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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070871/treating-hiv-infection-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
A Calcagno, G Di Perri, S Bonora
Combination antiretroviral treatment is associated with clear benefits in HIV-positive subjects, and is also effective in the central nervous system (CNS), meaning HIV-associated dementia is now an uncommon event. Nevertheless, a significant number of patients show symptoms of neurocognitive impairment which may negatively affect their quality of life. Although several risk factors for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders have been identified, there is no clear recommendation for their prevention and management...
January 9, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062146/intensive-statin-regimens-for-reducing-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-population-a-nation-wide-longitudinal-cohort-study-2000-2011
#2
Huang-Tz Ou, Kai-Cheng Chang, Chung-Yi Li, Chen-Yi Yang, Nai-Ying Ko
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in a statin-treated HIV-infected population and the effects of intensive statin regimens (i.e., high-dose or potency) on CVD risks. METHODS: 945 HIV-infected patients newly on statin treatment (144, 15.7% with CVD history) were identified from Taiwan's national HIV cohort. Using the median of the first year cumulative statin dosage as a cut-off point, patients were classified into either a high-dose or low-dose group...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060965/the-clinical-research-landscape-in-rhode-island
#3
George Mao, Bharat Ramratnam
OBJECTIVES: To present an overview of clinical research activity and the state of medical research funding in Rhode Island. METHODS: We utilized clinicaltrials.gov registry to profile clinical studies between 2011 to 2016. NIH RePORT and other federal databases were used to extract information on levels of federal funding. Previously published hospital financial reports were reviewed for data on hospital-specific total external research funding. RESULTS: During 2011-2016, 1651 clinical studies were registered in clinicaltrials...
January 6, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005686/transcriptome-analyses-identify-key-cellular-factors-associated-with-hiv-1-associated-neuropathogenesis-in-infected-men
#4
Narasimhan J Venkatachari, Siddhartha Jain, Leah Walker, Shalmali Bivalkar-Mehla, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Ziv Bar-Joseph, Charles Rinaldo, Ann Ragin, Eric Seaberg, Andrew Levine, James Becker, Eileen Martin, Ned Sacktor, Velpandi Ayyavoo
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 viral proteins and host inflammatory factors have a direct role in neuronal toxicity in in vitro, however, the contribution of these factors in vivo in HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is not fully understood. We applied novel Systems Biology approaches to identify specific cellular and viral factors and their related pathways that are associated with different stages of HAND. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of individuals enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) including HIV-1 seronegative (N = 36) and HIV-1 seropositive individuals without neurocognitive symptoms (N = 16), or with mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) (N = 8) or HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (N = 16)...
December 21, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005232/hiv-1-glycoprotein-120-enhancement-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-receptor-mediated-excitatory-postsynaptic-currents-implications-for-hiv-1-associated-neural-injury
#5
Yan Zhou, Jianuo Liu, Huangui Xiong
It is widely accepted that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) plays an important role in HIV-1-induced neural injury and pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAND). Multiple pathways have been proposed for gp120-induced neurotoxicity, amongst is the activation of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDARs). It has been shown that gp120 causes neuronal injury or death and gp120 transgenic mice exhibit neurological similarity to that of HAND, all of which can be blocked or attenuated by NMDAR antagonists...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995575/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-and-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-hiv-infected-individuals-in-rakai-uganda
#6
Mahsa Abassi, Bozena M Morawski, Gertrude Nakigozi, Noeline Nakasujja, Xiangrong Kong, David B Meya, Kevin Robertson, Ronald Gray, Maria J Wawer, Ned Sacktor, David R Boulware
In the USA, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines have been observed in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). We characterized the relationship between HAND and CSF biomarker expression in ART-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals in Rakai, Uganda. We analyzed CSF of 78 HIV-seropositive, ART-naive Ugandan adults for 17 cytokines and 20 neurodegenerative biomarkers via Luminex multiplex assay. These adults underwent neurocognitive assessment to determine their degree of HAND...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992497/validation-of-the-international-hiv-dementia-scale-as-a-screening-tool-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-a-german-speaking-hiv-outpatient-clinic
#7
Victor Marin-Webb, Heiko Jessen, Ute Kopp, Arne B Jessen, Katrin Hahn
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981189/untangling-the-gordian-knot-of-hiv-stress-and-cognitive-impairment
#8
REVIEW
Arielle N Valdez, Leah H Rubin, Gretchen N Neigh
As individuals live longer with HIV, this "graying of the HIV epidemic" has introduced a new set of challenges including a growing number of age and inflammation-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, cancer, and dementia. The biological underpinnings of these complex and co-morbid diseases are not fully understood and become very difficult to disentangle in the context of HIV and aging. In the current review we examine the contributions and interactions of HIV, stress, and cognitive impairment and query the extent to which inflammation is the linchpin in these dynamic interactions...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909828/the-dopamine-related-polymorphisms-bdnf-comt-drd2-drd3-and-drd4-are-not-linked-with-changes-in-csf-dopamine-levels-and-frequency-of-hiv-infection
#9
Anne Horn, C Scheller, S du Plessis, R Burger, G Arendt, J Joska, S Sopper, C M Maschke, M Obermann, I W Husstedt, J Hain, P Riederer, E Koutsilieri
We showed previously that higher levels in CSF dopamine in HIV patients are associated with the presence of the dopamine transporter (DAT) 10/10-repeat allele which was also detected more frequently in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected subjects. In the current study, we investigated further whether other genetic dopamine (DA)-related polymorphisms may be related with changes in CSF DA levels and frequency of HIV infection in HIV-infected subjects. Specifically, we studied genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and dopamine receptors DRD2, DRD3, and DRD4 genetic polymorphisms in uninfected and HIV-infected people in two different ethnical groups, a German cohort (Caucasian, 72 individuals with HIV infection and 22 individuals without HIV infection) and a South African cohort (Xhosan, 54 individuals with HIV infection and 19 individuals without HIV infection)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875832/remediating-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-via-cognitive-training-a-perspective-on-neurocognitive-aging
#10
David E Vance, Shameka L Cody, Linda Moneyham
Over 50% of adults with HIV exhibit some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, ranging from mild asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment to HIV-associated dementia. As adults age with HIV and become susceptible to cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, the prevalence and severity of such neurocognitive disorders are likely to increase. With compromised renal and hepatic functioning often accompanying HIV, pharmaceutical interventions to address such neurocognitive disorders may not be the best strategy and are not without risks...
2017: Interdisciplinary Topics in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868081/blood-brain-barrier-integrity-intrathecal-immunoactivation-and-neuronal-injury-in-hiv
#11
Birgitta Anesten, Aylin Yilmaz, Lars Hagberg, Henrik Zetterberg, Staffan Nilsson, Bruce J Brew, Dietmar Fuchs, Richard W Price, Magnus Gisslén
OBJECTIVE: Although blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment has been reported in HIV-infected individuals, characterization of this impairment has not been clearly defined. METHODS: BBB integrity was measured by CSF/plasma albumin ratio in this cross-sectional study of 631 HIV-infected individuals and 71 controls. We also analyzed CSF and blood HIV RNA and neopterin, CSF leukocyte count, and neurofilament light chain protein (NFL) concentrations. The HIV-infected participants included untreated neuroasymptomatic patients, patients with untreated HIV-associated dementia (HAD), and participants on suppressive antiretroviral treatment (ART)...
December 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846072/hospitalization-for-anxiety-and-mood-disorders-in-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-gay-and-bisexual-men
#12
Cecilia L Moore, Andrew E Grulich, Garrett Prestage, Heather F Gidding, Fengyi Jin, Kathy Petoumenos, Iryna B Zablotska, I Mary Poynten, Limin Mao, Matthew G Law, Janaki Amin
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders (AMDs) in HIV-infected individuals has varied widely because of the variety of measurements used and differences in risk factor profiles between different populations. We aimed to examine the relationship between HIV status and hospitalization for AMDs in gay and bisexual men (GBM). DESIGN AND METHODS: HIV-infected (n = 557) and HIV-uninfected (n = 1325) GBM recruited in Sydney, Australia were probabilistically linked to their hospital admissions and death notifications (2000-2012)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833555/ginkgolic-acid-protects-against-a%C3%AE-induced-synaptic-dysfunction-in-the-hippocampus
#13
Dalila Mango, Filippo Weisz, Robert Nisticò
Ginkgo leaf is the most used form of supplement for cognitive ailments. The standardized extract formulation EGb 761 is a dietary supplement with proven benefit in several neurological and psychiatric conditions including memory decline in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and dementia. Ginkgolic acid (GA) is a component of this extract which shows pleiotropic effects including antitumoral and anti-HIV action; however, its effect on memory is still unknown. Here, we carried out an electrophysiological analysis to investigate the effects of GA on long term potentiation and synaptic transmission at CA1 hippocampal synapses...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829986/oxidative-stress-during-hiv-infection-mechanisms-and-consequences
#14
REVIEW
Alexander V Ivanov, Vladimir T Valuev-Elliston, Olga N Ivanova, Sergey N Kochetkov, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Birke Bartosch, Maria G Isaguliants
It is generally acknowledged that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play crucial roles in a variety of natural processes in cells. If increased to levels which cannot be neutralized by the defense mechanisms, they damage biological molecules, alter their functions, and also act as signaling molecules thus generating a spectrum of pathologies. In this review, we summarize current data on oxidative stress markers associated with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection, analyze mechanisms by which this virus triggers massive ROS production, and describe the status of various defense mechanisms of the infected host cell...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828876/improving-detection-of-hiv-associated-cognitive-impairment-comparison-of-the-international-hiv-dementia-scale-and-a-brief-screening-battery
#15
Sergio Monteiro de Almeida, Rujvi Kamat, Mariana Cherner, Anya Umlauf, Clea Elisa Ribeiro, Ana Paula de Pereira, Donald Franklin, Robert K Heaton, Ronald J Ellis
OBJECTIVES: The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) was developed to screen for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), but it has been used more generally for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). This study sought to examine the accuracy of the IHDS in a cohort of Brazilian HIV-infected individuals and compare its performance to an alternative screening battery for detecting HAND. METHODS: 108 participants (including 60 HIV-infected persons), completed the IHDS and a gold standard neuropsychological (NP) battery of 17 tests...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821271/screening-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-hand-among-hiv-positive-patients-attending-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-wollo-ethiopia
#16
Million Tsegaw, Gashaw Andargie, Getnet Alem, Minale Tareke
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of people living with HIV/AIDS reside in low and middle income countries, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. Despite the huge number of service users in the local area, cognitive disorder among HIV patients has not been extensively studied and there is a dearth of knowledge on the subject. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS in antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics...
February 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815816/a-decreasing-cd4-cd8-ratio-over-time-and-lower-csf-penetrating-antiretroviral-regimens-are-associated-with-a-higher-risk-of-neurocognitive-deterioration-independently-of-viral-replication
#17
Matteo Vassallo, R Fabre, J Durant, C Lebrun-Frenay, H Joly, M Ticchioni, F DeSalvador, A Harvey-Langton, B Dunais, M Laffon, J Cottalorda, P Dellamonica, C Pradier
Persistent immune activation is one of the suspected causes of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in cART era. The CD4/CD8 ratio has been recently showed as a marker of immune activation and HAND. Our aim was to analyze if a decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio over time could have an impact on neurocognitive deterioration. Randomly selected HIV-infected patients were followed for neuropsychological (NP) testing during a period of almost 2 years. Tests were adjusted for age, gender, and education. Patients were divided into 5 groups: normal tests (NT), neuropsychological deficit (ND, one impaired cognitive domain), asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorders (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785907/associations-between-cognitive-impairment-and-patient-reported-measures-of-physical-mental-functioning-in-older-people-living-with-hiv
#18
J Underwood, D De Francesco, F A Post, J H Vera, I Williams, M Boffito, P W Mallon, J Anderson, M Sachikonye, C Sabin, A Winston
OBJECTIVES: While cognitive impairment is frequently reported in HIV-positive individuals and has historically been associated with poorer functional outcomes, the associations between cognitive impairment and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in contemporary cohorts are unclear. METHODS: We tested cognitive function using a computerized battery (CogState(™) ) in 290 HIV-positive and 97 HIV-negative individuals aged ≥ 50 years participating in the Pharmacokinetic and Clinical Observations in People Over Fifty (POPPY) study...
October 26, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781099/related-or-not-development-of-spontaneous-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-in-a-patient-with-chronic-well-controlled-hiv-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
M-Alain Babi, Bryan D Kraft, Sweta Sengupta, Haley Peterson, Ryan Orgel, Zachary Wegermann, Njira L Lugogo, Matthew W Luedke
BACKGROUND: We report a novel case of a rare disease: spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a patient with well-controlled HIV. We explore the relationship between spontaneous Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and HIV. CASE REPORT: A 66-year-old man with long-standing, well-controlled HIV infection presented with 3 months of progressive, subacute neurocognitive decline. His symptoms included conceptual apraxia, apathy, memory impairment, and gait disturbance, and were initially attributed to depressive "pseudo-dementia...
2016: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759759/human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-institutionalized-elderly-people
#20
Milton Luiz Gorzoni, Sueli Luciano Pires, Lilian de Fátima Costa Faria, Márcia Regina Valadares Aguado, Miriam Carmen Santana
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: A search in the SciELO and PubMed databases showed few studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals in long-term care institutions (LTCIs), thus prompting the present study. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there were any HIV-positive individuals in LTCIs for the elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in which the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) of a 405-bed LTCI was consulted. METHODS: The medical records of 405 individuals interned in the LTCI who had been tested for HIV infection were requested for analysis of the following variables: [1] age and gender; [2] length of stay at LTCI (months); [3] causes and diagnoses on admission to LTCI according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; [4] date of HIV diagnosis; [5] seropositivity for syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses; [6] medications used at last prescription in medical file; and [7] mean CD4 lymphocyte count based on: total lymphocyte count/6 and total lymphocyte count x 0...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
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