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Violence and aggression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222984/suicidal-behaviour-is-associated-with-decreased-esterified-cholesterol-in-plasma-and-membrane-fluidity-of-platelets
#1
Boby Mathew, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Johnson Pradeep, Tinku Thomas, Amit Kumar Mandal
BACKGROUND: Altered cholesterol levels in body fluids and brain tissues have been shown to be associated with suicidal behaviour, violence and aggression. But the biological underpinnings of this association in the pathophysiology of suicide are not clear. Cholesterol plays a crucial role in maintaining the cellular membrane fluidity and alterations in cellular membrane fluidity may impair serotonergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. METHODS: We measured plasma esterified cholesterol and platelet membrane fluidity using fluorescence anisotropy and estimated flow activation energy which is a measure of order of membrane lipid bilayer in patients with recent suicidal attempt and compared with age and gender matched controls...
December 2, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220610/predictors-of-alcohol-use-during-pregnancy-among-women-attending-midwife-obstetric-units-in-the-cape-metropole-south-africa
#2
Petal Petersen-Williams, Catherine Mathews, Esmé Jordaan, Charles D H Parry
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the nature and extent of substance use among pregnant women in Cape Town (South Africa) despite the very high levels of substance use and related consequences such as FASD in this part of the country. The aim of the study was to determine predictors of alcohol use among pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women attending 11 Midwife Obstetric Units (MOUs) in greater Cape Town. A two-stage cluster survey design was used...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216493/intimate-partner-violence-against-women-circumstances-of-aggressions-and-oral-maxillofacial-traumas-a-medical-legal-and-forensic-approach
#3
Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Luzia Michelle Santos, Alysson Vinicius Porto Ferreira, Tomás Lucio Marques de Almeida Lima, Lorena Marques da Nóbrega, Sérgio d'Avila
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem that frequently results in oral-maxillofacial traumas, generating high social and economic costs. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of women victims of IPV and determine the pattern of oral-maxillofacial traumas, according to a medical-legal and forensic perspective. An exploratory study of 1361 suspected cases of women victims of IPV was carried out based on database of an Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Dentistry of Northeastern Brazil during a period of 4 years...
December 4, 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207735/pattern-of-isolated-fatal-mechanical-injury-in-homicidal-deaths-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Kiran Kumar Patnaik, Sudeepa Das, Sachidananda Mohanty, Hemanta Panigrahi
Introduction: Homicide is the death of one human being as a result of conduct of another. Multiple assaults on the body are seen in 70% cases, which indicate determination on the part of the accused to end the life of the victim. Aim: To identify the pattern, distribution and means of inflicting fatal isolated mechanical injury on the body in cases of homicide. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on total 728 homicide deaths, out of which 63 cases had an isolated fatal mechanical injury over the body and the rest 665 cases had multiple injuries...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202379/platelet-monoamine-oxidase-activity-and-interpersonal-violence-in-male-suicide-attempters
#5
Jussi Jokinen, Johan Königsson, Tomas Moberg, Erik G Jönsson, Jari Tiihonen, Peter Nordström, Lars Oreland, Marie Åsberg
Low platelet monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity, proxy of low central serotonergic functions, has been shown to correlate with criminal behavior in adolescents that come from an unfavorable psychosocial environment but not in adolescents from good conditions, indicating a link between environment, MAO-B activity and aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MAO-B activity and lifetime interpersonal violence in suicide attempters. The study included a total of 28 suicide attempters (18 men and 10 women)...
November 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200603/domestic-violence-shapes-colombian-women-s-partner-choices
#6
Martha Lucia Borras-Guevara, Carlota Batres, David I Perrett
Abstract: Potential protection from violence has been suggested as an explanation for women's preferences for more masculine partners. Previous studies, however, have not considered that violence may be multi-modal, and hence come from different sources. Therefore, we tested the effect of different fears of violence (i.e. vulnerability to public crime, likelihood of within-partnership violence) on masculinity preferences of women from Colombia, a country known for its high rates of violence...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196899/trends-in-the-perpetration-of-physical-aggression-among-norwegian-adolescents-2007-2015
#7
Lars Roar Frøyland, Tilmann von Soest
Most research on trends in physical aggression has shown declining levels among adolescents during the past two decades. However, few studies have attempted to explain such time trends. Based on two representative cross-sectional surveys of students in the final year of high school in 2007 (N = 6631; 58.8% girls) and 2015 (N = 4145; 60.3% girls), this study reports a substantial decline in physical aggression among Norwegian adolescents. Moreover, mediation analyses show that declining levels in problematic alcohol use and family violence during the same period are plausible explanations for some of this reduction...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195518/characteristics-of-intimate-partner-violence-victimization-experienced-by-a-sample-of-portuguese-men
#8
Andreia Machado, Denise Hines, Marlene Matos
International research has established that men can be victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). In Portugal, this phenomenon has not yet received scientific or social attention, although since the 1990s, IPV has been acknowledged as a notable problem. An online cross-sectional study was conducted with 89 heterosexual men who, after completing the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, identified themselves as victims of IPV. We examined the prevalence of IPV, its context, its perceived impact, men's reactions after an episode of violence, men's perceived motives for the partner's aggressive behavior, and reasons that prevented men from leaving the abusive relationship...
December 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195515/the-role-of-objectification-in-the-victimization-and-perpetration-of-intimate-partner-violence
#9
Melissa R Jonnson, Jennifer I Langille, Zach Walsh
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a substantial health concern and identifying risk factors for IPV is a research priority. We examined the relationship between severe IPV and objectification of the self and other sex across participant sex. A sample of 1,005 male and female university students completed a series of online questionnaires that measure levels of self-objectification, objectification of the other sex, and histories of severe IPV victimization and perpetration. Self-objectification was associated with severe psychological aggression, physical assault, and sexual coercion victimization in females, but not in males...
December 1, 2017: Violence and Victims
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184515/the-influence-of-empathy-and-morality-of-violent-video-game-characters-on-gamers-aggression
#10
Xuemei Gao, Lei Weng, Yuhong Zhou, Hongling Yu
According to the General Aggression Model, situational factors (such as the game characters) and personal factors both affect a gamer's acquisition of aggressive behavior. Previous studies have found not only that the surface features of game characters, such as appearance and clothing, but also that their inherent characteristics, such as morality and identity, can influence a gamer's attitude and behavior. Research has also shown that empathy, as a personal factor, can protect gamers from the impact of media violence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172589/disentangling-the-link-between-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-violent-behavior-findings-from-a-nationally-representative-sample
#11
Shannon M Blakey, Holly Love, Lisa Lindquist, Jean C Beckham, Eric B Elbogen
OBJECTIVE: Although research using combat veteran samples has demonstrated an association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and violence toward others, there has been relatively little research examining this relationship among individuals with no combat history. METHOD: Data representative of the United States population collected from the two wave National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were analyzed to determine the risk factors for violent behavior of individuals reporting no history of active military combat (N = 33,215)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163090/community-violence-exposure-and-conduct-problems-in-children-and-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#12
Linda Kersten, Noortje Vriends, Martin Steppan, Nora M Raschle, Martin Praetzlich, Helena Oldenhof, Robert Vermeiren, Lucres Jansen, Katharina Ackermann, Anka Bernhard, Anne Martinelli, Karen Gonzalez-Madruga, Ignazio Puzzo, Amy Wells, Jack C Rogers, Roberta Clanton, Rosalind H Baker, Liam Grisley, Sarah Baumann, Malou Gundlach, Gregor Kohls, Miguel A Gonzalez-Torres, Eva Sesma-Pardo, Roberta Dochnal, Helen Lazaratou, Zacharias Kalogerakis, Aitana Bigorra Gualba, Areti Smaragdi, Réka Siklósi, Dimitris Dikeos, Amaia Hervás, Aranzazu Fernández-Rivas, Stephane A De Brito, Kerstin Konrad, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Graeme Fairchild, Christine M Freitag, Arne Popma, Meinhard Kieser, Christina Stadler
Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153907/-violent-outburst-from-teenagers-in-the-pediatric-emergency-room-complex-cases
#13
L Cohen, C Gras-Le Guenb, J Fleury, E Caldagues, L Dreno, G Picherot, N Vabres
INTRODUCTION: Teenagers admitted to the emergency room for a violent attacks episode are increasingly numerous. The source of agitation is multifactorial for these teenagers, often with a complex course. They jeopardize hospital wards, which are often ill-suited for and overwhelmed during these outbursts. This study aims to identify and describe all the teenagers admitted to the hospital over 1 year for a violent outburst and discuss their management. METHODS AND EQUIPMENT: Retrospective and descriptive study of teenagers admitted to the pediatric emergency department of the Nantes University Hospital for a violent outburst in 2015...
November 16, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153459/-intrafamilial-disruptive-behaviour-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-present-data-and-treatment-prospects
#14
E Bousquet, N Franc, C Ha, D Purper-Ouakil
Child-to-parent violence is a form of family violence that is still a well-kept secret. Abused parents can be victims of different types of abuse. Children can use both physical and psychological violence such as financial threats to take control of the home. In this situation, parents often no longer dare to contradict their children by fear of triggering uncontrollable violence. Although the phenomenon recently drew the attention of the media, there is still little knowledge about its prevalence and clinical characteristics...
November 16, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152871/an-explanatory-model-of-dating-violence-risk-factors-in-spanish-adolescents
#15
Alazne Aizpitarte, Itziar Alonso-Arbiol, Fons J R Van de Vijver
Dating violence is a serious public health issue that needs further understanding in terms of risk factors that may be involved in it. The main goal of this study was to test a mediational model of dating violence risk factors. The sample was composed of 477 secondary and college students from Spain (59% females). A dynamic developmental explanatory model considering aggressiveness, insecure attachment, interparental conflict, and peer dating violence was tested using a multigroup structural equation model...
December 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151095/violent-behavior
#16
Sophia Sopromadze, Alexander Tsiskaridze
Violence is a significant public health problem representing one of the leading causes of death worldwide for people aged 15-44 years. Although violence and aggression are more frequent in adolescence and early adult life and decline with advancing age, these conditions can still develop for the first time in old age especially in association with organic brain disorder. Rates of violent death vary according to country income levels and are twice as higher in low- to middle-income countries than in high-income countries...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143486/violent-behaviour-in-early-psychosis-patients-can-we-identify-clinical-risk-profiles
#17
Valerie Moulin, Julie Palix, Philippe Golay, Alexandre Dumais, Mohammad Mehdi Gholamrezaee, Agathe Azzola, Philipp S Baumann, Luis Alameda, Philippe Conus
AIMS: The objective of this study is to explore, within a sample of early psychosis patients (EPP), if subgroups regarding rate of violent behaviour (VB) against others can be identified on the basis of dynamic risk factors (treatment modifiable characteristics). METHODS: In a sample of 265 EPP, treated at the Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program in Lausanne, we conducted a latent-class analysis on the basis of the main dynamic VB risk factors (substance use disorder [SUD], positive symptoms, insight, and impulsivity)...
November 15, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121811/evidence-for-two-levels-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-aggression-among-incarcerated-young-male-violent-offenders
#18
Anna-Kari Sjödin, Märta Wallinius, Eva Billstedt, Björn Hofvander, Thomas Nilsson
Furthering knowledge of the subset of incarcerated partner violent offenders distinguished by aggression, anger, and hostility is relevant, as these offenders are guilty of the more severe kinds of intimate partner violence (IPV). Our aim was to identify groups with different patterns of IPV among convicted young Swedish male offenders, using data from the Development of Aggressive Antisocial Behavior Study, including 171 young men (18-25 years) convicted of a violent crime. Cluster analysis was used to identify different clusters based on amount and severity of IPV in combination with measures of anger, hostility, aggression, and psychopathic personality traits...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120842/do-cognitive-deficits-predict-negative-emotionality-and-aggression-in-schizophrenia
#19
Anthony O Ahmed, Jenae Richardson, Alex Buckner, Sabrina Romanoff, Michelle Feder, Njideka Oragunye, Andriana Ilnicki, Ishrat Bhat, Matthew J Hoptman, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
Schizophrenia is associated with an elevated risk of aggression. Cognitive deficits have been associated with inpatient aggression and future violence. The relationship between cognitive deficits and violent behavior has however been inconsistent across studies. In addition, studies have failed to inform how cognitive deficits may contribute to aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined the association of cognitive deficits with schizophrenia-related aggression and violent offending. It also explored the putative mediating role of negative emotionality on the impact of cognitive deficits on aggression...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108096/a-randomized-controlled-trial-assessing-the-efficacy-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-substance-dependent-domestic-violence-offenders-an-integrated-substance-abuse-domestic-violence-treatment-approach-sadv
#20
Caroline J Easton, Cory A Crane, Dolores Mandel
The current study evaluates a therapy for substance-dependent perpetrators of partner violence. Sixty-three males arrested for partner violence within the past year were randomized to a cognitive behavioral substance abuse-domestic violence (SADV; n = 29) or a drug counseling (DC; n = 34) condition. Seventy percent of offenders completed eight core sessions with no differences between SADV and DC conditions in the amount of substance or aggression at pretreatment. SADV participants had fewer cocaine-positive toxicology screens and breathalyzer results during treatment, were less likely to engage in aggressive behavior proximal to a drinking episode, and reported fewer episodes of violence than DC participants at posttreatment follow-up...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
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