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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349578/in-situ-tissue-labeling-of-cerebral-amyloid-using-hiv-related-tat-peptide
#1
E Maderna, L Colombo, A Cagnotto, G Di Fede, A Indaco, F Tagliavini, M Salmona, G Giaccone
Delivering peptide-based drugs to the brain is a major challenge because of the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To overcome this problem, cell-penetrating peptides derived from proteins that are able to cross biological membranes have been used as cell-permeable and brain-penetrant compounds. An example is the transactivator of transcription protein transduction domain (Tat) of the human immunodeficiency virus. The basic domain of Tat is formed of arginine and lysine amino acid residues. Tat has been used as brain-penetrant carrier also in therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of dementia characterized by extracellular cerebral deposits of amyloid made up of Aβ peptide...
January 19, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323557/neuropsychological-assessment-of-412-hiv-infected-individuals-in-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#2
Maria Rita Polo Gascón, José Ernesto Vidal, Yolanda Marques Mazzaro, Jerusa Smid, Rosa Maria Nascimento Marcusso, Claudio Garcia Capitão, Elizeu Macedo Coutinho, Glaucia Rosana Guerra Benute, Mara Cristina Souza De Lucia, Augusto César Penalva de Oliveira
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain frequent even among individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). In addition, HAND may adversely affect the quality of life and adherence to cART. There is scarce epidemiological information about HAND in Latin America. This cross-sectional study recruited HIV-infected patients from a tertiary teaching institution in São Paulo, Brazil, between May 2013 and February 2015. The patients were adults with at least 4 years of education and patients with current neurological or psychiatric diseases were excluded...
January 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280107/neural-response-to-working-memory-demand-predicts-neurocognitive-deficits-in-hiv
#3
Ronald A Cohen, S Siegel, J M Gullett, E Porges, A J Woods, H Huang, Y Zhu, K Tashima, M-Z Ding
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to have adverse effects on cognition and the brain in many infected people, despite a reduced incidence of HIV-associated dementia with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Working memory is often affected, along with attention, executive control, and cognitive processing speed. Verbal working memory (VWM) requires the interaction of each of the cognitive component processes along with a phonological loop for verbal repetition and rehearsal. HIV-related functional brain response abnormalities during VWM are evident in functional MRI (fMRI), though the neural substrate underlying these neurocognitive deficits is not well understood...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260041/cognitive-functions-in-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-hiv-infection-in-a-tertiary-health-facility-assessment-using-community-screening-interview-for-dementia
#4
T A Sumonu, F Imarhiagbe, L F Owolabi, O A Ogunrin, M A Komolafe, O S Ilesanmi
Introduction: Neurocognitive dysfunction is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. In this study we attempt to characterize the pattern of cognitive dysfunction in a sample of Nigerian patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection. Methods: We conducted a prospective study in which 50 patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were studied along with 50 normal control subjects. The participants were evaluated with the medical history, general, physical and neurological examination...
December 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259541/connexin43-containing-gap-junction-channels-facilitate-hiv-bystander-toxicity-implications-in-neurohiv
#5
Shaily Malik, Martin Theis, Eliseo A Eugenin
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection compromises the central nervous system (CNS) in a significant number of infected individuals, resulting in neurological dysfunction that ranges from minor cognitive deficits to frank dementia. While macrophages/microglia are the predominant CNS cells infected by HIV, our laboratory and others have shown that HIV-infected astrocytes, although present in relatively low numbers with minimal to undetectable viral replication, play key role in NeuroAIDS pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235927/risk-factors-for-hospital-death-in-conditions-needing-palliative-care-nationwide-population-based-death-certificate-study
#6
Barbara Gomes, Maria João Pinheiro, Sílvia Lopes, Maja de Brito, Vera P Sarmento, Pedro Lopes Ferreira, Henrique Barros
BACKGROUND: Most people would prefer to die at home as opposed to hospital; therefore, understanding mortality patterns by place of death is essential for health resources allocation. AIM: We examined trends and risk factors for hospital death in conditions needing palliative care in a country without integrated palliative care. DESIGN: This is a death certificate study. We examined factors associated with hospital death using logistic regression...
November 1, 2017: Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221753/pura-the-gene-encoding-pur-alpha-member-of-an-ancient-nucleic-acid-binding-protein-family-with-mammalian-neurological-functions
#7
REVIEW
Dianne C Daniel, Edward M Johnson
The PURA gene encodes Pur-alpha, a 322 amino acid protein with repeated nucleic acid binding domains that are highly conserved from bacteria through humans. PUR genes with a single copy of this domain have been detected so far in spirochetes and bacteroides. Lower eukaryotes possess one copy of the PUR gene, whereas chordates possess 1-4 PUR family members. Human PUR genes encode Pur-alpha (Pura), Pur-beta (Purb) and two forms of Pur-gamma (Purg). Pur-alpha is a protein that binds specific DNA and RNA sequence elements...
December 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207498/steppogenin-isolated-from-cudrania-tricuspidata-shows-antineuroinflammatory-effects-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-pathways-in-lps-stimulated-bv2-and-primary-rat-microglial-cells
#8
Dong-Cheol Kim, Tran Hong Quang, Hyuncheol Oh, Youn-Chul Kim
Excessive microglial stimulation has been recognized in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS), HIV-associated dementia (HAD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and stroke. When microglia are stimulated, they produce proinflammatory mediators and cytokines, including nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) derived from cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
December 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183843/the-moca-basic-is-not-a-reliable-screening-tool-for-cognitive-decline-in-cart-receiving-hiv-patients-in-rural-south-africa
#9
C S Hakkers, A J M Beunders, M H M Ensing, R E Barth, S Boelema, W L J Devillé, H A Tempelman, R A Coutinho, I M Hoepelman, J E Arends, M J E van Zandvoort
BACKGROUND: HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) is a frequently occurring comorbidity in HIV-infected (HIV+) patients diagnosed by means of a NeuroPsychological Assessment (NPA). Due to the magnitude of the HIV+ population in sub-Saharan Africa, easy-to-use cognitive screening tools are mandatory. METHODS: cross-sectional clinical trial in 44 HIV+ patients (stable cART) and 73 HIV-negative (HIV-) controls completing an NPA, the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) and a culturally appropriate cognitive screening tool; the MoCA Basic (MoCa-B)...
November 25, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164407/neurological-complications-of-hiv-infection
#10
REVIEW
Shelli Farhadian, Payal Patel, Serena Spudich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are common in patients with HIV disease, even during suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This review article addresses the pathogenesis of HAND, focusing on important findings from the last 5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: While HIV-associated dementia is now rare in settings with cART availability, mild forms of HAND are increasing in prevalence. Biomarkers of cellular injury, such as neurofilament light chain and neopterin, can detect early stages of neuroinflammation associated with HIV infection and are increased even in asymptomatic individuals with chronic HIV infection...
November 21, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154688/substance-use-and-cognitive-function-as-drivers-of-condomless-anal-sex-among-hiv-positive-gay-bisexual-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-aged-50-and-older-the-gold-studies
#11
Sandra A Kupprat, Kristen D Krause, Danielle C Ompad, Perry N Halkitis
PURPOSE: Substance use has been linked to the sexual transmission of HIV among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) across the lifespan. Among older, HIV-positive, MSM populations, cognitive dysfunction associated with age and HIV disease progression also may play a role in sexual risk-taking. People aged 50 years and older represent a growing proportion of the overall HIV-positive population. This study aimed to explore relationships between substance use and cognitive function, and their impact on condomless anal sex (CAS) among HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other MSM aged 50 years and older...
November 20, 2017: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142315/hiv-1-counteracts-an-innate-restriction-by-amyloid-precursor-protein-resulting-in-neurodegeneration
#12
Qingqing Chai, Vladimir Jovasevic, Viacheslav Malikov, Yosef Sabo, Scott Morham, Derek Walsh, Mojgan H Naghavi
While beta-amyloid (Aβ), a classic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia, has long been known to be elevated in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected brain, why and how Aβ is produced, along with its contribution to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains ill-defined. Here, we reveal that the membrane-associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) is highly expressed in macrophages and microglia, and acts as an innate restriction against HIV-1. APP binds the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein, retains it in lipid rafts and blocks HIV-1 virion production and spread...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081720/effects-of-recent-alcohol-consumption-level-on-neurocognitive-performance-in-hiv-individuals
#13
Kara R Douglas-Newman, Rachel V Smith, Mary V Spiers, Timothy Pond, Henry R Kranzler
OBJECTIVES: Although HIV+ individuals may be at increased risk of alcohol-related cognitive impairment, the relations between drinking level and cognitive performance in these individuals are not well understood. We examined whether higher levels of recent drinking in HIV+ individuals were associated with poorer cognitive performance, particularly in executive functioning (EF) and memory. METHODS: We administered a comprehensive cognitive battery to 120 seropositive subjects (101 men) who reported alcohol consumption in the preceding 90 days...
September 2017: Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074839/acute-onset-vascular-dementia-with-bi-thalamic-infarct-in-an-hiv-positive-subject
#14
Léonard Kouamé Kouassi, Mariam Doumbia-Ouattara
BACKGROUND Bi-thalamic infarctions are rare and marked by clinical polymorphism. Their association with HIV has never been reported. CASE REPORT We report a 51-year-old right-handed man with no medical history, who presented an acute onset vascular dementia associated with an antero-retrograde amnesia, a word-finding difficulty, and a dysexecutive syndrome. The CT scan was normal. Brain MRI revealed a paramedian and bi-thalamic infarction, evoking an occlusion of the Percheron artery. The electrocardiogram, transthoracic and transesophageal cardiac ultrasound, and Doppler echo of cervical arteries gave normal results...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068256/longitudinal-evaluation-of-resting-state-connectivity-white-matter-integrity-and-cortical-thickness-in-stable-hiv-infection-preliminary-results
#15
Diogo G Corrêa, Nicolle Zimmermann, Nina Ventura, Gustavo Tukamoto, Thomas Doring, Sarah Cb Leite, Rochele P Fonseca, Paulo Rv Bahia, Fernanda Cr Lopes, Emerson L Gasparetto
Purpose The objectives of this study were to determine if HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), without dementia, suffer from longitudinal gray matter (GM) volume loss, changes in white matter (WM) integrity and deterioration in functional connectivity at rest, in an average interval of 30 months. Methods Clinically stable HIV-positive patients (on HAART, CD4 + T lymphocyte > 200 cells/μl, and viral loads <50 copies/μl) were recruited. None of them had HIV-associated dementia...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054021/qprtase-modified-n-doped-carbon-quantum-dots-a-fluorescent-bioprobe-for-selective-detection-of-neurotoxin-quinolinic-acid-in-human-serum
#16
Ranjana Singh, Sunayana Kashayap, Vimal Singh, Arvind M Kayastha, Hirdyesh Mishra, Preeti Suman Saxena, Anchal Srivastava, Ranjan K Singh
Highly fluorescent nitrogen doped carbon quantum dots (NCQDs) were synthesized using microwave assisted green method. It was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), FTIR, UV-Visible absorption and Photoluminiscence (PL) techniques. The NCQDs were immobilized with an enzyme named quinolinate phoshphoribosyl transferase (QPRTase). The NCQDs immobilized by QPRTase was used as a fluorescent bioprobe for the selective detection of endogenous neurotoxin quinolinic acid (QA) whose elevated level in serum is marker of many neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's and HIV associated dementia (HAD) as well as deficiency of vitamin B6...
October 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991888/commonly-prescribed-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-and-incidence-of-aids-defining-neurological-conditions
#17
Ellen C Caniglia, Andrew Phillips, Kholoud Porter, Caroline A Sabin, Alan Winston, Roger Logan, John Gill, Marie-Anne Vandenhende, Diana Barger, Sara Lodi, Santiago Moreno, José Ramón Arribas, Antonio Pacheco, Sandra W Cardoso, George Chrysos, Charalabos Gogos, Sophie Abgrall, Dominique Costagliola, Laurence Meyer, Remonie Seng, Ard van Sighem, Peter Reiss, Roberto Muga, Santiago Pérez Hoyos, Dominique Braun, Christoph Hauser, Pilar Barrufet, Maria Leyes, Janet Tate, Amy Justice, Miguel A Hernán
BACKGROUND: The differential effects of commonly prescribed combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens on AIDS-defining neurological conditions (neuroAIDS) remain unknown. SETTING: Prospective cohort studies of HIV-positive individuals from Europe and the Americas included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: Individuals who initiated a first-line cART regimen in 2004 or later containing a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone and either atazanavir, lopinavir, darunavir, or efavirenz were followed from cART initiation until death, lost to follow-up, pregnancy, the cohort-specific administrative end of follow-up, or the event of interest, whichever occurred earliest...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979643/progressive-dementia-with-seizures-in-an-hiv-infected-lady
#18
Joe James, James Jose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971376/association-of-age-and-time-of-disease-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-a-japanese-nationwide-multicenter-study
#19
Ei Kinai, Kensuke Komatsu, Maiko Sakamoto, Toshibumi Taniguchi, Aya Nakao, Hidetoshi Igari, Kiyonori Takada, Aki Watanabe, Ai Takahashi-Nakazato, Misao Takano, Yoshimi Kikuchi, Shinichi Oka
There is no detailed information on the association between age, time of disease, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In this prospective study involving 17 medical facilities across Japan, we recruited HIV-infected patients to complete a 14-test neuropsychological battery that assess eight neurocognitive domains. HAND were diagnosed by the Frascati criteria. Of 1399 recruited patients, 728 were enrolled. The prevalence of HAND was 25.3% [13.5% asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 10.6% mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and 1...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946588/changing-the-culture-of-neurodisability-through-language-and-sensitivity-of-providers-creating-a-safe-place-for-lgbtqia-people
#20
Alexander Moreno, Ari Laoch, Nathan D Zasler
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in sexual and gender diversity in neurorehabilitation. Healthcare professionals wanting to improve their practice know the importance of understanding the needs and expectations of specific communities. OBJECTIVE: To critically review the literature about neurological disorders in people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and people with other sexual orientations and forms of gender expression (LGBTQIA+)...
2017: NeuroRehabilitation
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