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Ryan A Scheel, Liyuan Ji, Benjamin R Lundgren, Christopher T Nomura
Recombinant Escherichia coli is a desirable platform for the production of many biological compounds including poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates), a class of naturally occurring biodegradable polyesters with promising biomedical and material applications. Although the controlled production of desirable polymers is possible with the utilization of fatty acid feedstocks, a central challenge to this biosynthetic route is the improvement of the relatively low polymer yield, a necessary factor of decreasing the production costs...
December 2016: AMB Express
Kathryn Mills, Donovan Baker, Verity Pacey, Martin Wollin, Michael K Drew
OBJECTIVES: To identify the most accurate method of predicting peak height velocity in adolescents. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of six electronic databases and reference lists was conducted. Studies that met selection criteria of (1) observational longitudinal cohort study (2) reproducible method/s of predicting peak height velocity (3) minimum six-month follow-up (4) healthy male and/or female adolescent subjects, with the exception of participants with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, were considered for review...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Jason Moran, Gavin R H Sandercock, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Oliver Todd, Collison, Dave A Parry
PURPOSE: The purpose of this intervention study was to investigate if a low-dose of plyometric training (PT) could improve sprint and jump performance in groups of different maturity status. METHODS: Male youth field hockey players were divided into Pre-PHV (from -1 to -1.9 from PHV; Experimental: n = 9; Control = 12) and Mid-PHV (0 to +0.9 from PHV; Experimental: n = 8; Control = 9) groups. Participants in the experimental groups completed 60 foot contacts, twice-weekly, for 6 weeks...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
J Moran, G Sandercock, M C Rumpf, D A Parry
The trainability of youths and the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation to training have become key subjects of debate in exercise science. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to characterise youth athletes' adaptability to sprint training across PRE-, MID-, and POST-peak height velocity (PHV) groups. Effect sizes were calculated as a measure of straight-line sprinting performance with studies qualifying based on the following criteria: (a) healthy male athletes who were engaged in organised sports; (b) groups of participants with a mean age between 10 and 18 years; (c) sprint training intervention duration between 4 and 16 weeks...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Qing Tian, Qi Wang, Yanbing Zhu, Fang Li, Lin Zhuang, Bo Yang
Ultrasound pretreatment is a potent step to disintegrate primary sludge (PS). The supernatant of sonicated PS is recycled as an alternative carbon source for biological phosphorus removal. In this study, we investigated the role of temperature on PS disintegration during sonication. We found that a temperature of 60°C yielded a dissolution rate of about 2% soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) as compared to 7% SCOD using sonication at the specific energy (SE) of 7359kJ/kg TS. Using the SE of 6000kJ/kg TS with heat insulation during sonication, the SCOD dissolution rate of PS was similar to the result at the SE of 7051kJ/kg TS without heat insulation...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Frederike Reichmann, Annette Pfitzner, Guenter Rademacher, Elke Schwedinger, Klaus Cussler, Carola M Sauter-Louis
BACKGROUND: Several research groups from different European countries have worked on the aetiopathogenesis of bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) and an association between the use of the vaccine PregSure BVD (Pfizer, Germany) and the development of this haemorrhagic disease was confirmed. Because BNP is not a notifiable disease, it is difficult to obtain information on its incidence. Based on pharmacovigilance (PhV) data, which are the only officially available data at the national level, the incidence of BNP is considered low...
October 7, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
F Pröfener, J Anders, U Dapp, C E Minder, S Golgert, W von Renteln-Kruse
BACKGROUND: The objective of preventive home visits (PHV) is to support independent living of elderly people. The target group is a matter of discussion and acceptance so far seems to have been low. The target group favored in studies were persons with functional impairments living independently; therefore, acceptance of this offer by frail persons and characteristics of participants and non-participants were studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All participants classified as frail in the longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS; BMBF Fkz 01ET0708-13/01, ET1002A-D/01EL1407) were randomized (RCT) in 2007/2008 into an intervention group (174 persons) and a control group (379 persons)...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Benlong Shi, Saihu Mao, Zhen Liu, Xu Sun, Zezhang Zhu, Feng Zhu, Jack C Y Cheng, Yong Qiu
BACKGROUND: Height velocity (HV) is traditionally used to monitor the residual growth potential in idiopathic scoliosis (IS). The temporal timing of rapid increase in standing height often does not match exactly that of the increase in spine height. The purposes of this study were to analyze the correlation between change of angle velocity (AV) vs the changes of spinal growth velocity (SGV) and HV, and the associated predictive value on curve progression in IS. METHODS: Pre-pubertal IS girls with single curve receiving standardized bracing treatment followed longitudinally with documented curve progression >5° were retrospectively reviewed...
2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Mitchel R Stacy, Christopher M Caracciolo, Maolin Qiu, Prasanta Pal, Tyler Varga, Robert Todd Constable, Albert J Sinusas
Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging permits noninvasive assessment of tissue oxygenation. We hypothesized that BOLD imaging would allow for regional evaluation of differences in skeletal muscle oxygenation between athletes and sedentary control subjects, and dynamic BOLD responses to ischemia (i.e., proximal cuff occlusion) and reactive hyperemia (i.e., rapid cuff deflation) would relate to lower extremity function, as assessed by jumping ability. College football athletes (linemen, defensive backs/wide receivers) were compared to sedentary healthy controls...
August 2016: Physiological Reports
Dominika Suchá, Petr Symersky, Renee B A van den Brink, Wilco Tanis, Eduard M Laufer, Matthijs F L Meijs, Jesse Habets, Bas A J M de Mol, Willem P Th M Mali, Steven A J Chamuleau, Lex A van Herwerden, Ricardo P J Budde
BACKGROUND: In patients with suspected prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction, routine evaluation echocardiography and fluoroscopy may provide unsatisfactory results for identifying the cause of dysfunction. This study assessed the value of MDCT as a routine, complementary imaging modality in suspected PHV-dysfunction for diagnosing the cause of PHV dysfunction and proposing a treatment strategy. METHODS: Patients with suspected PHV dysfunction were prospectively recruited...
September 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
Robert W Meyers, Jon L Oliver, Michael G Hughes, Rhodri S Lloyd, John B Cronin
PURPOSE: This study examined how the characteristics of maximal overground sprint performance are affected by the period of peak height velocity (PHV) in boys. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-nine school-aged boys completed two assessments of maximal sprint performance, separated by a 21-month period. Kinematic characteristics of sprint performance were collected during a 30 m sprint using a floor-level optical measurement system, with modelled force and stiffness characteristics also calculated...
July 18, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
John M Radnor, Rhodri S Lloyd, Jon L Oliver
The aim of this study was to examine individual responses to different forms of resistance training on measures of jumping and sprinting performance in school-aged boys. Eighty boys were categorized into two maturity groups (pre- or post-PHV) and randomly assigned to a plyometric training, resistance training, combined training, or control group. Intervention groups participated in training twice weekly for six weeks, with measures of acceleration, maximal running velocity, squat jump height and reactive strength index collected pre and post intervention...
June 29, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Aida de Arriba-Arnau, Antonia Dalmau, Neus Salvat-Pujol, Virginia Soria, Javier Bocos, José Manuel Menchón, Mikel Urretavizcaya
INTRODUCTION: Hyperventilation in electroconvulsive therapy sessions has been associated with seizure threshold, seizure characteristics, and cognitive effects. There is no consensus on the optimal procedure of applying hyperventilation manoeuvres during electroconvulsive therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective evaluation of the effects of systematic use of hyperventilation manoeuvres with facial mask and capnography (protocolized hyperventilation [pHV]), on ventilation parameters and on seizures...
June 13, 2016: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
Atieh Yousefi, David L Bark, Lakshmi P Dasi
Polymeric heart valves (PHV) can be engineered to serve as alternatives for existing prosthetic valves due to higher durability and hemodynamics similar to bioprosthetic valves. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of geometry on PHVs coaptation and hemodynamic performance. The two geometric factors considered are stent profile and leaflet arch length, which were varied across six valve configurations. Three models were created with height to diameter ratio of 0.6, 0.7, and 0.88. The other three models were designed by altering arch height to stent diameter ratio, to be 0, 0...
June 15, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Natalia Nowak-Szczepanska, Slawomir Koziel
There are numerous studies concerning sexual dimorphism in body proportions, but only a few have investigated growth in the relative length of particular segments of the upper and lower limbs during adolescence. The aim of the study is an assessment of sex differences of longitudinal growth in the relative length of the forearm and knee height among adolescents. Sample involved 121 boys and 111 girls, participants of the Wroclaw Growth Study, examined annually between 8 and 18 years of age. Sexual dimorphism in six ratios: forearm length and knee height relatively to: trunk, height, and limb length were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measurements...
October 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Francesco De Gaetano, Paola Bagnoli, Adriano Zaffora, Anna Pandolfi, Marta Serrani, Jacob Brubert, Joanna Stasiak, Geoff D Moggridge, Maria Laura Costantino
The potential of polymeric heart valves (PHV) prostheses is to combine the hemodynamic performances of biological valves with the durability of mechanical valves. The aim of this work is to design and develop a new tri-leaflet prosthetic heart valve (HV) made from styrenic block copolymers. A computational finite element model was implemented to optimize the thickness of the leaflets, to improve PHV mechanical and hydrodynamic performances. Based on the model outcomes, 8 prototypes of the designed valve were produced and tested in vitro under continuous and pulsatile flow conditions, as prescribed by ISO 5840 Standard...
April 2015: Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology
André O Werneck, Danilo R Silva, Paul J Collings, Rômulo A Fernandes, Enio R V Ronque, Décio S Barbosa, Edilson S Cyrino
BACKGROUND: Earlier biological maturation has been related to increased metabolic risk. In this study, we verified mediating effects by central adiposity of the relationship between somatic maturity and metabolic risk factors in adolescents. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 1034 adolescents aged 10-16 years from Londrina/PR/Brazil were evaluated. The age of peak height velocity (PHV) method was used to evaluate somatic maturity. Central adiposity was estimated through waist circumference measurements...
October 2016: Childhood Obesity
Zhumin Zhang, Mary J Lindstrom, Philip M Farrell, HuiChuan J Lai
BACKGROUND: To examine long-term growth benefit of newborn screening (NBS), adolescent peak height velocity (PHV), and adult height were compared between the screened (diagnosed early via NBS) and the control (identified generally by symptoms) in the Wisconsin Randomized Clinical Trial. METHODS: Data from 107 children born in 1985-1994 and followed through 2012 were analyzed. PHV was estimated by a semiparametric growth curve model and compared with Tanner reference...
May 2016: Pediatrics
Lei Miao, Shuying Wang, Baikun Li, Tianhao Cao, Fangzhai Zhang, Zhong Wang, Yongzhen Peng
Glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) capable of storing organic compounds as polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) have been used for endogenous denitritation (ED), but the effect of carbon sources type on nitrogen removal performance of GAOs treating landfill leachate is unclear. In this study, a successful ED system treating landfill leachate (COD/NH4(+)-N (C/N): 4) without external carbon source addition was applied. The mature leachate with C/N of 1 was used as the feeding base solution, with acetate, propionate, and glucose examined as the carbon sources, and their effects on yields and compositions of PHA produced by GAOs were determined and associated with nitrogen removal performance...
September 1, 2016: Water Research
Patrizio Lancellotti, Philippe Pibarot, John Chambers, Thor Edvardsen, Victoria Delgado, Raluca Dulgheru, Mauro Pepi, Bernard Cosyns, Mark R Dweck, Madalina Garbi, Julien Magne, Koen Nieman, Raphael Rosenhek, Anne Bernard, Jorge Lowenstein, Marcelo Luiz Campos Vieira, Arnaldo Rabischoffsky, Rodrigo Hernández Vyhmeister, Xiao Zhou, Yun Zhang, Jose-Luis Zamorano, Gilbert Habib
Prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction is rare but potentially life-threatening. Although often challenging, establishing the exact cause of PHV dysfunction is essential to determine the appropriate treatment strategy. In clinical practice, a comprehensive approach that integrates several parameters of valve morphology and function assessed with 2D/3D transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography is a key to appropriately detect and quantitate PHV dysfunction. Cinefluoroscopy, multidetector computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and to a lesser extent, nuclear imaging are complementary tools for the diagnosis and management of PHV complications...
June 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
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