueiredo, Manuel Coelho-E-Silva
Objective: The idea that different sports and physical training type results in different cardiac adaptations has been widely accepted. However, this remodelling process among different sport modalities is still not fully understood. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the heart morphology variation associated with a set of different modalities characterized by distinct models of preparation and different methods and demands of training and completion. Method: The sample comprises 42 basketball players, 73 roller hockey players, 28 judo athletes and 21 swimmers...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723830/early-versus-delayed-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-for-patients-with-non-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#2
Le Dung Ha, Gbolahan Ogunbayo, Ayman Elbadawi, Odunayo Olorunfemi, Adrian Messerli
BACKGROUND: Although coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has been proven to have mortality and morbidity benefits in patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel disease, the appropriate timing of this procedure remains unclear. Therefore, we proposed a propensity score-matched analysis comparing the clinical outcomes between patients who underwent CABG within the first 48 h of admission (early CABG) and patients who underwent CABG after 48 h of admission (delayed CABG)...
July 18, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722695/cardiac-cycle-efficiency-and-dicrotic-pressure-variations-new-parameters-for-fluid-therapy-a-pilot-observational-study
#3
Antonio Messina, Salvatore M Romano, Eleonora Bonicolini, Davide Colombo, Gianmaria Cammarota, Marco Chiostri, Francesco Della Corte, Paolo Navalesi, Didier Payen, Stefano Romagnoli
BACKGROUND: During a fluid challenge, the changes in cardiac performance and peripheral circulatory tone are closely related to the position of the ventricle on the Frank-Starling curve. Some patients have a good haemodynamic response to a fluid challenge, others hardly any response. The early haemodynamic effects of a fluid challenge could predict the final response before the entire fluid volume has been administered. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a multivariate logistic regression model, including pulse pressure variation (PPV), cardiac cycle efficiency (CCE), arterial elastance and the difference between the dicrotic pressure and both systolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP - Pdic and MAP - Pdic) can predict cardiac responsiveness early during a fluid challenge in comparison with the standard procedure described elsewhere...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722488/berberine-promotes-ischemia-induced-angiogenesis-in-mice-heart-via-upregulation-of-microrna-29b
#4
Mo-Li Zhu, Ya-Ling Yin, Song Ping, Hai-Ya Yu, Guang-Rui Wan, Xu Jian, Peng Li
BACKGROUND: Berberine has several preventive effects on cardiovascular diseases. Increased expression of miR-29b has been reported to attenuate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that berberine via an miR-29b-dependent mechanism promotes angiogenesis and improves heart functions in mice after MI. METHODS: The MI model was established in mice by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery. The expression of miR-29b was examined by RT-qPCR...
July 19, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722189/adam10-modulates-calcitriol-regulated-rage-in-cardiomyocytes
#5
Ting-Wei Lee, Yu-Hsun Kao, Ting-I Lee, Yi-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Calcitriol modulates cardiac RAGE expression. This study explored the mechanisms underlying the effect of calcitriol on RAGE and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) expression in cardiomyocytes. METHODS: Western blot, ELISA, fluorometric assay and PCR analyses were used to evaluate the RAGE, sRAGE, endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) expression and enzyme activity in HL-1 atrial myocytes without and with calcitriol (10 and 100 nM), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor (50 μg/mL), or ADAM10 inhibitor (5 μM) incubation for 48 hours...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721692/left-ventricular-mechanics-are-affected-in-children-with-celiac-disease-a-study-based-on-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#6
Murat Deveci, Ayşen Uncuoğlu Aydoğan, Gürkan Altun, Özlem Kayabey, Okan Tuğral, Kadir Babaoğlu
BACKGROUND: An association between cardiomyopathy and celiac disease has been reported, but not frequently. We examined the effects on cardiac mechanics in children with celiac disease (CD) by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE). METHODS: Eighty-one children with CD were compared with a control group comprising 51 healthy children by echocardiographic examination. Children with CD who had been on gluten-free diet for more than 6 months were divided into two different groups: group 1 was positive for serum antitissue transglutaminase antibody (n=48), and group 2 was negative for serum antitissue transglutaminase antibody (n=33)...
July 18, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721492/peristaltic-like-motion-of-the-human-fetal-right-ventricle-and-its-effects-on-fluid-dynamics-and-energy-dynamics
#7
Hadi Wiputra, Guat Ling Lim, Khong Chun Chua, R Nivetha, Sanah Merchant Soomar, Arijit Biwas, Citra Nurfarah Zaini Mattar, Hwa Liang Leo, Choon Hwai Yap
In both adult human and canine, the cardiac right ventricle (RV) is known to exhibit a peristaltic-like motion, where RV sinus (inflow region) contracts first and the infundibulum (outflow region) later, in a wave-like contraction motion. The delay in contraction between the sinus and infundibulum averaged at 15% of the cardiac cycle and was estimated to produce an intra-ventricular pressure difference of 15 mmHg. However, whether such a contractile motion occurs in human fetuses as well, its effects on hemodynamics remains unknown, and are the subject of the current study...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721163/additive-effects-of-atorvastatin-combined-with-sitagliptin-on-rats-with-myocardial-infarction-a-pilot-study
#8
Xiao Ke, Bin Ke, Xing Wang, Shaoyun Wu, Rongfeng Yang, Chengheng Hu
INTRODUCTION: Atorvastatin and sitagliptin are able to exert cardio-protective effects. However, whether atorvastatin plus sitagliptin could confer additive benefits for rats with myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty rats with MI were produced and 37 surviving rats were randomly divided into atorvastatin (10 mg/kg daily, n = 9), sitagliptin (10 mg/kg daily, n = 9), combined (10 mg/kg daily atorvastatin plus 10 mg/kg daily sitagliptin, n = 9), and control groups (3 ml normal saline daily, n = 10)...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720890/iron-overload-exacerbates-age-associated-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-a-mouse-model-of-hemochromatosis
#9
Abitha Sukumaran, JuOae Chang, Murui Han, Shrutika Mintri, Ban-An Khaw, Jonghan Kim
Cardiac damage associated with iron overload is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, but the precise mechanisms leading to disease progression are largely unexplored. Here we investigated the effects of iron overload and age on cardiac hypertrophy using 1-, 5- and 12-month old Hfe-deficient mice, an animal model of hemochromatosis in humans. Cardiac iron levels increased progressively with age, which was exacerbated in Hfe-deficient mice. The heart/body weight ratios were greater in Hfe-deficient mice at 5- and 12-month old, compared with their age-matched wild-type controls...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720602/a-reminder-of-escherichia-coli-sepsis-induced-reversible-cardiomyopathy
#10
Aung Naing Lin, Atif Shaikh, Sithu Lin, Deepika Misra
Cardiomyopathy is a progressive disease of myocardium causing either mechanical or electrical disturbances. Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SICM) is an entity of cardiomyopathy which is reversible in 1â€"2 weeks after recovery from sepsis or septic shock. SICM is thought to have unpredictable cumulative mortality towards sepsis but its exact mechanism remains elusive. We report a case of Escherichia coli SICM in a 63-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of dyspnoea on exertion and orthopnoea following nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea after consuming Chinese foods...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720590/mechanisms-of-noncovalent-%C3%AE-subunit-regulation-of-nav-channel-gating
#11
Wandi Zhu, Taylor L Voelker, Zoltan Varga, Angela R Schubert, Jeanne M Nerbonne, Jonathan R Silva
Voltage-gated Na(+) (NaV) channels comprise a macromolecular complex whose components tailor channel function. Key components are the non-covalently bound β1 and β3 subunits that regulate channel gating, expression, and pharmacology. Here, we probe the molecular basis of this regulation by applying voltage clamp fluorometry to measure how the β subunits affect the conformational dynamics of the cardiac NaV channel (NaV1.5) voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). The pore-forming NaV1.5 α subunit contains four domains (DI-DIV), each with a VSD...
July 18, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720397/cardioprotective-effect-of-nesfatin-1-against-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-infarction-in-rats-role-of-the-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-pathway
#12
Arda Tasatargil, Nilay Kuscu, Selvinaz Dalaklioglu, Dileyra Adıgüzel, Ciler Celik-Ozenci, Sebahat Ozdem, Ayse Barutcigil, Sadi Ozdem
The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of nesfatin-1, a novel peptide with anorexigenic properties, in rats with isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI), and to further investigate the role of Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway in the protective effect of nesfatin-1. To induce MI, ISO was subcutaneously injected into the rats for two consecutive days at a dosage of 85mg/kg/day. ISO-induced myocardial damage was indicated by elevated levels of cardiac specific troponin-T, enhanced myocardial expression of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α), and increased number of cells with apoptotic and necrotic appearance in the myocardial tissue...
July 15, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720123/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-in-an-adult-human-population-serial-observations-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Kihei Yoneyama, Bharath A Venkatesh, David A Bluemke, Robyn L McClelland, João A C Lima
The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is the first large-scale multi-ethnic population study in the U.S. to use advanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. MESA participants were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline between 2000 and 2002, and were followed up between 2009 and 2011 with repeated CMR examinations as part of MESA. CMR allows the clinician to visualize and accurately quantify volume and dimensions of all four cardiac chambers; measure systolic and diastolic ventricular function; assess myocardial fibrosis; assess vessel lumen size, vessel wall morphology, and vessel stiffness...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720027/long-term-alteration-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-children-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-in-the-first-6-months-of-life
#14
Monica McGauran, Brigid Jordan, Roseriet Beijers, Irma Janssen, Candice Franich-Ray, Carolina de Weerth, Michael Cheung
Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have poorer neurodevelopmental and psychological outcomes. The mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. One mechanism could be that the stressful experience of cardiac surgery early in life influences long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Dysregulation of the HPA axis has been linked to poorer neurocognitive and psychological outcomes in other study populations. This case-control study aims to compare HPA-axis regulation (circadian rhythm and reactivity) using salivary cortisol in 3- to 5-year-olds with CHD who did and did not have cardiac surgery prior to 6 months of age...
July 18, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718687/do-sodium-channel-proteolytic-fragments-regulate-sodium-channel-expression
#15
Donatus O Onwuli, Laia Yañez-Bisbe, Mellina Pinsach-Abuin, Anna Tarradas, Ramon Brugada, John Greenman, Sara Pagans, Pedro Beltran-Alvarez
The cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (gene: SCN5A, protein: NaV1.5) is responsible for the sodium current that initiates the cardiomyocyte action potential. Research into the mechanisms of SCN5A gene expression has gained momentum over the last few years. We have recently described the transcriptional regulation of SCN5A by GATA4 transcription factor. In this addendum to our study, we report our observations that 1) the linker between domains I and II (LDI-DII) of NaV1.5 contains a nuclear localisation signal (residues 474-481) that is necessary to localise LDI-DII into the nucleus, and 2) nuclear LDI-DII activates the SCN5A promoter in gene reporter assays using cardiac-like H9c2 cells...
July 18, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718622/graphene-sheet-induced-global-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Jiaxian Wang, Chang Cui, Haiyan Nan, Yuanfang Yu, Yini Xiao, Ellen Poon, Gang Yang, Xijie Wang, Chenchen Wang, Lingsong Li, Kenneth Richard Boheler, Xu Ma, Xin Cheng, Zhenhua Ni, Minglong Chen
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can proliferate infinitely. Their ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes provides abundant sources for disease modeling, drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) display a low degree of maturation and fetal-like properties. Current in vitro differentiation methods do not mimic the structural, mechanical, and physiological properties of the cardiogenesis niche. Recently, we present an efficient cardiac maturation platform that combines hiPSCs monolayer cardiac differentiation with graphene substrate which is a biocompatible and superconductive material...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717163/titin-mediated-thick-filament-activation-through-a-mechanosensing-mechanism-introduces-sarcomere-length-dependencies-in-mathematical-models-of-rat-trabecula-and-whole-ventricle
#17
Lorenzo Marcucci, Takumi Washio, Toshio Yanagida
Recent experimental evidence in skeletal muscle demonstrated the existence of a thick-filament mechanosensing mechanism, acting as a second regulatory system for muscle contraction, in addition to calcium-mediated thin filament regulation. These two systems cooperate to generate force, but the extent to which their interaction is relevant in physiologically contracting muscle was not yet assessed experimentally. Therefore, we included both regulatory mechanisms in a mathematical model of rat trabecula and whole ventricle...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717008/the-cardiac-z-disc-protein-cefip-regulates-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy-by-modulating-calcineurin-signaling
#18
Franziska Dierck, Christian Kuhn, Claudia Rohr, Susanne Hille, Julia Braune, Samuel Sossalla, Sibylle Molt, Peter F M van der Ven, Dieter O Fürst, Norbert Frey
The z-disc is a structural component at the lateral borders of the sarcomere and is important for mechanical stability and contractility of both cardiac and skeletal muscles. Of note, the sarcomeric z-disc also represents a nodal point in cardiomyocyte function and signaling. Mutations of numerous z-disc proteins are associated with cardiomyopathies and muscle diseases. To identify additional z-disc proteins that might contribute to cardiac disease, we employed an in silico screen for cardiac-enriched cDNAs...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716832/mechanical-circulatory-support-devices-for-acute-right-ventricular-failure
#19
REVIEW
Navin K Kapur, Michele L Esposito, Yousef Bader, Kevin J Morine, Michael S Kiernan, Duc Thinh Pham, Daniel Burkhoff
Right ventricular (RV) failure remains a major cause of global morbidity and mortality for patients with advanced heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or acute myocardial infarction and after major cardiac surgery. Over the past 2 decades, percutaneously delivered acute mechanical circulatory support pumps specifically designed to support RV failure have been introduced into clinical practice. RV acute mechanical circulatory support now represents an important step in the management of RV failure and provides an opportunity to rapidly stabilize patients with cardiogenic shock involving the RV...
July 18, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716730/interaction-of-small-g-protein-signaling-modulator-3-with-connexin-43-contributes-to-myocardial-infarction-in-rat-hearts
#20
Chang Youn Lee, Jung-Won Choi, Sunhye Shin, Jiyun Lee, Hyang-Hee Seo, Soyeon Lim, Seahyoung Lee, Hyun-Chul Joo, Sang Woo Kim, Ki-Chul Hwang
Connexin 43 (Cx43), a ubiquitous connexin expressed in the heart and skin, is associated with a variety of hereditary conditions. Therefore, the characterization of Cx43-interacting proteins and their dynamics is important to understand not only the molecular mechanisms underlying pathological malfunction of gap junction-mediated intercellular communication but also to identify novel and unanticipated biological functions of Cx43. In the present study, we observed potential targets of Cx43 to determine new molecular functions in cardio-protection...
July 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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