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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823111/welfare-to-work-interventions-and-their-effects-on-the-mental-and-physical-health-of-lone-parents-and-their-children
#1
REVIEW
Marcia Gibson, Hilary Thomson, Kasia Banas, Vittoria Lutje, Martin J McKee, Susan P Martin, Candida Fenton, Clare Bambra, Lyndal Bond
BACKGROUND: Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822978/ecological-analysis-of-secular-trends-in-low-birth-weight-births-and-adult-height-in-japan
#2
Naho Morisaki, Kevin Yuji Urayama, Keisuke Yoshii, S V Subramanian, Susumu Yokoya
BACKGROUND: Japan, which currently maintains the highest life expectancy in the world and has experienced an impressive gain in adult height over the past century, has suffered a dramatic twofold increase in low birth weight (LBW) births since the 1970s. METHODS: We observed secular trends in birth characteristics using 64 115 249 live births included the vital statistics (1969-2014), as well as trends in average height among 3 145 521 adults born between 1969 and 1996, included in 79 surveys conducted among a national, subnational or community population in Japan...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822500/into-practice-how-advocate-health-system-uses-behavioral-economics-to-motivate-physicians-in-its-incentive-program
#3
Leah Marcotte, Amanda Hodlofski, Amelia Bond, Pankaj Patel, Lee Sacks, Amol S Navathe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822499/countervailing-incentives-in-value-based-payment
#4
REVIEW
Daniel R Arnold
Payment reform has been at the forefront of the movement toward higher-value care in the U.S. health care system. A common belief is that volume-based incentives embedded in fee-for-service need to be replaced with value-based payments. While this belief is well-intended, value-based payment also contains perverse incentives. In particular, behavioral economists have identified several features of individual decision making that reverse some of the typical recommendations for inducing desirable behavior through financial incentives...
September 2017: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821916/relative-social-standing-and-suicide-ideation-among-kenyan-males-the-interpersonal-theory-of-suicide-in-context
#5
M L Goodman, H Serag, P K Keiser, S Gitari, B G Raimer
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between subjective social status and suicide ideation in a sample of young Kenyan men (age 18-34 years). Situating insights from the interpersonal theory of suicide within social determinants of health framework, we consider whether lower subjective social status predicts lower collective self-esteem (CSE), hopelessness, less meaning in life and more loneliness, and whether these characteristics mediate associations between subjective social status and suicide ideation...
August 18, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821527/systematic-review-of-economic-analyses-in-patient-safety-a-protocol-designed-to-measure-development-in-the-scope-and-quality-of-evidence
#6
Alexander W Carter, Rishi Mandavia, Erik Mayer, Joachim Marti, Elias Mossialos, Ara Darzi
INTRODUCTION: Recent avoidable failures in patient care highlight the ongoing need for evidence to support improvements in patient safety. According to the most recent reviews, there is a dearth of economic evidence related to patient safety. These reviews characterise an evidence gap in terms of the scope and quality of evidence available to support resource allocation decisions. This protocol is designed to update and improve on the reviews previously conducted to determine the extent of methodological progress in economic analyses in patient safety...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821512/protocol-for-an-economic-evaluation-of-the-randomised-controlled-trial-of-culprit-lesion-only-pci-versus-immediate-multivessel-pci-in-acute-myocardial-infarction-complicated-by-cardiogenic-shock-culprit-shock-trial
#7
Zahidul Quayyum, Andrew Briggs, Jose Robles-Zurita, Keith Oldroyd, Uwe Zeymer, Steffen Desch, Suzanne de Waha, Holger Thiele
INTRODUCTION: Emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the culprit lesion for patients with acute myocardial infarctions is an accepted practice. A majority of patients present with multivessel disease with additional relevant stenoses apart from the culprit lesion. In haemodynamically stable patients, there is increasing evidence from randomised trials to support the practice of immediate complete revascularisation. However, in the presence of cardiogenic shock, the optimal management strategy for additional non-culprit lesions is unknown...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821511/development-and-validation-of-clinical-prediction-models-for-mortality-functional-outcome-and-cognitive-impairment-after-stroke-a-study-protocol
#8
Marion Fahey, Anthony Rudd, Yannick Béjot, Charles Wolfe, Abdel Douiri
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and death worldwide. The neurological impairments associated with stroke prevent patients from performing basic daily activities and have enormous impact on families and caregivers. Practical and accurate tools to assist in predicting outcome after stroke at patient level can provide significant aid for patient management. Furthermore, prediction models of this kind can be useful for clinical research, health economics, policymaking and clinical decision support...
August 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821371/at-the-intersection-of-place-race-and-health-in-brazil-residential-segregation-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#9
Sharrelle Barber, Ana V Diez Roux, Letícia Cardoso, Simone Santos, Veronica Toste, Sherman James, Sandhi Barreto, Maria Schmidt, Luana Giatti, Dora Chor
Residential segregation is the spatial manifestation of entrenched socioeconomic and racial inequities and is considered a fundamental cause of racial inequalities in health. Despite the well-documented racialized spatial inequalities that exist in urban areas throughout Brazil, few empirical investigations have examined the link between residential segregation and health and considered its implications for racial health inequalities in this setting. In the present study, we used data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (2008-2010) to examine the association between economic residential segregation and two major cardio-metabolic risk factors-hypertension and diabetes...
May 27, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821278/social-economic-costs-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-sma-in-spain
#10
Julio López-Bastida, Luz María Peña-Longobardo, Isaac Aranda-Reneo, Eduardo Tizzano, Mark Sefton, Juan Oliva-Moreno
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the economic burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and their caregivers in Spain. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional and retrospective study of patients diagnosed with SMA in Spain. We adopted a bottom up, prevalence approach design to study patients with SMA. The patient's caregivers completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, use of healthcare services and non-healthcare services...
August 18, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821264/impact-of-early-initiation-versus-national-standard-of-care-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-swaziland-s-public-sector-health-system-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-randomized-trial
#11
Fiona J Walsh, Till Bärnighausen, Wim Delva, Yvette Fleming, Gavin Khumalo, Charlotte L Lejeune, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Charmaine Khudzie Mlambo, Ria Reis, Donna Spiegelman, Mandisa Zwane, Velephi Okello
BACKGROUND: There is robust clinical evidence to support offering early access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to both improve patient health outcomes and reduce HIV incidence. However, as the global treatment guidelines shift to meet this evidence, it is still largely unknown if early access to ART for all (also referred to as "treatment as prevention" or "universal test and treat") is a feasible intervention in the resource-limited countries where this approach could have the biggest impact on the course of the HIV epidemics...
August 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821010/willingness-to-pay-for-safe-drinking-water-a-contingent-valuation-study-in-jacksonville-fl
#12
Chiradip Chatterjee, Russell Triplett, Christopher K Johnson, Parvez Ahmed
A surprising number of U.S. cities have drinking water with unhealthy levels of chemicals and contaminants. The city of Jacksonville (Florida), the location for this study, owns the dubious distinction of being ranked among the worst major American cities in water quality according to water quality tests conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Environmental Working Group (EWG). This report of toxic chemicals in the Jacksonville water supply generated considerable negative publicity and coincides with a frequent and common complaint among residents of foul-smelling water...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820743/sleep-apnea-a-review-of-diagnostic-sensors-algorithms-and-therapies
#13
Mehdi Shokoueinejad, Chris Fernandez, Emily Carroll, Fa Wang, Jake Levin, Sam Rusk, Nick Glattard, Ashley Mulchrone, Xuan Zhang, Ailiang Xie, Mihaela Teodorescu, Jerome Dempsey, John Webster
While public awareness of sleep related disorders is growing, sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) remains a public health and economic challenge. Over the last two decades, extensive controlled epidemiologic research has clarified the incidence, risk factors including the obesity epidemic, and global prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as well as establishing a growing body of literature linking OSA with cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, metabolic dysregulation, and neurocognitive impairment. The US Institute of Medicine Committee on Sleep Medicine estimates that 50-70 million US adults have sleep or wakefulness disorders...
August 18, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820622/latent-growth-curve-modeling-of-non-injection-drug-use-and-condomless-sexual-behavior-from-ages-18-to-21-in-gay-bisexual-and-other-ymsm-the-p18-cohort-study
#14
Perry N Halkitis, Kristen Bub, Christopher B Stults, Francesca C Bates, Farzana Kapadia
BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS continues to be a health disparity faced by sexual minority men, and is exacerbated by non-injection drug use. OBJECTIVES: We sought to delineate growth in non-injection drug use and condomless sex in a sample of racially and economically diverse of gay, bisexual, and other young men who have sex with men (YMSM) as they emerged into adulthood between the ages of 18 and 21 and who came of age in the post-HAART era. METHODS: Behavioral data on drug use and condomless sex, collected via a calendar based technique over 7 waves of a cohort study of 600 YMSM, were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling to document patterns of growth in these behaviors, their associations, and the extent to which patterns and associations are moderated by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status...
August 18, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820046/-nurture-the-sprouting-bud-do-not-uproot-it-using-saving-groups-to-save-for-maternal-and-newborn-health-lessons-from-rural-eastern-uganda
#15
Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho, Ligia Paina, Rornald Muhumuza Kananura, Aloysius Mutebi, Pacuto Jane, Juliet Tumuhairwe, Moses Tetui, Suzanne N Kiwanuka
BACKGROUND: Saving groups are increasingly being used to save in many developing countries. However, there is limited literature about how they can be exploited to improve maternal and newborn health. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes saving practices, factors that encourage and constrain saving with saving groups, and lessons learnt while supporting communities to save through saving groups. METHODS: This qualitative study was done in three districts in Eastern Uganda...
August 2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819772/convergence-and-determinants-of-health-expenditures-in-oecd-countries
#16
Son Hong Nghiem, Luke Brian Connelly
This study examines the trend and determinants of health expenditures in OECD countries over the 1975-2004 period. Based on recent developments in the economic growth literature we propose and test the hypothesis that health care expenditures in countries of similar economic development level may converge. We hypothesise that the main drivers for growth in health care costs include: aging population, technological progress and health insurance. The results reveal no evidence that health expenditures among OECD countries converge...
August 17, 2017: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819769/disparities-in-breast-cancer-private-patients-have-better-outcomes-than-public-patients
#17
W C Coetzee, J P Apffelstaedt, T Zeeman, M Du Plessis
INTRODUCTION: Different outcomes in breast cancer have been reported for low and high socio-economic groups. We present data quantifying disparities between South African public and private patients. METHODS: Records of 240 consecutive patients treated in 2008 in a public versus 97 patients in a private health facility were reviewed for demographic and oncologic data. RESULTS: The average of patients was 56.2 versus 51.9 years (p = 0.032)...
August 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819258/groundwater-nitrate-response-to-sustainable-nitrogen-management
#18
Birgitte Hansen, Lærke Thorling, Jörg Schullehner, Mette Termansen, Tommy Dalgaard
Throughout the world, nitrogen (N) losses from intensive agricultural production may end up as undesirably high concentrations of nitrate in groundwater with a long-term impact on groundwater quality. This has human and environmental health consequences, due to the use of groundwater as a drinking water resource, and causes eutrophication of groundwater-dependent ecosystems such as wetlands, rivers and near-coastal areas. At national scale, the measured nitrate concentrations and trends in Danish oxic groundwater in the last 70 years correlate well with the annual agricultural N surpluses...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819067/health-economics-of-targeted-intraoperative-radiotherapy-targit-iort-for-early-breast-cancer-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-in-the-united-kingdom
#19
Anil Vaidya, Param Vaidya, Brigitte Both, Chris Brew-Graves, Max Bulsara, Jayant S Vaidya
OBJECTIVE: The clinical effectiveness of targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT-IORT) has been confirmed in the randomised TARGIT-A (targeted intraoperative radiotherapy-alone) trial to be similar to a several weeks' course of whole-breast external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with early breast cancer. This study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of TARGIT-IORT to inform policy decisions about its wider implementation. SETTING: TARGIT-A randomised clinical trial (ISRCTN34086741) which compared TARGIT with traditional EBRT and found similar breast cancer control, particularly when TARGIT was given simultaneously with lumpectomy...
August 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818752/risk-factors-for-on-farm-mortality-in-beef-suckler-cows-under-extensive-keeping-management
#20
Kerli Mõtus, Ulf Emanuelson
The on-farm mortality of cows in cow-calf herds has a significant influence on the economic efficiency of the farm. It is also an indicator of suboptimal animal health and welfare. The present study analysed the registry data of beef cows in Estonia from the years 2013 to 2015. The datasets incorporated 8084 parturitions of primiparous cows and 21,283 parturitions of 9234 multiparous cows. A Weibull proportional hazard random effect model was used for risk factor analysis, in which the on-farm mortality, including death and euthanasia, was the event of interest...
August 10, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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