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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220718/the-big-imitator-strikes-again-a-case-report-of-neurosyphilis-in-a-patient-with-newly-diagnosed-hiv
#1
Sévérine de Bruijn, Chris Kenyon, Nicolas Léonard, Erika Vlieghe
BACKGROUND: Neurosyphilis is the result of an infection of the central nervous system caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Its clinical presentation includes meningovascular syphilis, tabes dorsalis, and dementia paralytica, resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as psychosis, Parkinsonism, and depression. CASE REPORT: A 49-year-old male was admitted to a psychiatric hospital because of social withdrawal and self-neglect, indicative of a major depression...
February 21, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#2
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202615/il-13-mediated-regulation-of-learning-and-memory
#3
Tiroyaone M Brombacher, Justin K Nono, Keisha S De Gouveia, Nokuthula Makena, Matthew Darby, Jacqueline Womersley, Ousman Tamgue, Frank Brombacher
The role of proinflammatory cytokines in cognitive function has been investigated with both beneficial and possible detrimental effects, depending on the cytokine. More recently, the type 2 IL-4 has been demonstrated to play a role in cognition. In this study, using the Morris water maze task, we demonstrate that IL-13-deficient mice are significantly impaired in working memory as well as attenuated reference memory, both functions essential for effective complex learning. During the learning process, wild-type mice increased the number of CD4(+) T cells in the meninges and production of IL-13, whereas neither Morris water maze-trained IL-4 nor trained IL-13-deficient mice were able to increase CD4(+) T cells in the meninges...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177966/high-number-of-activated-cd8-t-cells-targeting-hiv-antigens-are-present-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-acute-hiv-infection
#4
Cari F Kessing, Serena Spudich, Victor Valcour, Pearline Cartwright, Thep Chalermchai, James L K Fletcher, Carmen Nichols, Benjamin J Josey, Bonnie Slike, Shelly J Krebs, Napapon Sailsuta, Sukalaya Lerdlum, Linda Jagodzinski, Somporn Tipsuk, Duanghathai Suttichom, Somprartthana Rattanamanee, Henrik Zetterberg, Joanna Hellmuth, Nittaya Phanuphak, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Jintanat Ananworanich, Lydie Trautmann
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infiltration by CD8+ T cells is associated with neuroinflammation in many neurodegenerative diseases, including HIV-associated dementia. However, the role of CD8+ T cells in the CNS during acute HIV infection is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the phenotype, gene expression, TCR repertoire and HIV-specificity of CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a unique cohort captured during the earliest stages of acute HIV infection (AHI) (n=26), chronic (n=23), and uninfected (n=8)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160181/determinants-of-employment-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-the-netherlands
#5
Marlies N Wagener, Lennert van den Dries, Job Van Exel, Harald S Miedema, Eric C M van Gorp, Pepijn D D M Roelofs
Objectives Since HIV has become a manageable chronic disease, employment is of increasing importance for people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to investigate the level of work participation among PLWH in the Netherlands, and the associated determinants of employment. Methods For this study the baseline measurements of a longitudinal cohort study with a 2-year follow-up, the TREVI project, were used. The TREVI project aims to study cognitive function disorders among PLWH in relation to their employment, productivity, and social functioning...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128418/p2x7-receptor-in-the-hippocampus-is-involved-in-gp120-induced-cognitive-dysfunction
#6
Y Liu, G Q Chen, B Y Liu, Q Chen, Y M Qian, S S Qin, C L Liu, C S Xu
To investigate the role of the P2X7 receptor in learning and memory dysfunction induced by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 (gp120), we established HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) animal models by intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of gp120 in rats. We observed gp120-induced cognitive dysfunction in the radial arm water maze test. Results showed that rats in the gp120 groups had longer escape latencies and more errors compared to those in the control group. For example, the average trial time in the 50-ng/day-gp120 group on day eight (16...
January 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122474/screening-for-neurocognitive-impairment-in-hiv-positive-adults-aged-50-years-and-older-montreal-cognitive-assessment-relates-to-self-reported-and-clinician-rated-everyday-functioning
#7
P L Fazeli, K B Casaletto, E Paolillo, R C Moore, D J Moore, The Hnrp Group
As the HIV+ population ages, the risk for and need to screen for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) increases. The aim of this study is to determine the utility and ecological validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) among older HIV+ adults. A total of 100 HIV+ older adults aged 50 years or over completed a comprehensive neuromedical and neurocognitive battery, including the MoCA and several everyday functioning measures. The receiver operating characteristic curve indicates ≤26 as the optimal cut-off balancing sensitivity (84...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110422/interventions-for-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Jacqueline Ellero, Michal Lubomski, Bruce Brew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to evaluate current barriers to HIV cure strategies and interventions for neurocognitive dysfunction with a particular focus on recent advancements over the last 3 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal anti-retroviral therapy (ART) poses challenges to minimise neurotoxicity, whilst ensuring blood-brain barrier penetration and minimising the risk of cerebrovascular disease. CSF biomarkers, BCL11B and neurofilament light chain may be implicated with a neuroinflammatory cascade leading to cognitive impairment...
January 21, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101920/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-hiv-1-tat-induced-dysregulation-in-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#9
Tariq Ganief, Putuma Gqamana, Shaun Garnett, Jackie Hoare, Dan J Stein, John Joska, Nelson Soares, Jonathan M Blackburn
Despite affecting up to 70% of HIV-positivepatients and being the leading cause of dementia in patients under 40 years, the molecular mechanisms involved in the onset of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are not well understood. To address this, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis on HIV-Tat treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Isolated protein was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and analysed by nLC-MS/MS on an Orbitrap Velos. Using MaxQuant, we identified and quantified 3077 unique protein groups, of which 407 were differentially regulated...
January 19, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070871/treating-hiv-infection-in-the-central-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
A Calcagno, G Di Perri, S Bonora
Combination antiretroviral treatment is associated with clear benefits in HIV-positive subjects, and is also effective in the central nervous system (CNS), meaning HIV-associated dementia is now an uncommon event. Nevertheless, a significant number of patients show symptoms of neurocognitive impairment which may negatively affect their quality of life. Although several risk factors for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders have been identified, there is no clear recommendation for their prevention and management...
February 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062146/intensive-statin-regimens-for-reducing-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-population-a-nation-wide-longitudinal-cohort-study-2000-2011
#11
Huang-Tz Ou, Kai-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Chen-Yi Yang, Nai-Ying Ko
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a statin-treated HIV-infected population and the effects of intensive statin regimens (i.e., high-dose or potency) on CVD risks. METHODS: 945 HIV-infected patients newly on statin treatment (144, 15.7% with CVD history) were identified from Taiwan's national HIV cohort. Using the median of the first year cumulative statin dosage as a cut-off point, patients were classified into either a high-dose or low-dose group...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060965/the-clinical-research-landscape-in-rhode-island
#12
George Mao, Bharat Ramratnam
OBJECTIVES: To present an overview of clinical research activity and the state of medical research funding in Rhode Island. METHODS: We utilized clinicaltrials.gov registry to profile clinical studies between 2011 to 2016. NIH RePORT and other federal databases were used to extract information on levels of federal funding. Previously published hospital financial reports were reviewed for data on hospital-specific total external research funding. RESULTS: During 2011-2016, 1651 clinical studies were registered in clinicaltrials...
January 6, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005686/transcriptome-analyses-identify-key-cellular-factors-associated-with-hiv-1-associated-neuropathogenesis-in-infected-men
#13
Narasimhan J Venkatachari, Siddhartha Jain, Leah Walker, Shalmali Bivalkar-Mehla, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Ziv Bar-Joseph, Charles Rinaldo, Ann Ragin, Eric Seaberg, Andrew Levine, James Becker, Eileen Martin, Ned Sacktor, Velpandi Ayyavoo
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 viral proteins and host inflammatory factors have a direct role in neuronal toxicity in in vitro, however, the contribution of these factors in vivo in HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is not fully understood. We applied novel Systems Biology approaches to identify specific cellular and viral factors and their related pathways that are associated with different stages of HAND. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of individuals enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) including HIV-1 seronegative (N = 36) and HIV-1 seropositive individuals without neurocognitive symptoms (N = 16), or with mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) (N = 8) or HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (N = 16)...
December 21, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005232/hiv-1-glycoprotein-120-enhancement-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-mediated-excitatory-postsynaptic-currents-implications-for-hiv-1-associated-neural-injury
#14
Yan Zhou, Jianuo Liu, Huangui Xiong
It is widely accepted that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) plays an important role in HIV-1-induced neural injury and pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAND). Multiple pathways have been proposed for gp120-induced neurotoxicity, amongst is the activation of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). It has been shown that gp120 causes neuronal injury or death and gp120 transgenic mice exhibit neurological similarity to that of HAND, all of which can be blocked or attenuated by NMDAR antagonists...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995575/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-and-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-hiv-infected-individuals-in-rakai-uganda
#15
Mahsa Abassi, Bozena M Morawski, Gertrude Nakigozi, Noeline Nakasujja, Xiangrong Kong, David B Meya, Kevin Robertson, Ronald Gray, Maria J Wawer, Ned Sacktor, David R Boulware
In the USA, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines have been observed in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We characterized the relationship between HAND and CSF biomarker expression in ART-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals in Rakai, Uganda. We analyzed CSF of 78 HIV-seropositive, ART-naive Ugandan adults for 17 cytokines and 20 neurodegenerative biomarkers via Luminex multiplex assay. These adults underwent neurocognitive assessment to determine their degree of HAND...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992497/validation-of-the-international-hiv-dementia-scale-as-a-screening-tool-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-a-german-speaking-hiv-outpatient-clinic
#16
Victor Marin-Webb, Heiko Jessen, Ute Kopp, Arne B Jessen, Katrin Hahn
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981189/untangling-the-gordian-knot-of-hiv-stress-and-cognitive-impairment
#17
REVIEW
Arielle N Valdez, Leah H Rubin, Gretchen N Neigh
As individuals live longer with HIV, this "graying of the HIV epidemic" has introduced a new set of challenges including a growing number of age and inflammation-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, cancer, and dementia. The biological underpinnings of these complex and co-morbid diseases are not fully understood and become very difficult to disentangle in the context of HIV and aging. In the current review we examine the contributions and interactions of HIV, stress, and cognitive impairment and query the extent to which inflammation is the linchpin in these dynamic interactions...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909828/the-dopamine-related-polymorphisms-bdnf-comt-drd2-drd3-and-drd4-are-not-linked-with-changes-in-csf-dopamine-levels-and-frequency-of-hiv-infection
#18
Anne Horn, C Scheller, S du Plessis, R Burger, G Arendt, J Joska, S Sopper, C M Maschke, M Obermann, I W Husstedt, J Hain, P Riederer, E Koutsilieri
We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#19
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868081/blood-brain-barrier-integrity-intrathecal-immunoactivation-and-neuronal-injury-in-hiv
#20
Birgitta Anesten, Aylin Yilmaz, Lars Hagberg, Henrik Zetterberg, Staffan Nilsson, Bruce J Brew, Dietmar Fuchs, Richard W Price, Magnus Gisslén
OBJECTIVE: Although blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment has been reported in HIV-infected individuals, characterization of this impairment has not been clearly defined. METHODS: BBB integrity was measured by CSF/plasma albumin ratio in this cross-sectional study of 631 HIV-infected individuals and 71 controls. We also analyzed CSF and blood HIV RNA and neopterin, CSF leukocyte count, and neurofilament light chain protein (NFL) concentrations. The HIV-infected participants included untreated neuroasymptomatic patients, patients with untreated HIV-associated dementia (HAD), and participants on suppressive antiretroviral treatment (ART)...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
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