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Violence and aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103871/a-descriptive-survey-study-of-violence-management-and-priorities-among-psychiatric-staff-in-mental-health-services-across-seventeen-european-countries
#1
Seamus Cowman, Anna Björkdahl, Eric Clarke, Georgina Gethin, Jim Maguire
BACKGROUND: In mental health services what is commonplace across international frontiers is that to prevent aggressive patients from harming themselves, other patients or staff, coercive measures and foremost, violence management strategies are required. There is no agreement, recommendations or direction from the EU on which measures of coercion should be practiced across EU countries, and there is no overall one best practice approach. METHODS: The project was conceived through an expert group, the European Violence in Psychiatry Research Group (EViPRG)...
January 19, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095806/predictors-of-mental-health-review-tribunal-mhrt-outcome-in-a-forensic-inpatient-population-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Amelia Jewell, Kimberlie Dean, Tom Fahy, Alexis E Cullen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have investigated factors associated with outcome at Mental Health Review Tribunals (MHRTs) in forensic psychiatric patients; however, dynamic variables such as treatment compliance and substance misuse have scarcely been examined, particularly in UK samples. We aimed to determine whether dynamic factors related to behaviour, cooperation with treatment, and activities on the ward were prospectively associated with outcome at MHRT. METHODS: At baseline, demographic, clinical, behavioural, and treatment-related factors were ascertained via electronic medical records and census forms completed by the patient's clinical team...
January 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077156/interventions-following-a-high-violence-risk-assessment-score-a-naturalistic-study-on-a-finnish-psychiatric-admission-ward
#3
Jenni Kaunomäki, Markus Jokela, Raija Kontio, Tero Laiho, Eila Sailas, Nina Lindberg
BACKGROUND: Patient aggression and violence against staff members and other patients are common concerns in psychiatric units. Many structured clinical risk assessment tools have recently been developed. Despite their superiority to unaided clinical judgments, staff has shown ambivalent views towards them. A constant worry of staff is that the results of risk assessments would not be used. The aims of the present study were to investigate what were the interventions applied by the staff of a psychiatric admission ward after a high risk patient had been identified, how frequently these interventions were used and how effective they were...
January 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068577/women-s-police-stations-and-intimate-partner-violence-evidence-from-brazil
#4
Elizaveta Perova, Sarah Anne Reynolds
Although women's police stations have gained popularity as a measure to address intimate partner violence (IPV), there is little quantitative evaluation of their impacts on the incidence of IPV. This paper estimates the effects of women's police stations in Brazil on female homicides, a measure of the most severe form of IPV. Given that a high fraction of female deaths among women ages 15-49 years can be attributed to aggression by an intimate partner, female homicides appear the best proxy for severe IPV considering the scarcity of data on IPV in Brazil...
December 9, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040454/towards-an-animal-model-of-callousness
#5
REVIEW
Julen Hernandez-Lallement, Marijn van Wingerden, Tobias Kalenscher
Callous-unemotional traits - the insensitivity to other's welfare and well-being - are characterized by a lack of empathy. They are characteristic of psychopathy and can be found in other anti-social disorders, such as conduct disorder. Because of the increasing prevalence of anti-social disorders and the rising societal costs of violence and aggression, it is of great importance to elucidate the psychological and physiological mechanisms underlying callousness in the search for pharmacological treatments. One promising avenue is to create a relevant animal model to explore the neural bases of callousness...
December 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039684/patients-bill-of-rights-and-effective-factors-of-workplace-violence-against-female-nurses-on-duty-at-ilam-teaching-hospitals
#6
Ali-Ashraf Aivazi, Waleyeh Menati, Hamed Tavan, Sasan Navkhasi, Abuzar Mehrdadi
BACKGROUND: Workplace violence against female nurses is an increasing problem. In addition, recognition the rights of patients can reduce such violence against female nurses. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate workplace violence against female nurses in respect with patients' bill of rights at two public hospitals of Ilam in 2012. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional research, workplace violence against female nurses was studied. Data were gathered employing a researcher made questionnaire filled out by 106 female nurses...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Injury & Violence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030584/neuroanatomical-abnormalities-in-violent-individuals-with-and-without-a-diagnosis-of-schizophrenia
#7
Victor A Del Bene, John J Foxe, Lars A Ross, Menahem I Krakowski, Pal Czobor, Pierfilippo De Sanctis
Several structural brain abnormalities have been associated with aggression in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about shared and distinct abnormalities underlying aggression in these subjects and non-psychotic violent individuals. We applied a region-of-interest volumetric analysis of the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus bilaterally, as well as whole brain and ventricular volumes to investigate violent (n = 37) and non-violent chronic patients (n = 26) with schizophrenia, non-psychotic violent (n = 24) as well as healthy control subjects (n = 24)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018611/brief-use-of-a-specific-gun-in-a-violent-game-does-not-affect-attitudes-towards-that-gun
#8
Joseph Hilgard, Christopher R Engelhardt, Bruce D Bartholow
Although much attention has been paid to the question of whether violent video games increase aggressive behaviour, little attention has been paid to how such games might encourage antecedents of gun violence. In this study, we examined how product placement, the attractive in-game presentation of certain real-world firearm brands, might encourage gun ownership, a necessary antecedent of gun violence. We sought to study how the virtual portrayal of a real-world firearm (the Bushmaster AR-15) could influence players' attitudes towards the AR-15 specifically and gun ownership in general...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005228/patterns-of-dating-violence-victimization-and-perpetration-among-latino-youth
#9
H Luz McNaughton Reyes, Vangie A Foshee, May S Chen, Susan T Ennett
Theory and research suggest that there may be significant heterogeneity in the development, manifestation, and consequences of adolescent dating violence that is not yet well understood. The current study contributed to our understanding of this heterogeneity by identifying distinct patterns of involvement in psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence victimization and perpetration in a sample of Latino youth (n = 201; M = 13.87 years; 42% male), a group that is understudied, growing, and at high risk for involvement in dating violence...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004406/development-and-socialization-of-physical-aggression-in-very-young-boys
#10
Carolyn Joy Dayton, Johanna C Malone
The expression of physical aggression is normative in early child development; it peaks in the second year of life, with steep declines for most children by the third and fourth years as children learn alternatives to aggression. Some children, however, fail to demonstrate declines in aggressive acts, and many of these are boys. The current review uses a dynamic systems (DS) approach to identify early individual and contextual factors that may dynamically influence trajectories of aggression as a characteristic way of engaging within communities and relationships...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990764/predicting-institutional-aggression-in-offenders-with-intellectual-disabilities-using-the-violence-risk-appraisal-guide
#11
Claudia Pouls, Inge Jeandarme
BACKGROUND: One of the most extensively tested risk assessment instruments in offenders with an intellectual disability (OIDs) is the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG). The purpose of this prospective study was to test the ability of this instrument to predict institutional aggression in OIDs. METHOD: VRAG scores were collected for 52 OIDs, and staff registered aggressive incidents during a period of 6 months. Predictive accuracy was analysed using several performance indicators...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984264/reducing-restraint-with-clozapine-in-involuntarily-admitted-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Petru Ifteni, Andreea S Szalontay, Andreea Teodorescu
BACKGROUND: In the entire world, restraint and seclusion are common interventions in psychiatric inpatient settings because of aggressive behavior. STUDY QUESTION: Our objective was to test for the immediate antiaggressive property of clozapine compared with other antipsychotic treatments in an enriched cohort with high rates of restraint during early hospitalization. METHODS: We present a retrospective chart review in all involuntary admissions with schizophrenia during 2011-2014 in Psychiatry and Neurology Hospital, Brasov, Romania...
November 24, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979607/psychometric-properties-of-the-management-of-aggression-and-violence-attitude-scale-in-hong-kong-s-emergency-care-setting
#13
Wai Kit Wong, Wai Tong Chien
BACKGROUND: Emergency unit is one of the most high-risk areas for patient violence. However, in Hong Kong, little research has been test psychometric properties of assessment tool of Emergency unit nurses' attitude toward violence. METHODS: The Management of Aggression and Violence Attitude Scale's (MAVASs) Scale- and Item-Content Validity Index were established by 5-experts panel. A convenience sample of 123 nurses working in 4 public Emergency Department in Hong Kong was recruited...
December 12, 2016: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977261/leveraging-school-based-research-to-inform-bullying-prevention-and-policy
#14
Dorothy L Espelage
School-based bullying and other forms of school violence have been the topic of over 40 years of research in the U.S. and internationally. Within the last 2 decades, research has increasingly informed bullying prevention, policy, and legislative efforts. The purpose of this article is to highlight several critical research areas on bullying and other forms of school violence that have shaped prevention efforts and policy over the last 2 decades. As the recipient of the 2016 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, the discussion here will focus largely on research findings from The Espelage Lab and collaborators, but these studies and findings will be situated in the larger literature...
November 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973916/health-consequences-of-intimate-partner-violence-against-married-women-a-population-based-study-in-northern-iran
#15
Robabeh Soleimani, Reza Ahmadi, Azadeh Yosefnezhad
The effects of different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health are understudied. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between women's mental health and physical, psychological and sexual IPV. We invited subjects of a population-based survey conducted in 2015 in Rasht, Iran, on IPV against women to complete the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The present research study is a secondary study based on these data and archival data from the 2015 study. For analysis, multivariate analysis of covariance was used...
December 14, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959457/risk-f%C3%A3-r-v%C3%A3-ld-och-kriminalitet-vid-personlighetssyndrom
#16
Tom Palmstierna
Personality disorders, violence and criminal behaviour The importance of personality disorders for violent and criminal behaviour is illustrated by their high prevalence in prison populations. Especially antisocial personality disorder and antisocial personality traits are linked to violence. During diagnostic assessment of personality disorders, violence risk screening is recommended. Cognitive behaviour treatment focused on violent behaviour has some effect in criminal populations, but the antisocial personality traits are resistant to treatment...
December 6, 2016: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942448/brain-connectivity-aberrations-in-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-users
#17
Lars T Westlye, Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Ingunn R Hullstein, Astrid Bjørnebekk
Sustained anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use has adverse behavioral consequences, including aggression, violence and impulsivity. Candidate mechanisms include disruptions of brain networks with high concentrations of androgen receptors and critically involved in emotional and cognitive regulation. Here, we tested the effects of AAS on resting-state functional brain connectivity in the largest sample of AAS-users to date. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 151 males engaged in heavy resistance strength training...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941087/enhancing-the-safety-climate-and-reducing-violence-against-staff-in-closed-hospital-wards
#18
Valerie Isaak, Dana Vashdi, Dor Bar-Noy, Hava Kostisky, Shmuel Hirschmann, Alexander Grinshpoon
This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention program to enhance unit safety climate and minimize employee risk of injury from patient violence. The intervention program, including a 3-day workshop, was offered to personnel on maximum security units of an Israeli psychiatric hospital. Safety climate was examined before and after the implementation of the intervention, and incidents of patient violence were investigated. Six months after the intervention, a significant improvement in employees' perceptions of management's commitment to safety as well as a marginally significant improvement in communication about safety issues were found...
December 9, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940606/childhood-abuse-and-current-intimate-partner-violence-a-population-study-in-hong-kong
#19
Elsie Yan, Thanos Karatzias
Previous studies have established that childhood violence victimization is associated with current experience of intimate partner violence (IPV). Existing literature, however, focused exclusively on female survivors and physical IPV and relied on non-representative samples. The present study examined the associations between life adversities and IPV using a representative sample of 1,239 men and women aged between 18 and 97. Participants provided information on their demographic characteristics, lifetime history of adverse life events, and past year IPV...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928762/the-metaphor-police-a-case-study-of-the-role-of-metaphor-in-explanation
#20
Paul H Thibodeau, Latoya Crow, Stephen J Flusberg
While many scholars have pointed to the role of metaphor in explanation, relatively little experimental research has examined whether and how metaphors are used and understood in everyday explanatory discourse. Across 3 experiments, we investigated the nature and function of metaphor in explanation by drawing on a real-world example where the terms guardian and warrior were used to metaphorically explain the role of police officers. We found, first, that the associations participants brought to mind for these concepts differed depending on whether they had previously answered questions about law enforcement (e...
December 7, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
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