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Violence and aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907235/the-2d-4d-ratio-as-a-predictor-of-the-risk-of-recidivism-after-court-mandated-intervention-program-for-intimate-partner-violence-perpetrators
#1
Angel Romero-Martínez, Marisol Lila, Luis Moya-Albiol
Differences in aggressive behavior could be partially explained by differential prenatal exposure to testosterone (T). A peripheral marker of prenatal T exposure is the 2D:4D ratio, which has shown a negative correlation with self-reported aggression in violent men. This study tested the direct association of the 2D:4D ratio with anger expression and the risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators after psychotherapeutic intervention program. The sample consisted of IPV perpetrators, whose 2D:4D ratio was measured before the intervention...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905189/occupational-violence-and-aggression-experienced-by-nursing-and-caring-professionals
#2
Tracey Shea, Cathy Sheehan, Ross Donohue, Brian Cooper, Helen De Cieri
PURPOSE: To examine the extent and source of occupational violence and aggression (OVA) experienced by nursing and caring professionals. This study also examines the relative contributions of demographic characteristics and workplace and individual safety factors in predicting OVA. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design with data collected using an online survey of employees in the nursing and caring professions in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Survey data collected from 4,891 members of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (Victorian branch) were analyzed using logistic regression...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901619/aggression-in-psychiatric-wards-effect-of-the-use-of-a-structured-risk-assessment
#3
Jacob Hvidhjelm, Dorte Sestoft, Lene Theil Skovgaard, Kirsten Rasmussen, Roger Almvik, Jakob Bue Bjorner
Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated whether the routine use of the BVC could reduce the frequency of patient aggression. We conducted a study with a semi-random regression discontinuity design in 15 psychiatric wards. Baseline aggression risk was assessed using the Aggression Observation Short Form (AOS) over three months...
November 30, 2016: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896644/the-effects-of-musical-training-on-child-development-a-randomized-trial-of-el-sistema-in-venezuela
#4
Xiomara Alemán, Suzanne Duryea, Nancy G Guerra, Patrick J McEwan, Rodrigo Muñoz, Marco Stampini, Ariel A Williamson
: Many studies have explored the links between music and children's outcomes; however, study designs have not been sufficiently rigorous to support causal findings. This study aims to assess the effects of a large-scale music program on children's developmental functioning in the context of high rates of exposure to violence. The paper describes the results of an experimental evaluation of Venezuela's National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras. The curriculum of the program, better known as "El Sistema," emphasizes social interactions through group instruction and group performances...
November 28, 2016: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879426/the-successful-concurrent-use-of-two-long-acting-depot-antipsychotics-in-a-patient-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-and-history-of-serious-violence-a-case-report
#5
Anna Lenardon, Mona Ahmed, Katie-Lynn Harfield, Mrigendra Das
OBJECTIVE: This case report describes a forensic psychiatric patient presenting with treatment-resistant schizophrenia and serious interpersonal violence complicated by poor adherence to oral medication who was treated successfully with two concurrent long-acting depot antipsychotics. METHOD: Treatment response was measured for a 6-month period at 6-weekly intervals, post-initiation using the Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia with Excited Component score (PANSS-EC), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI)...
November 22, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869973/-characteristics-of-the-notification-of-violence-against-children-in-the-municipality-of-ribeir%C3%A3-o-preto-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#6
Marilurdes Silva Farias, Cesário da Silva Souza, Estela Cristina Carneseca, Afonso Dinis Costa Passos, Elisabeth Meloni Vieira
OBJECTIVE: to describe the cases of violence against children reported in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. METHODS: this was a descriptive study using data provided by the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System (VIVA), of the Municipal Health Department of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, from 2006 to 2008. RESULTS: a total of 498 cases of violence against children (0-9 years old) were reported in the period, with an increase in the number of notifications, from 112 in 2006 to 197 in 2008; 79...
October 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869047/children-s-exposure-to-violent-political-conflict-stimulates-aggression-at-peers-by-increasing-emotional-distress-aggressive-script-rehearsal-and-normative-beliefs-favoring-aggression
#7
L Rowell Huesmann, Eric F Dubow, Paul Boxer, Simha F Landau, Shira Dvir Gvirsman, Khalil Shikaki
We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals...
November 21, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859815/addressing-engagement-anger-and-aggression-through-the-rock-water-program-rural-adolescent-males-perceptions
#8
Paul Edwards, Thea van de Mortel, John Stevens
OBJECTIVE: The Rock and Water Program (RWP) has been implemented in some Australian schools as a means of addressing school disengagement, anger and aggression, which are significant determinants of mental illness. However, much of the evidence supporting the RWP is anecdotal. This project explored rural adolescent males' perceptions of the RWP. DESIGN: Questionnaires were used to gather data about the students prior to their commencement in the RWP. Focus group interviews were conducted with students at weeks 5 and 9 of the 9-week program...
November 17, 2016: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859182/trait-anger-physical-aggression-and-violent-offending-in-antisocial-and-borderline-personality-disorders
#9
Nathan J Kolla, Jeffrey H Meyer, R Michael Bagby, Amanda Brijmohan
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are common conditions in forensic settings that present high rates of violence. Personality traits related to the five-factor model personality domains of neuroticism and agreeableness have shown a relationship with physical aggression in nonclinical and general psychiatric samples. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the association of these personality traits with violence and aggression in ASPD and BPD. Results revealed that trait anger/hostility predicted self-reported physical aggression in 47 ASPD and BPD subjects (β = 0...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849291/revista-de-sa%C3%A3%C2%BAde-p%C3%A3%C2%BAblica-in-scientific-publications-on-violence-and-health-1967-2015
#10
Lilia Blima Schraiber, Claudia Barros, Ana Flávia Pires Lucas d'Oliveira, Maria Fernanda Tourinho Peres
This article retrieved the publications from the Revista de Saúde Pública journal (from 1967 to 2015) on violence and health, on the SciELO and PubMed bases, by searching for the terms "violence", "suicide", "aggression", "bullying", and "external causes", registered in any part of the text. We found 130 articles (the first one published in 1974). We observed: increase of publications over time, with decrease in the last five years; similar production volume in lethal and non-lethal violence; later publication of the latter; few studies in qualitative research; mostly descriptive production; and visualization of the problem more by the acts than by contexts or motivations and aggressors...
November 10, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836150/psychopharmacology-of-persistent-violence-and-aggression
#11
REVIEW
Jonathan M Meyer, Michael A Cummings, George Proctor, Stephen M Stahl
Persistent violence not due to acute psychosis or mania can be managed only after appropriate characterization of the aggressive episodes (psychotic, impulsive, or predatory/planned/instrumental). The type of violence combined with the psychiatric diagnosis dictates the evidence-based pharmacologic approaches for psychotically motivated and impulsive aggression, whereas instrumental violence mandates forensic/behavioral strategies. For nonacute inpatients, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, traumatic brain injury, and dementia comprise the majority of individuals who are persistently aggressive, with impulsive actions the most common form of violence across all diagnoses...
December 2016: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831734/relations-between-traumatic-stress-dimensions-of-impulsivity-and-reactive-and-appetitive-aggression-in-individuals-with-refugee-status
#12
Mareike Augsburger, Katalin Dohrmann, Maggie Schauer, Thomas Elbert
Objective: Traumatic stressors and other forms of adversities, especially when experienced during childhood, shape aggressive behavior. Effects of differential dimensions of impulsivity on the relationship between psychological trauma, reactive aggression (defensive survival response to threat), and appetitive aggression (the pleasure of attacking and fighting) have not yet been assessed. Method: Using structural equation modeling, we sought to uncover precursors of reactive and appetitive aggression investigating a sample of 94 adult individuals with refugee status...
November 10, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815987/self-reported-exposure-to-severe-events-on-the-labour-ward-among-swedish-midwives-and-obstetricians-a-cross-sectional-retrospective-study
#13
Åsa Wahlberg, Magna Andreen Sachs, Kerstin Bergh Johannesson, Gunilla Hallberg, Maria Jonsson, Agneta Skoog Svanberg, Ulf Högberg
BACKGROUND: The process of delivery entails potentially traumatic events in which the mother or child becomes injured or dies. Midwives and obstetricians are sometimes responsible for these events and can be negatively affected by them as well as by the resulting investigation or complaints procedure (clinical negligence). OBJECTIVE: To assess the self-reported exposure rate of severe events among midwives and obstetricians on the delivery ward and the cumulative risk by professional years and subsequent investigations and complaints...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811590/triggers-contributing-to-health-care-clinicians-disruptive-behaviors
#14
Sung-Heui Bae, Deborah Dang, Karen A Karlowicz, Miyong T Kim
OBJECTIVES: This study's objective was to explore the possible triggers of clinicians' disruptive behavior and to consider whether the type of trigger resulting in disruptive behavior differed by type of clinician, clinician characteristics, professional role, and ethnic background. METHODS: Using data collected from 1559 clinicians working at an urban academic medical center in the United States, we examined intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational triggers...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807207/defining-and-predicting-pimps-coerciveness-toward-sex-workers-socialization-processes
#15
Loretta J Stalans, Mary A Finn
Prior research has found that pimps use both non-coercive and coercive management styles across and within market segments of the illicit sex trade. The current study is the first to examine the socialization processes underlying variation in the self-reported coerciveness of pimps. This study begins to fill a void in the almost non-existent research on pimps who are actively managing Internet-solicited sex workers, and adds to the sparse research on pimps' coerciveness. We extend Anderson's concepts of "street code" families, where respect is acquired through displaying physical violence and toughness, and "decent" families, where middle class values of avoiding unnecessary aggression and complying with the law prevail, to understand variation in the degree of coerciveness that pimps utilize toward sex workers...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807203/characteristics-of-brazilian-offenders-and-victims-of-interpersonal-violence-an-exploratory-study
#16
Sérgio d'Avila, Ana Cristina Campos, Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Gigliana Maria Sobral Cavalcante, Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, Efigênia Ferreira E Ferreira
The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of Brazilian offenders and victims of interpersonal violence, following a medicolegal and forensic perspective. A cross-sectional and exploratory study was performed in a Center of Forensic Medicine and Dentistry. The sample was made up of 1,704 victims of nonlethal interpersonal violence with some type of trauma. The victims were subject to forensic examinations by a criminal investigative team that identified and recorded the extent of the injuries. For data collection, a specific form was designed consisting of four parts according to the information provided in the medicolegal and social records: sociodemographic data of the victims, offender's characteristics, aggression characteristics, and types of injuries...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798944/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-may-be-efficacious-for-explosive-aggressive-behaviour
#17
Flavio Giordano, Michele Cavallo, Barbara Spacca, Stefano Pallanti, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Fulvio Pieraccini, Andrea Fagiolini, Manuela Grandoni, Federico Melani, Anna Zicca, Stelvio Sestini, Lorenzo Genitori
BACKGROUND: Intermittent explosive disease (IED) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by intermittent attacks of rage and violence frequently resistant to pharmacological therapy. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posteromedial hypothalamus has been applied with fair results and clinical improvement with some surgical morbidity due to neurovegetative side effects. The anterior limb of the internal capsule/ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) has never been used alone as a target for this disease...
November 1, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790997/resource-scarcity-drives-lethal-aggression-among-prehistoric-hunter-gatherers-in-central-california
#18
Mark W Allen, Robert Lawrence Bettinger, Brian F Codding, Terry L Jones, Al W Schwitalla
The origin of human violence and warfare is controversial, and some scholars contend that intergroup conflict was rare until the emergence of sedentary foraging and complex sociopolitical organization, whereas others assert that violence was common and of considerable antiquity among small-scale societies. Here we consider two alternative explanations for the evolution of human violence: (i) individuals resort to violence when benefits outweigh potential costs, which is likely in resource poor environments, or (ii) participation in violence increases when there is coercion from leaders in complex societies leading to group level benefits...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790995/moderating-attitudes-in-times-of-violence-through-paradoxical-thinking-intervention
#19
Boaz Hameiri, Roni Porat, Daniel Bar-Tal, Eran Halperin
In the current paper, we report a large-scale randomized field experiment, conducted among Jewish Israelis during widespread violence. The study examines the effectiveness of a "real world," multichanneled paradoxical thinking intervention, with messages disseminated through various means of communication (i.e., online, billboards, flyers). Over the course of 6 wk, we targeted a small city in the center of Israel whose population is largely rightwing and religious. Based on the paradoxical thinking principles, the intervention involved transmission of messages that are extreme but congruent with the shared Israeli ethos of conflict...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790150/excited-delirium-and-sudden-death-a-syndromal-disorder-at-the-extreme-end-of-the-neuropsychiatric-continuum
#20
REVIEW
Deborah C Mash
Over the past decade, the excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) has raised continued controversy regarding the cause and manner of death of some highly agitated persons held in police custody, restrained or incapacitated by electrical devices. At autopsy, medical examiners have difficulty in identifying an anatomic cause of death, but frequently cite psychostimulant intoxication as a contributing factor. The characteristic symptoms of ExDS include bizarre and aggressive behavior, shouting, paranoia, panic, violence toward others, unexpected physical strength, and hyperthermia...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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