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Violence and aggression

Natalia Redondo, M E Peña, José L Graña, José M Andreu
BACKGROUND: The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) is one of the most widely used validated self-report measures to assess aggression. This study analyzes the factorial structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the AQ in a Spanish sample with high levels of violence. METHOD: The questionnaire was administered to 767 partner-assaultive men undergoing psychological treatment. RESULTS: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure...
November 2017: Psicothema
Felice Loi, Karl Marlowe
Seclusion is a last resort intervention for management of aggressive behavior in psychiatric settings. There is no current objective and practical decision-making instrument for seclusion use on psychiatric wards. Our aim was to test the predictive and discriminatory characteristics of the East London Modified-Broset (ELMB), to delineate its decision-making profile for seclusion of adult psychiatric patients, and second to benchmark it against the psychometric properties of the Broset Violence Checklist (BVC)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Laura Stockdale, Robert G Morrison, Robert Palumbo, James Garbarino, Rebecca L Silton
Research on the effects of media violence exposure has shown robust associations among violent media exposure, increased aggressive behavior, and decreased empathy. Preliminary research indicates that frequent players of violent video games may have differences in emotional and cognitive processes compared to infrequent or non-players, yet research examining the amount and content of game play and the relation of these factors with affective and cognitive outcomes is limited. The present study measured neural correlates of response inhibition in the context of implicit attention to emotion, and how these factors are related to empathic responding in frequent and infrequent players of video games with graphically violent content...
October 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Noni K Gaylord-Harden, Grace J Bai, Dusan Simic
The purpose of the current study was to examine a dual-process model of reactivity to community violence exposure in African American male adolescents from urban communities. The model focused on desensitization and hypersensitization effects as well as desensitization and hypersensitization as predictors of aggressive behavior. Participants were 133 African American male high school students, mean age = 15.17 years, SD = 0.96. Participants completed measures of exposure to community violence, depressive symptoms, hyperarousal symptoms, aggressive beliefs, and aggressive behaviors at two time points...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Alan R King, Tiffany D Russell, Matthew D Bailly
The Lifetime Assessment of Violent Acts (LAVA) inventory provides estimates of the frequency, triggers, and consequences (including injuries to others) of historic acts of aggression. The LAVA also identifies the situational contexts in which prior violence was triggered and allows classifications based on past reactive, intimate partner, alcohol-related, and/or weapon-related violence. Normative and psychometric data were provided from a college (N = 1,133) and general population (N = 545) sample. Around 15% of the general population sample recalled inflicting 5 or more injuries on others at some time in the past...
October 10, 2017: Violence and Victims
Khodabakhsh Ahmadi, Seyed Alireza Javadinia, Seyed Hassan Saadat, Mohammad Arash Ramezani, Homa Sedghijalal
BACKGROUND: Risky sexual behavior (RSB), addiction, and aggression are three important personal and social factors which influence each other. OBJECTIVE: To overview the potential relationship among RSB, addiction, and aggression to conduct an interactive model for the pathology and management of human behavior. METHODS: This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Ebsco, IEEE, Scopus, Springer, MagIran, and IranMedex databases from the year 1993 to 2013...
August 2017: Electronic Physician
Kelly P Dillon, Brad J Bushman
Importance: More US children die by accidental gun use than children in other developed countries. One factor that can influence children's interest in guns is exposure to media containing guns. Objective: To test whether children who see a movie containing guns will handle a real gun longer and will pull the trigger more times than children who see the same movie not containing guns. Design, Setting, and Participants: One hundred four children aged 8 to 12 years recruited through advertisements were randomly assigned in pairs to watch a 20-minute PG-rated movie containing or not containing guns in a university laboratory...
September 25, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
Tara Carney, Bronwyn Myers, Tracy L Kline, Kim Johnson, Wendee M Wechsberg
BACKGROUND: Women have generally been found to be the victims of violence, but scant attention has been paid to the characteristics of women who perpetrate aggression and violence. In South Africa, violence is a prevalent societal issue, especially in the Western Cape. METHOD: This study aimed at identifying factors that were associated with aggression among a sample of 720 substance-using women. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to identify factors that are significantly associated with these behaviours...
September 30, 2017: BMC Women's Health
Eimear Muir-Cochrane, Joy A Duxbury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Tessa Maguire, Michael Daffern, Steven J Bowe, Brian McKenna
In the present study, we explored the predictive validity of the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA) assessment tool in male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) patients admitted to the acute units of a forensic mental health hospital. We also tested the psychometric properties of the original DASA bands and novel risk bands. The first 60 days of each patient's file was reviewed to identify daily DASA scores and subsequent risk-related nursing interventions and aggressive behaviour within the following 24 hours...
October 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Jessica Sommer, Martina Hinsberger, Leon Holtzhausen, Debra Kaminer, Soraya Seedat, Thomas Elbert, Mareike Augsburger, Andreas Maercker, Roland Weierstall
Background: In violent communities, social rejection as a person with victim-offender attributes is associated with more intense symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a higher propensity towards violence, i.e. appetitive aggression. Successful community reintegration encompassing adequate social acknowledgment of individuals with both a history of violence exposure and perpetration may be necessary to enhance the treatment effects of interventions addressing PTSD and aggression. Objective: In this study, the effects of treatment and post-treatment traumatic events, violent offenses, and social acknowledgment (with sub-dimensions of general disapproval, family disapproval, and recognition as a person with both a history of violence exposure and commission) on changes in PTSD symptom severity and appetitive aggression from baseline to 8-month follow-up were investigated...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Ítalo Macedo Bernardino, Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega Barbosa, Lorena Marques Nóbrega, Gigliana Maria Sobral Cavalcante, Efigenia Ferreira E Ferreira, Sérgio d'Ávila
The aim of this study was to determine the circumstances of aggressions and patterns of maxillofacial injuries among victims of interpersonal violence. This was a cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted from the analysis of 7,132 medical-legal and social records of interpersonal violence victims seen in a Forensic Medicine and Dentistry Center. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were performed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Three groups with different victimization profiles were identified...
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Stela Nazareth Meneghel, Bruna Alexandra Rocha da Rosa, Roger Flores Ceccon, Vania Naomi Hirakata, Ian Meneghel Danilevicz
This study analyses the relationship between femicides and indicators of socio-economic condition, demography, access to communications, and health situation, in Brazilian state capitals and large-population municipalities. It is an ecological study using the standardized mean coefficient of female mortality due to aggression as a marker for femicide in the years 2007-09 and 2011-13. The Pearson Correlation test was used for the statistical analysis between the outcome and 17 independent variables, and those that were statistically significant (p < 0...
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Laura Augusta Barufaldi, Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso Souto, Renata Sakai de Barros Correia, Marli de Mesquita Silva Montenegro, Isabella Vitral Pinto, Marta Maria Alves da Silva, Cheila Marina de Lima
Violence against women is an important public health problem in Brazil and in the world. The objective of the present study was to describe the profile of mortality due to aggression against women, and analyze whether the victims of reported violence are more likely to die from aggression than the general female population. This is a descriptive study of mortality due to aggression against women, from database linkage. The databases used for linkage were SINAN Brazil's Notifiable Diseases Information System (reports of violence against women) (2011 - 2015), and SIM, the Mortality Information System (women dying as a result of aggression) (2011 - 2016)...
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal, Fabricia Soares Freire Pugedo, Cheila Marina Lima, Marcio Denis Medeiros Mascarenhas, Alzira de Oliveira Jorge, Elza Machado de Melo
This study explored the characteristics of violence against adolescents who received treatment at urgent and emergency care centers participating in the 2014 Violence and Accident Surveillance System (Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes, VIVA) survey and determined the association between demographic variables and the characteristics of violent events. The sample was composed of 815 adolescents who responded to the 2014 VIVA survey. Correspondence analysis was used to determine possible associations between the variables...
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso Souto, Laura Augusta Barufaldi, Lucélia Silva Nico, Mariana Gonçalves de Freitas
Injuries and deaths resulting from violence constitute a major public health problem in Brazil. The article aims to describe the profile of calls for violence in emergency departments and emergency Brazilian capitals. This is a descriptive study of Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA), carried out in public emergencies Brazilian cities, from September to November 2014, a total of 4406 calls for aggression. We considered the following categories of analysis: 1) sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, race / skin color, education, place of residence, vulnerability, alcohol intake); 2) Event feature (probable author, nature and means of aggression); and characteristics of care (getting to the hospital, prior service, evolution)...
September 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Douglas A Gentile, Olivia N Berch, Hyekyung Choo, Angeline Khoo, David A Walsh
Mass media have numerous effects on children, ranging from influencing school performance to increased or reduced aggression. What we do not know, however, is how media availability in the bedroom moderates these effects. Although several researchers have suggested that bedroom media may influence outcomes by displacing other activities (the displacement hypothesis) or by changing the content of media consumed (the content hypothesis), these have rarely been tested directly. This study tested both hypotheses using several outcomes that are associated with bedroom media and some of the underlying mediating mechanisms...
September 25, 2017: Developmental Psychology
Bianca Besteher, Letizia Squarcina, Robert Spalthoff, Marcella Bellani, Christian Gaser, Paolo Brambilla, Igor Nenadić
Irritability and nonviolent aggression are common behavioral features across the population, yet there is limited neurobiological research into subclinical phenotypes representing the lower edge of a symptom continuum ranging from slight irritability to criminal violence. We studied brain structural correlates of irritability in a large healthy cohort to test the hypothesis of associations with fronto-limbic brain structures implicated in mood regulation. In a large multicenter effort, we recruited 409 mentally healthy adults from the community, who received T1-weighted high-resolution 3 T MRI scans...
September 25, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
Jesse R Cougle, Berta J Summers, Nicholas P Allan, Kirsten H Dillon, Hillary L Smith, Sarah A Okey, Ashleigh M Harvey
High trait anger is associated with more severe alcohol use problems, and alcohol has been found to facilitate aggressive behavior among individuals with high trait anger. Treatments focused on a sample with alcohol use disorder with elevated anger could reduce alcohol use problems, as well as violence and aggression. We sought to examine the efficacy of interpretation bias modification for hostility (IBM-H) in a sample with high trait anger and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Fifty-eight individuals with AUD and elevated trait anger were randomly assigned to eight web-based sessions (two per week) of IBM-H or a healthy video control condition (HVC)...
September 19, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten
Problems related to aggression in young people are traditionally subsumed under the header of conduct problems, which include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Such problems in children and adolescents are an important societal and mental health problem. In this paper we present an evolutionarily informed developmental psychopathology view of conduct problems inspired by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. We assume that while there are many pathways to conduct problems, chronic or temporary impairments in the domain of social cognition or mentalizing are a common denominator...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
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