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Cardiac mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448590/significant-changes-in-circulating-microrna-by-dietary-supplementation-of-selenium-and-coenzyme-q10-in-healthy-elderly-males-a-subgroup-analysis-of-a-prospective-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-among-elderly-swedish-citizens
#1
Urban Alehagen, Peter Johansson, Jan Aaseth, Jan Alexander, Dick Wågsäter
BACKGROUND: Selenium and coenzyme Q10 is essential for important cellular functions. A low selenium intake is reported from many European countries, and the endogenous coenzyme Q10 production is decreasing in the body with increasing age. Supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 in elderly have shown reduced cardiovascular mortality and reduced levels of markers of inflammation. However, microRNA analyses could give important information on the mechanisms behind the clinical effects of supplementation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448534/intense-light-elicited-upregulation-of-mir-21-facilitates-glycolysis-and-cardioprotection-through-per2-dependent-mechanisms
#2
Colleen Marie Bartman, Yoshimasa Oyama, Kelley Brodsky, Ludmila Khailova, Lori Walker, Michael Koeppen, Tobias Eckle
A wide search for ischemic preconditioning (IPC) mechanisms of cardioprotection identified the light elicited circadian rhythm protein Period 2 (Per2) to be cardioprotective. Studies on cardiac metabolism found a key role for light elicited Per2 in mediating metabolic dependence on carbohydrate metabolism. To profile Per2 mediated pathways following IPC of the mouse heart, we performed a genome array and identified 352 abundantly expressed and well-characterized Per2 dependent micro RNAs. One prominent result of our in silico analysis for cardiac Per2 dependent micro RNAs revealed a selective role for miR-21 in the regulation of hypoxia and metabolic pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448528/minimally-invasive-estimation-of-ventricular-dead-space-volume-through-use-of-frank-starling-curves
#3
Shaun Davidson, Chris Pretty, Antoine Pironet, Thomas Desaive, Nathalie Janssen, Bernard Lambermont, Philippe Morimont, J Geoffrey Chase
This paper develops a means of more easily and less invasively estimating ventricular dead space volume (Vd), an important, but difficult to measure physiological parameter. Vd represents a subject and condition dependent portion of measured ventricular volume that is not actively participating in ventricular function. It is employed in models based on the time varying elastance concept, which see widespread use in haemodynamic studies, and may have direct diagnostic use. The proposed method involves linear extrapolation of a Frank-Starling curve (stroke volume vs end-diastolic volume) and its end-systolic equivalent (stroke volume vs end-systolic volume), developed across normal clinical procedures such as recruitment manoeuvres, to their point of intersection with the y-axis (where stroke volume is 0) to determine Vd...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448267/endogenous-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-expression-in-sacrococcygeal-pilonidal-sinus-disease-a-retrospective-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-excisional-skin-biopsy-samples
#4
Sevinc Sahin
Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a peptide that has been shown in dermal, corneal, and cardiac preclinical injury models to potentially affect tissue protection, regeneration, and repair. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease (SPSD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with a high incidence of recurrence, chronic fistulation, and a challenging postoperative surgical wound healing process. Retrospectively, an immunohistochemical analysis was conducted to evaluate endogenous Tβ4 expression in excisional skin biopsies from patients with SPSD...
April 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448053/automated-contraction-analysis-of-human-engineered-heart-tissue-for-cardiac-drug-safety-screening
#5
Ingra Mannhardt, Umber Saleem, Anika Benzin, Thomas Schulze, Birgit Klampe, Thomas Eschenhagen, Arne Hansen
Cardiac tissue engineering describes techniques to constitute three dimensional force-generating engineered tissues. For the implementation of these procedures in basic research and preclinical drug development, it is important to develop protocols for automated generation and analysis under standardized conditions. Here, we present a technique to generate engineered heart tissue (EHT) from cardiomyocytes of different species (rat, mouse, human). The technique relies on the assembly of a fibrin-gel containing dissociated cardiomyocytes between elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) posts in a 24-well format...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447885/recovery-from-coma-post-cardiac-arrest-is-dependent-on-the-orexin-pathway
#6
Young-Jin Kang, Guilian Tian, Afsheen Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Matine Azadian, Hamidreza Abbasi, Brittany Shamaoun, Oswald Steward, Yama Akbari
Cardiac arrest affects >550,000 people annually in the USA while 80-90% of survivors suffer from a comatose state. Arousal from coma is critical for recovery but mechanisms of arousal are undefined. Orexin-A, a hypothalamic excitatory neuropeptide, has been linked to arousal deficits in various brain injuries. We investigated the orexinergic system's role in recovery from cardiac arrest-related neurological impairments, including arousal deficits. Using an asphyxial cardiac arrest and resuscitation model in rats, we examine neurological recovery post-resuscitation in conjunction with changes in orexin-A levels in cerebrospinal fluid and orexin-expressing neurons...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447738/telmisartan-suppresses-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-inhibiting-cardiomyocyte-apoptosis-via-the-nfat-anp-bnp-signaling-pathway
#7
Xiurong Li, Yuhuai Lan, Yan Wang, Minghao Nie, Yanhong Lu, Eryang Zhao
Telmisartan, a type of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor inhibitor, is a common agent used to treat hypertension in the clinic. Hypertension increases cardiac afterload and promotes cardiac hypertrophy. However, the ventricular Ang II receptor may be activated in the absence of hypertension. Therefore, telmisartan may reduce cardiac hypertrophy by indirectly ameliorating hypertensive symptoms and directly inhibiting the cardiac Ang II receptor. Nuclear factor of activated T‑cells (NFAT) contributes to cardiac hypertrophy via nuclear translocation, which induces a cascade of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain/B‑type natriuretic peptide (BNP) expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446967/cardiac-fibroblasts-more-than-mechanical-support
#8
REVIEW
Stefanie A Doppler, Catarina Carvalho, Harald Lahm, Marcus-André Deutsch, Martina Dreßen, Nazan Puluca, Rüdiger Lange, Markus Krane
Fibroblasts are cells with a structural function, synthesizing components of the extracellular matrix. They are accordingly associated with various forms of connective tissue. During cardiac development fibroblasts originate from different sources. Most derive from the epicardium, some derive from the endocardium, and a small population derives from the neural crest. Cardiac fibroblasts have important functions during development, homeostasis, and disease. However, since fibroblasts are a very heterogeneous cell population no truly specific markers exist...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446965/role-of-circulating-factors-in-cardiac-aging
#9
REVIEW
Antonio Cannatà, Gabriella Marcon, Giovanni Cimmino, Luca Camparini, Giulio Ciucci, Gianfranco Sinagra, Francesco S Loffredo
Worldwide increase in life expectancy is a major contributor to the epidemic of chronic degenerative diseases. Aging, indeed, simultaneously affects multiple organ systems, and it has been hypothesized that systemic alterations in regulators of tissue physiology may regulate this process. Cardiac aging itself is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and, because of the intimate relationship with the brain, may contribute to increase the risk of neurodegenerative disorders. Blood-borne factors may play a major role in this complex and still elusive process...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446827/effects-of-various-pr%C3%A4-%C3%A1-%C3%A4-y%C3%A4-ma-on-cardiovascular-and-autonomic-variables
#10
REVIEW
L Nivethitha, A Mooventhan, N K Manjunath
Cardiovascular functions are controlled by neural factors, temperature, hormones, etc., Of these, neural factors primarily concern the autonomic nervous system, which plays a major role in maintaining and regulating cardiac functions, e.g., blood pressure and heart rate. Prāṇāyāma is one of the most important yogic practices. There are various review articles on Yoga and its effects but, though Prāṇāyāma is a part of yoga, there is lack of review articles. To the best of our knowledge there is no known review article on effect of various Prāṇāyāma on cardiovascular and autonomic variables...
October 2016: Ancient Science of Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446702/alteration-of-cerebrovascular-haemodynamic-patterns-due-to-atrial-fibrillation-an-in-silico-investigation
#11
S Scarsoglio, A Saglietto, M Anselmino, F Gaita, L Ridolfi
There has recently been growing evidence that atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, is independently associated with the risk of dementia. This represents a very recent frontier with high social impact for the number of individuals involved and for the expected increase in AF incidence in the next 40 years. Although a number of potential haemodynamic processes, such as microembolisms, altered cerebral blood flow, hypoperfusion and microbleeds, arise as connecting links between the two pathologies, the causal mechanisms are far from clear...
April 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446444/concurrent-isolation-of-three-distinct-cardiac-stem-cell-populations-from-a-single-human-heart-biopsy
#12
Megan M Monsanto, Kevin S White, Taeyong Kim, Bingyan J Wang, Kristina Fisher, Kelli Ilves, Farid G Khalafalla, Alexandria Casillas, Kathleen Broughton, Sadia Mohsin, Walter P Dembitsky, Mark A Sussman
Rationale: The relative actions and synergism between distinct myocardial-derived stem cell populations remains obscure. Ongoing debates regarding optimal cell population(s) for treatment of heart failure prompted implementation of a protocol for isolation of multiple stem cell populations from a single myocardial tissue sample to develop new insights for achieving myocardial regeneration. Objective: Establish a robust cardiac stem cell isolation and culture protocol to consistently generate three distinct stem cell populations from a single human heart biopsy...
April 26, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445944/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-overexpression-protects-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiomyopathy-by-multiple-mechanisms-in-rats
#13
Hui Ma, Jing Kong, Yu-Lin Wang, Jun-Long Li, Nai-Hao Hei, Xin-Ran Cao, Jing-Jing Yang, Wen-Jiang Yan, Wen-Jing Liang, Hong-Yan Dai, Bo Dong
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is considered a potential therapeutic target of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to explore the effects of ACE2 overexpression on doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. Rats were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. The rats of treatment group were injected intraperitoneally with 6 doses of doxorubicin (2.5 mg/kg) within a period of two weeks. Two weeks after the initial injection of doxorubicin, these rats were randomly divided into Mock, Ad-EGFP, Ad-ACE2, and Cilazapril groups...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445763/myosin-rod-hypophosphorylation-and-cb-kinetics-in-papillary-muscles-from-a-tnc-a8v-ki-mouse-model
#14
Masataka Kawai, Jamie R Johnston, Tarek Karam, Li Wang, Rakesh K Singh, Jose R Pinto
The cardiac troponin C (TnC)-A8V mutation is associated with hypertrophic and restrictive cardiomyopathy (HCM and RCM) in human and mice. The residue affected lies in the N-helix, a region known to affect Ca(2+)-binding affinity to the N-terminal domain. Here we report on the functional effects of this mutation in skinned papillary muscle fibers from homozygous knock-in TnC-A8V mice. Muscle fibers from left ventricle were activated at 25°C under the ionic conditions of working cardiomyocytes. The pCa-tension relationship showed a 3× increase in Ca(2+)-sensitivity and a decrease (0...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445457/the-mitochondrial-na-ca-2-exchanger-is-essential-for-ca-2-homeostasis-and-viability
#15
Timothy S Luongo, Jonathan P Lambert, Polina Gross, Mary Nwokedi, Alyssa A Lombardi, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, April C Carpenter, Devin Kolmetzky, Erhe Gao, Jop H van Berlo, Emily J Tsai, Jeffery D Molkentin, Xiongwen Chen, Muniswamy Madesh, Steven R Houser, John W Elrod
Mitochondrial calcium (mCa(2+)) has a central role in both metabolic regulation and cell death signalling, however its role in homeostatic function and disease is controversial. Slc8b1 encodes the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCLX), which is proposed to be the primary mechanism for mCa(2+) extrusion in excitable cells. Here we show that tamoxifen-induced deletion of Slc8b1 in adult mouse hearts causes sudden death, with less than 13% of affected mice surviving after 14 days. Lethality correlated with severe myocardial dysfunction and fulminant heart failure...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445146/autophagy-and-mitophagy-in-the-context-of-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#16
REVIEW
Navid Koleini, Elissavet Kardami
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a cytotoxic drug widely incorporated in various chemotherapy protocols. Severe side effects such as cardiotoxicity, however, limit Dox application. Mechanisms by which Dox promotes cardiac damage and cardiomyocyte cell death have been investigated extensively, but a definitive picture has yet to emerge. Autophagy, regarded generally as a protective mechanism that maintains cell viability by recycling unwanted and damaged cellular constituents, is nevertheless subject to dysregulation having detrimental effects for the cell...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445003/a-multiscale-approach-for-determining-the-morphology-of-endothelial-cells-at-a-coronary-artery
#17
Hossein Ali Pakravan, Mohammad Said Saidi, Bahar Firoozabadi
The morphology of endothelial cells (ECs) may be an indication for determining the atheroprone sites. Until now, there is not any clinical imaging technique to visualize the morphology of ECs at the arteries. The present study, introduces a computational technique for determining the morphology of ECs. This technique is a multiscale simulation, consisting the artery-scale and the cell-scale. The artery-scale is a FSI simulation. The input for the artery-scale is the geometry of the coronary artery (CA), dynamic curvature of the artery due to the cardiac motion, blood flow, blood pressure, heart rate, and the mechanical properties of the blood and the arterial wall, which these quantities can be obtained for a specific patient...
April 26, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444807/rkip-lessons-of-a-better-way-for-%C3%AE-adrenergic-receptor-activation-in-the-heart
#18
Kristina Lorenz, Marsha Rich Rosner, Theresa Brand, Joachim P Schmitt
Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (βAR) provides the most efficient physiological mechanism to enhance contraction and relaxation of the heart. Activation of βAR allows rapid enhancement of myocardial function in order to fuel the muscles for running and fighting in a fight-or-flight response. Likewise, βAR get activated during cardiovascular disease in an attempt to counteract the restrictions of cardiac output. However, long-term stimulation of βAR increases the likelihood of cardiac arrhythmias, adverse ventricular remodelling, decline of cardiac performance and premature death, thereby limiting the use of βAR agonists in the treatment of heart failure...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444773/mechanical-dispersion-and-global-longitudinal-strain-by-speckle-tracking-echocardiography-predictors-of-appropriate-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-therapy-in-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy
#19
Ozkan Candan, Cetin Gecmen, Emrah Bayam, Ahmet Guner, Mehmet Celik, Cem Doğan
PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated whether mechanical dispersion which reflects electrical abnormality and other echocardiographic and clinic parameters predict appropriate ICD shock in patients undergone ICD implantation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Sixty-three patients who received ICD implantation for primary or secondary prevention were included in the study. Patients' clinical, electrocardiographic, 2D classic, and speckle tracking echocardiographic data were collected...
April 26, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444180/left-bundle-branch-block-from-cardiac-mechanics-to-clinical-and-diagnostic-challenges
#20
Elena Surkova, Luigi P Badano, Roberto Bellu, Patrizia Aruta, Federica Sambugaro, Gabriella Romeo, Federico Migliore, Denisa Muraru
Left bundle branch block (LBBB) results in an altered pattern of left ventricular (LV) activation and subsequent contraction, causing remarkable changes in LV mechanics, perfusion and workload and ultimately leading to pathologic cardiac remodelling. Clinical and diagnostic notions about the LBBB phenomenon had evolved from just an electrocardiographic pattern to a critically important finding affecting diagnostic and clinical management of many patients and adversely influencing their outcomes. Recent advances in imaging techniques significantly improved the assessment of patients with LBBB and provided additional insights into pathophysiological mechanisms of LV remodelling...
April 20, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
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