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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780124/hiv-dementia-with-a-decreased-cardiac-123-i-metaiodobenzylguanidine-uptake-masquerading-as-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#1
Masanori Kurihara, Takuya Sasaki, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Shoji Tsuji
Cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is a promising biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, we experienced a patient with cognitive decline, parkinsonism, and a decreased MIBG uptake who turned out to have HIV dementia. Normal dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography reduced the possibility of comorbid Lewy body pathology causing the patient' s parkinsonism. The decreased MIBG uptake was most likely due to postganglionic sympathetic nerve denervation, which can also be caused by HIV...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770238/charlson-comorbidity-index-as-a-predictor-of-periodontal-disease-in-elderly-participants
#2
Jae-Hong Lee, Jung-Kyu Choi, Seong-Nyum Jeong, Seong-Ho Choi
Purpose: This study investigated the validity of the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) as a predictor of periodontal disease (PD) over a 12-year period. Methods: Nationwide representative samples of 149,785 adults aged ≥60 years with PD (International Classification of Disease, 10th revision [ICD-10], K052-K056) were derived from the National Health Insurance Service-Elderly Cohort during 2002-2013. The degree of comorbidity was measured using the CCI (grade 0-6), including 17 diseases weighted on the basis of their association with mortality, and data were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression in order to investigate the associations of comorbid diseases (CDs) with PD...
April 2018: Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761877/diagnostic-accuracy-of-new-and-old-cognitive-screening-tools-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders
#3
M Trunfio, D Vai, C Montrucchio, C Alcantarini, A Livelli, M C Tettoni, G Orofino, S Audagnotto, D Imperiale, S Bonora, G Di Perri, A Calcagno
OBJECTIVES: Considering the similarities between HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and neurodegenerative dementias and the frequency of executive dysfunctions among HIV-positive patients, we evaluated the accuracy of the Frontal Assessment Battery and Clock-Drawing Test together with the Three Questions Test and International HIV Dementia Scale to screen for HAND. METHODS: A cross-sectional monocentric study was conducted from 2010 to 2017. The index tests were represented by the four screening tools; the reference standard was represented by a comprehensive neurocognitive battery used to investigate 10 cognitive domains...
May 15, 2018: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742062/global-perspective-of-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-the-management-of-neuroaids
#4
Swatantra Kumar, Vimal K Maurya, Himanshu R Dandu, Madan Lb Bhatt, Shailendra K Saxena
Among Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, around two-thirds of patients present with neuroAIDS, where HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) are the most prevailing neurological complications. The neuropathology of neuroAIDS can be characterized by the presence of HIV infected macrophages and microglia in the brain, with the formation of multinucleated giant cells. Global predominant subtypes of HIV-1 clade B and C infections influence the differential effect of immune and neuronal dysfunctions, leading to clade-specific clinical variation in neuroAIDS patient cohorts...
May 8, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741401/comparison-of-%C3%AE-2-microglobulin-serum-level-between-alzheimer-s-patients-cognitive-healthy-and-mild-cognitive-impaired-individuals
#5
Roberto Dominici, Dario Finazzi, Letizia Polito, Emanuela Oldoni, Giovanna Bugari, Alessandro Montanelli, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti, Antonio Guaita
BACKGROUND: Several studies performed in the last years on the brain, showed that beta2-microglobulin (β2m) and MHC can act independently of their canonical immune function to regulate normal brain development, synaptic plasticity and behaviour. Increased systemic levels of soluble β2m have been implicated in cognitive impairments like that associated with chronic hemodialysis, or aortic valve replacement. Increased soluble β2m has also been detected in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of patients with HIV-associated dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
May 9, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731931/correlation-between-lymphocyte-cd4-count-treatment-duration-opportunistic-infection-and-cognitive-function-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-hiv-aids-patients
#6
Fasihah Irfani Fitri, Aldy Safruddin Rambe, Aida Fitri
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an epidemic worldwide, despite the marked benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) in reducing severe HIV-associated dementia. A milder form of neurocognitive disorders are still prevalent and remain a challenge. AIM: This study aimed to determine the correlation between plasma cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) lymphocyte, duration of ARV treatment, opportunistic infections, and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705491/structural-discordance-in-hiv-1-vpu-from-brain-isolate-alarms-amyloid-fibril-forming-behavior-a-computational-perspective
#7
Sneha Patil, Pritam Kumar Panda, Fatemeh Gharemirshamlu Rahimi, Kourosh Bamdad, Seetharaman Balaji
HIV-1 being the most widespread type worldwide accounts for almost 95% of all infections including HIV associated dementia (HAD) that triggers neurological dysfunction and neurodegeneration in patients. The common features associated with HAD and other neurodegenerative diseases are accumulation of amyloid plaques, neuronal loss and deterioration of cognitive abilities, amongst which amyloid fibrillation is considered to be a hallmark. The success of effective therapeutics lies in the understanding of mechanisms leading to neurotoxicity...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696578/motor-function-declines-over-time-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-is-associated-with-cerebrovascular-disease-while-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-remains-stable
#8
Isabel M Elicer, Desiree Byrd, Uraina S Clark, Susan Morgello, Jessica Robinson-Papp
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent in the combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) era, especially the milder forms. Despite these milder phenotypes, we have shown that motor abnormalities persist and have quantified them with the HIV Dementia Motor Scale (HDMS). Our objectives were to replicate, in an independent sample, our prior findings that the HDMS is associated with cognitive impairment in HIV, while adding consideration of age-associated comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease, and to examine the longitudinal trajectories of cognitive and motor dysfunction...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694602/is-the-telomere-length-associated-with-neurocognitive-disabilities-in-hiv-1-infected-subjects
#9
Marilia Ladeira de Araújo, Wellington Duarte, Augusto César Penalva de Oliveira, Maria Rita Polo Gascón, Luiz Augusto Marcondes Fonseca, Raquel de Melo Alves Paiva, Bárbara Santana, Rodrigo Tocantins Calado, Jorge Casseb
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between cognitive deficits and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in HIV-1-infected individuals. DESIGN: 73 HIV-1-infected patients undergoing neuropsychological evaluation and 91 healthy controls were included in this study. Fifteen HIV-1 positive patients did not have cognitive disorders whereas 26 had asymptomatic neurocognitive disorder (ANI), 13 presented mild to moderate neurocognitive disorder (MND), and 10 had HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690789/protective-effects-of-ginsenoside-rb1-against-blood-brain-barrier-damage-induced-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-tat-protein-and-methamphetamine-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#10
Juan Li, Bairui Zeng, Xiao Hu, Zhen Li, Dongxian Zhang, Genmeng Yang, Jiejie Dai, Xiaofeng Zeng
Although antiretroviral therapy has helped to improve the lives of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), these patients are often still afflicted with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders, which can lead to neurocognitive impairment and even dementia, and continue to hamper their quality of life. Methamphetamine abuse in HIV-1 patients poses a potential risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, because methamphetamine and HIV-1 proteins such as transactivator of transcription can synergistically damage the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687405/basal-ganglia-shrinkage-without-remarkable-hippocampal-atrophy-in-chronic-aviremic-hiv-positive-patients
#11
Tamara Tesic, Jasmina Boban, Mladen Bjelan, Aleksandar Todorovic, Dusko Kozic, Snezana Brkic
Conventional magnetic-resonance (MR) imaging is not sensitive enough in depicting subtle neurodegenerative changes that occur during chronic HIV infection with good peripheral viral suppression. The aim of this study was to compare brain volumes in HIV-positive subjects with age- and education-matched healthy controls with regard to influence of aging and immunologic parameters. An overall of 65 subjects (40 HIV-positive and 25 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy subjects) underwent conventional MR imaging with three-dimensional sequence adequate for volumetric measurements...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683852/reversing-interferon-alpha-neurotoxicity-in-a-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-mouse-model
#12
Rajeth Koneru, Heather Bimonte-Nelson, Vincent Ciavatta, Woldeab Haile, Kate Elmore, Jennifer Ward, Leonard Maroun, William R Tyor
OBJECTIVE: Increased brain interferon-alpha (IFNα) is associated with neurodegenerative disorders, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). HAND occurs in approximately 50% of individuals with HIV despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Therefore, adjunctive therapies must be developed that prevent progression of mild forms of HAND to HIV-associated dementia. Increased IFNα in the CNS has been associated with HAND in patients and in a HAND mouse model. DESIGN AND METHODS: B18R binds IFNα and ameliorates HAND mouse brain histopathology (HIV encephalitis)...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604984/neuropharmacology
#13
Alan Winston, Hadi Manji
With virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy, immune system recovery is now achievable for persons living with HIV (PLWH). This immune recovery is associated with dramatic reductions in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) defining illnesses including HIV dementia. However, milder form of cognitive disturbances are widely reported in PLWH despite effective antiretroviral therapy. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms of these cognitive disturbances remain elusive, with many potential pathogenic mechanisms including residual brain damage prior to the initiation of antiretroviral therapy and neuroinflammation and ongoing immune system disturbances despite antiretroviral therapy...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604980/imaging-studies-of-the-hiv-infected-brain
#14
Linda Chang, Dinesh K Shukla
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enters the brain early after infecting humans and may remain in the central nervous system despite successful antiretroviral treatment. Many neuroimaging techniques were used to study HIV+ patients with or without opportunistic infections. These techniques assessed abnormalities in brain structures (using computed tomography, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion MRI) and function (using functional MRI at rest or during a task, and perfusion MRI with or without a contrast agent)...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604978/neuropathogenesis-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#15
Brady Sillman, Christopher Woldstad, Joellyn Mcmillan, Howard E Gendelman
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain a common end-organ manifestation of viral infection. Subclinical and mild symptoms lead to neurocognitive and behavioral abnormalities. These are associated, in part, with viral penetrance and persistence in the central nervous system. Infections of peripheral blood monocytes, macrophages, and microglia are the primary drivers of neuroinflammation and neuronal impairments. While current antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the incidence of HIV-associated dementia, milder forms of HAND continue...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568553/hiv-associated-cognitive-performance-and-psychomotor-impairment-in-a-thai-cohort-on-long-term-cart
#16
EDITORIAL
Tanya C Do, Stephen J Kerr, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Saowaluk Suksawek, Supalak Klungkang, Taweesak Channgam, Christoph C Odermatt, Wirach Maek-A-Nantawat, Kiat Ruxtungtham, Jintanat Ananworanich, Victor Valcour, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W Wit
Objectives: To assess cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment in an HIV-positive cohort, well-suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in an Asian resource-limited setting. Methods: Cross-sectional sociodemographic and cognitive data were collected in 329 HIV-positive and 510 HIV-negative participants. Cognitive performance was assessed using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), WAIS-III Digit Symbol, Trail Making A, and Grooved Pegboard (both hands)...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561424/nonopportunistic-infection-leading-to-rapidly-progressive-dementia-in-a-patient-with-hiv-aids-a-case-report
#17
Johannes Eimer, Jan Vesterbacka, Irina Savitcheva, Rayomand Press, Homayoun Roshanisefat, Piotr Nowak
RATIONALE: Cognitive dysfunction is a common presenting symptom in patients with HIV/AIDS. It is usually directly associated with HIV infection or due to opportunistic infection. Rapidly progressive dementia, however, is rarely observed in acute HIV infection or during immune reconstitution. Recently, a case of Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (CJD) has been reported in a patient with chronic HIV infection. The incidence of CJD is not known to be increased among immunocompromised patients. PATIENT CONCERNS: We here report the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a recent diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia presenting with secondary behavioral changes and disorientation...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526613/correlates-of-patterns-of-health-values-of-african-americans-living-with-hiv-aids-implications-for-advance-care-planning-and-hiv-palliative-care
#18
Mary M Mitchell, Eric D Hansen, Tuo-Yen Tseng, Meng Shen, Cynda Rushton, Tom Smith, Nancy Hutton, Jennifer Wolfe, Lee Bone, Jeanne Keruly, Lawrence Wissow, Amy R Knowlton
CONTEXT & OBJECTIVE: Advance care planning (ACP) rates remain low, especially among people who are HIV positive, disadvantaged, and African American. While ACP can be a sensitive topic for clinicians and patients to discuss, health values clarification can be an important initial step. METHODS: Data were from the first 325 participants in the AFFIRM Care study, which enrolled adults living with HIV/AIDS in Baltimore, MD, who had histories of illicit drug use...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497577/lower-extremity-dynamometry-as-a-novel-outcome-measure-in-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-feasibility-trial-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-ivig-for-hiv-associated-myelopathy
#19
Jessica Robinson-Papp, Mary Catherine George, Alexandra Nmashie, Donald Weisz, David M Simpson
Objective : Open-label data suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) might improve lower-extremity strength in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated myelopathy (HIVM), a rare but debilitating neurologic complication of HIV. We sought to determine the feasibility of testing the efficacy of IVIG for HIVM more rigorously. Design : We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled feasibility trial of IVIG for HIVM, using dynamometry as an outcome measure (Clinical Trial No. NCT01561755)...
February 1, 2018: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476951/current-status-of-vaccines-in-psychiatry-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Harshini Manohar, Vikas Menon
INTRODUCTION: Vaccines are one of the newer therapeutic modalities being researched in psychiatric illnesses with limited role of pharmacological interventions. Preclinical studies on vaccines have shown favorable results in conditions like Substance use Disorders and Alzheimer's Dementia. However, the utility of Mumps Measles Rubella vaccine has been overshadowed by controversy linked to causation of Autism. With this background, the current narrative review aimed to comprehensively and critically evaluate the current status of vaccines in Psychiatric illnesses...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
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