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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334369/dual-gene-activation-and-knockout-screen-reveals-directional-dependencies-in-genetic-networks
#1
Michael Boettcher, Ruilin Tian, James A Blau, Evan Markegard, Ryan T Wagner, David Wu, Xiulei Mo, Anne Biton, Noah Zaitlen, Haian Fu, Frank McCormick, Martin Kampmann, Michael T McManus
Understanding the direction of information flow is essential for characterizing how genetic networks affect phenotypes. However, methods to find genetic interactions largely fail to reveal directional dependencies. We combine two orthogonal Cas9 proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus to carry out a dual screen in which one gene is activated while a second gene is deleted in the same cell. We analyze the quantitative effects of activation and knockout to calculate genetic interaction and directionality scores for each gene pair...
January 15, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334132/oxybutynin-3-gel-for-the-treatment-of-primary-focal-hyperhidrosis-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#2
Nicholas V Nguyen, Jane Gralla, James Abbott, Anna L Bruckner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There are no reliably effective, well-tolerated topical agents for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. We sought to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of oxybutynin 3% gel in adolescents and young adults with primary focal hyperhidrosis. METHODS: Patients with severe axillary hyperhidrosis were treated with topical oxybutynin 3% gel for 4 weeks. Response to treatment was assessed by calculating change in Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Score from baseline to weeks 1 and 4...
January 15, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332681/sleep-duration-sleep-quality-and-sexual-orientation-findings-from-the-2013-2015-national-health-interview-survey
#3
Adena M Galinsky, Brian W Ward, Sarah S Joestl, James M Dahlhamer
INTRODUCTION: This study identifies associations between sleep outcomes and sexual orientation net of sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, and produces estimates generalizable to the US adult population. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: We used 2013-2015 National Health Interview Survey data (46,909 men; 56,080 women) to examine sleep duration and quality among straight, gay/lesbian, and bisexual US adults. Sleep duration was measured as meeting National Sleep Foundation age-specific recommendations for hours of sleep per day...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331224/centrifugal-partition-chromatography-enables-selective-enrichment-of-trimeric-and-tetrameric-proanthocyanidins-for-biomaterial-development
#4
Rasika S Phansalkar, Joo-Won Nam, Shao-Nong Chen, James B McAlpine, Ariene A Leme, Berdan Aydin, Ana-Karina Bedran-Russo, Guido F Pauli
Proanthocyanidins (PACs) find wide applications for human use including food, cosmetics, dietary supplements, and pharmaceuticals. The chemical complexity associated with PACs has triggered the development of various chromatographic techniques, with countercurrent separation (CCS) gaining in popularity. This study applied the recently developed DESIGNER (Depletion and Enrichment of Select Ingredients Generating Normalized Extract Resources) approach for the selective enrichment of trimeric and tetrameric PACs using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC)...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330722/location-of-low-copy-genes-in-chromosomes-of-brachiaria-spp
#5
Thaís Furtado Nani, James C Schnable, Jacob D Washburn, Patrice Albert, Welison Andrade Pereira, Fausto Souza Sobrinho, James A Birchler, Vânia Helena Techio
Repetitive DNA sequences have been widely used in cytogenetic analyses. The use of gene sequences with a low-copy-number, however, is little explored especially in plants. To date, the karyotype details in Brachiaria spp. are limited to the location of rDNA sites. The challenge lies in developing new probes based on incomplete sequencing data for the genus or complete sequencing of related species, since there are no model species with a sequenced genome in Brachiaria spp. The present study aimed at the physical location of conserved genes in chromosomes of Brachiaria ruziziensis, Brachiaria brizantha, and Brachiaria decumbens using RNAseq data, as well as sequences of Setaria italica and Sorghum bicolor through the fluorescent in situ hybridization technique...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330633/a-seven-center-examination-of-the-relationship-between-monthly-volume-and-mortality-in-trauma-a-hypothesis-generating-study
#6
Stanislaw P Stawicki, Keith Habeeb, Niels D Martin, M Shay O'Mara, James Cipolla, David C Evans, Creagh Boulger, Babak Sarani, Charles H Cook, Alok Gupta, William S Hoff, Peter G Thomas, Jeffrey M Jordan, Weidun Alan Guo, Mark J Seamon
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between trauma volumes and patient outcomes continues to be controversial, with limited data available regarding the effect of month-to-month trauma volume variability on clinical results. This study examines the relationship between monthly trauma volume variations and patient mortality at seven Level I Trauma Centers located in the Eastern United States. We hypothesized that higher monthly trauma volumes may be associated with lower corresponding mortality...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330606/the-associations-of-poor-psychiatric-well-being-among-incarcerated-men-with-injecting-drug-use-histories-in-victoria-australia
#7
Reece Cossar, Mark Stoové, Stuart A Kinner, Paul Dietze, Campbell Aitken, Michael Curtis, Amy Kirwan, James R P Ogloff
BACKGROUND: Dual substance dependence and psychiatric and psychological morbidities are overrepresented in prison populations and associated with reoffending. In the context of an increasing prison population in Australia, investigating the needs of vulnerable people in prison with a dual diagnosis can help inform in-prison screening and treatment and improve prison and community service integration and continuation of care. In this study we quantified psychiatric well-being in a sample of people in prison with a history of injecting drug use in Victoria, Australia, and identified factors associated with this outcome...
January 13, 2018: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330524/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inducing-kinase-is-a-therapeutic-target-for-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
Hans D Brightbill, Eric Suto, Nicole Blaquiere, Nandhini Ramamoorthi, Swathi Sujatha-Bhaskar, Emily B Gogol, Georgette M Castanedo, Benjamin T Jackson, Youngsu C Kwon, Susan Haller, Justin Lesch, Karin Bents, Christine Everett, Pawan Bir Kohli, Sandra Linge, Laura Christian, Kathy Barrett, Allan Jaochico, Leonid M Berezhkovskiy, Peter W Fan, Zora Modrusan, Kelli Veliz, Michael J Townsend, Jason DeVoss, Adam R Johnson, Robert Godemann, Wyne P Lee, Cary D Austin, Brent S McKenzie, Jason A Hackney, James J Crawford, Steven T Staben, Moulay H Alaoui Ismaili, Lawren C Wu, Nico Ghilardi
NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) mediates non-canonical NF-κB signaling downstream of multiple TNF family members, including BAFF, TWEAK, CD40, and OX40, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we show that experimental lupus in NZB/W F1 mice can be treated with a highly selective and potent NIK small molecule inhibitor. Both in vitro as well as in vivo, NIK inhibition recapitulates the pharmacological effects of BAFF blockade, which is clinically efficacious in SLE...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329985/the-scavenger-activity-of-the-human-p2x7-receptor-differs-from-p2x7-pore-function-by-insensitivity-to-antagonists-genetic-variation-and-sodium-concentration-relevance-to-inflammatory-brain-diseases
#9
Amber Ou, Ben J Gu, James S Wiley
Activation of P2X7 receptors is widely recognised to initiate proinflammatory responses. However P2X7 also has a dual function as a scavenger receptor which is active in the absence of ATP and plasma proteins and may be important in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Here, we investigated both P2X7 pore formation and its phagocytic function in fresh human monocytes (as a model of microglia) by measuring ATP-induced ethidium dye uptake and fluorescent bead uptake respectively. This was studied in monocytes expressing various polymorphic variants as well as in the presence of different P2X7 antagonists and ionic media...
January 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329592/the-extensible-ontology-development-xod-principles-and-tool-implementation-to-support-ontology-interoperability
#10
REVIEW
Yongqun He, Zuoshuang Xiang, Jie Zheng, Yu Lin, James A Overton, Edison Ong
Ontologies are critical to data/metadata and knowledge standardization, sharing, and analysis. With hundreds of biological and biomedical ontologies developed, it has become critical to ensure ontology interoperability and the usage of interoperable ontologies for standardized data representation and integration. The suite of web-based Ontoanimal tools (e.g., Ontofox, Ontorat, and Ontobee) support different aspects of extensible ontology development. By summarizing the common features of Ontoanimal and other similar tools, we identified and proposed an "eXtensible Ontology Development" (XOD) strategy and its associated four principles...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329538/peripheral-blood-gene-expression-signatures-which-reflect-smoking-and-aspirin-exposure-are-associated-with-cardiovascular-events
#11
James A Wingrove, Karen Fitch, Brian Rhees, Steven Rosenberg, Deepak Voora
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease and its sequelae are major causes of global mortality, and better methods are needed to identify patients at risk for future cardiovascular events. Gene expression analysis can inform on the molecular underpinnings of risk factors for cardiovascular events. Smoking and aspirin have known opposing effects on platelet reactivity and MACE, however their effects on each other and on MACE are not well described. METHODS: We measured peripheral blood gene expression levels of ITGA2B, which is upregulated by aspirin and correlates with platelet reactivity on aspirin, and a 5 gene validated smoking gene expression score (sGES) where higher expression correlates with smoking status, in participants from the previously reported PREDICT trial (NCT 00500617)...
January 12, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329039/an-investigation-into-the-drivers-of-avolition-in-schizophrenia
#12
Gaurav Suri, Lindsey M Lavaysse, Gerald Young, Craig Moodie, Alen Tersakyan, James J Gross, David E Gard
Over a century of research has documented that avolition is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, the drivers of avolition remain unclear. Conceptually, there are at least two potential mutually compatible drivers that could cause avolition in schizophrenia. First, people with schizophrenia might have differences in preferences that result in less goal-directed behavior than non-clinical populations (preference-differences). Second, people with schizophrenia might have difficulty translating their preferences into manifest behavior at rates similar to non-clinical populations (psychological-inertia)...
January 6, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328968/in-vitro-examination-of-an-oleosome-based-sun-protection-product-on-the-influence-of-uvb-induced-inflammation-markers-in-human-epidermal-skin-equivalent-tissue-model
#13
James V Gruber, Robert Holtz, Soo In Yang
In vitro human epidermal skin equivalent tissues (MatTek EpiDerm™) were employed to examine the influence of UVB radiation on various established inflammation markers in the presence of topically applied sunscreens. MatTek EpiDerm™ tissues were treated with 2.0mg/cm2 of an Experimental oleosome-based SPF 30 product or a commercial SPF 30 beach product. Tissues were irradiated with 300mJ/cm2 of UVB radiation. Inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-8 as well as arachidonic acid cascade marker PGE2 were examined via ELISA-based antibody detection...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328654/country-level-life-cycle-assessment-of-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-liquefied-natural-gas-trade-for-electricity-generation
#14
Adebola S Kasumu, Vivian Li, James W Coleman, Jeanne Liendo, Sarah M Jordaan
In the determination of the net impact of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) on greenhouse gas emissions, Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of electricity generation have yet to combine the effects of transport distances between exporting and importing countries, country-level infrastructure in importing countries, and the fuel sources displaced in importing countries. To address this, we conduct a LCA of electricity generated from LNG export from British Columbia, Canada with a three-step approach: (1) a review of viable electricity generation markets for LNG, (2) the development of results for greenhouse gas emissions that account for transport to importing nations as well as the infrastructure required for power generation and delivery, and (3) emissions displacement scenarios to test assumptions about what electricity is being displaced in the importing nation...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328504/myotonic-dystrophy-patient-preferences-in-patient-reported-outcome-measures
#15
Chad Heatwole, Nicholas Johnson, Jeanne Dekdebrun, Nuran Dilek, Kate Eichinger, James Hilbert, Elizabeth Luebbe, William Martens, Michael P McDermott, Charles Thornton, Richard Moxley
INTRODUCTION: In preparation for clinical trials in myotonic dystrophy type-1 (DM1), it is important to develop and identify patient-reported outcome measures with good measurement properties. METHODS: Fifty-two DM1 patients enrolled in two clinical studies completed the Myotonic Dystrophy Health Index (MDHI), SF-36v2, Individualized Neuromuscular Quality of Life questionnaire (NQoL), and a questionnaire comparing the relevance, usability, overall preference, and perceived responsiveness of each measure...
January 12, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327306/strengthening-the-case-for-gender-neutral-and-the-nonavalent-hpv-vaccine
#16
REVIEW
Justin M Hintze, James P O'Neill
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to highlight the benefits of gender-neutral and the nonavalent human papillomavirus vaccination. Human papillomavirus infection is the most commonly sexually transmitted disease and is known to cause several types of cancers, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, oropharyngeal, anal, and rectal. 5% of cancers every year are attributable to human papillomavirus infection, with cervical cancer the most common and oropharyngeal cancer estimated to surpass the incidence of cervical cancer by 2020...
January 11, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326773/clinical-outcomes-of-patients-undergoing-rotational-atherectomy-followed-by-drug-eluting-stent-implantation-a-single-center-real-world-experience
#17
Lucky R Cuenza, Ada Cherryl Jayme, James Ho Khe Sui
Background: Rotational atherectomy (RA) is used to improve procedural success of percutaneous catheter interventions (PCIs) of complex and heavily calcified coronary lesions. We report the clinical experience and outcomes in our institution with the use of RA, followed by drug-eluting stent implantation. Materials and Methods: Data of 81 patients treated with PCI and adjunctive RA were analyzed. Clinical follow-up for the occurrence of major adverse events (MAEs) was obtained in all patients and correlated with significant variables using multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis...
October 2017: Heart Views: the Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326420/fasting-and-glucose-induced-thermogenesis-in-response-to-three-ambient-temperatures-a-randomized-crossover-trial-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#18
K Pathak, R J Woodman, A P James, M J Soares
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cold exposure increases thermogenesis and could improve insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized a blunted response in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty older adults 59 ± 10.4 years (with MetS, MetS+, n = 9; without MetS, MetS-, n = 11) completed a randomized crossover design of 3.5 h exposures to 20, 25 and 27 °C on three visits. After an hour's rest at the desired temperature, resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), forearm to fingertip gradients (FFG), and in the ear temperature (IET) were measured over 30 min...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326298/smoking-duration-alone-provides-stronger-risk-estimates-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-than-pack-years
#19
Surya P Bhatt, Young-Il Kim, Kathy F Harrington, John E Hokanson, Sharon M Lutz, Michael H Cho, Dawn L DeMeo, James M Wells, Barry J Make, Stephen I Rennard, George R Washko, Marilyn G Foreman, Donald P Tashkin, Robert A Wise, Mark T Dransfield, William C Bailey
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for COPD. Smoking burden is frequently measured in pack-years, but the relative contribution of cigarettes smoked per day versus duration towards the development of structural lung disease, airflow obstruction and functional outcomes is not known. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data from a large multicentre cohort (COPDGene) of current and former smokers. Primary outcome was airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC); secondary outcomes included five additional measures of disease: FEV1, CT emphysema, CT gas trapping, functional capacity (6 min walk distance, 6MWD) and respiratory morbidity (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ)...
January 11, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325912/impact-of-the-childhood-vaccine-discussion-format-over-time-on-immunization-status
#20
Douglas J Opel, Chuan Zhou, Jeffrey D Robinson, Nora Henrikson, Katherine Lepere, Rita Mangione-Smith, James A Taylor
OBJECTIVE: Presumptive formats to initiate childhood vaccine discussions (e.g. "Well we have to do some shots.") have been associated with increased vaccine acceptance after one visit compared to participatory formats (e.g. "How do you feel about vaccines?"). We characterize discussion format patterns over time and the impact of their repeated use on vaccine acceptance. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal prospective cohort study of children of vaccine-hesitant parents enrolled in a Seattle-based integrated health system...
January 8, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
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