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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684681/interplay-between-autophagy-exosomes-and-hiv-1-associated-neurological-disorders-new-insights-for-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-applications
#1
REVIEW
Chet Raj Ojha, Jessica Lapierre, Myosotys Rodriguez, Seth M Dever, Mohammad Asad Zadeh, Catherine DeMarino, Michelle L Pleet, Fatah Kashanchi, Nazira El-Hage
The autophagy-lysosomal pathway mediates a degradative process critical in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis as well as the preservation of proper organelle function by selective removal of damaged proteins and organelles. In some situations, cells remove unwanted or damaged proteins and RNAs through the release to the extracellular environment of exosomes. Since exosomes can be transferred from one cell to another, secretion of unwanted material to the extracellular environment in exosomes may have an impact, which can be beneficial or detrimental, in neighboring cells...
July 6, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682528/s-adenosylmethionine-same-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-a-clinician-oriented-review-of-research
#2
REVIEW
Anup Sharma, Patricia Gerbarg, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Lila Massoumi, Linda L Carpenter, Helen Lavretsky, Philip R Muskin, Richard P Brown, David Mischoulon
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) for treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions and comorbid medical conditions. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Google Scholar databases between July 15, 2015, and September 28, 2016, by combining search terms for SAMe (s-adenosyl methionine or s-adenosyl-l-methionine) with terms for relevant disease states (major depressive disorder, MDD, depression, perinatal depression, human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, dementia, anxiety, schizophrenia, psychotic, 22q11...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665215/neurocognitive-profile-of-hiv-positive-adults-on-combined-antiretroviral-therapy-a-single-centre-study-in-serbia
#3
Brigitta Malagurski, Vojislava Bugarski Ignjatović, Daniela Marić, Željka Nikolašević, Ljiljana Mihić, Snežana Brkić
The advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has prolonged the life expectancy of HIV + individuals and decreased the incidence of HIV-associated dementia. However, milder forms of neurocognitive impairment remain common and are often associated with poor daily functioning and lower medication adherence. This paper presents a research aimed at exploring the cognitive status differences between HIV + subjects (N = 39) on cART therapy and a group of demographically comparable healthy subjects (N = 39) in Serbia...
June 30, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626409/hiv-associated-cerebellar-dysfunction-and-improvement-with-aminopyridine-therapy-a-case-report
#4
Carolin Hoyer, Angelika Alonso, Beate Schlotter-Weigel, Michael Platten, Marc Fatar
Apart from infectious causes and cerebellar dysfunction associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome dementia or HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, cerebellar dysfunction in HIV-positive individuals has been ascribed to granule cell neuronopathy as well as primary cerebellar atrophy without identifiable etiology. We report the case of a patient with progressive cerebellar dysfunction as the primary manifestation of HIV infection. No symptom improvement was seen under combination antiretroviral therapy, which had been established upon diagnosis, but the patient improved rapidly under 4-aminopyridine treatment, which was recommended 1 year later...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584853/the-presence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-is-associated-with-a-lower-adherence-to-combined-antiretroviral-treatment
#5
Susan Kamal, Isabella Locatelli, Gilles Wandeler, Asemaneh Sehhat, Olivier Bugnon, Melanie Metral, Renaud Du Pasquier, Klemens Gutbrod, Matthias Cavassini, Marie P Schneider
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are defined according to their diagnostic degrees as follows: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, mild neurocognitive disorder, and HIV-associated dementia. Because high adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is required to maintain viral suppression among HIV-infected patients, it is important to investigate the impact of HAND on medication adherence. Our study hypothesis was that patients with HAND had a lower medication adherence than patients who did not have HAND...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567537/hiv-1-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-epidemiology-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Christian Eggers, Gabriele Arendt, Katrin Hahn, Ingo W Husstedt, Matthias Maschke, Eva Neuen-Jacob, Mark Obermann, Thorsten Rosenkranz, Eva Schielke, Elmar Straube
The modern antiretroviral treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection has considerably lowered the incidence of opportunistic infections. With the exception of the most severe dementia manifestations, the incidence and prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) have not decreased, and HAND continues to be relevant in daily clinical practice. Now, HAND occurs in earlier stages of HIV infection, and the clinical course differs from that before the widespread use of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART)...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476157/microglia-amplify-inflammatory-activation-of-astrocytes-in-manganese-neurotoxicity
#7
Kelly S Kirkley, Katriana A Popichak, Maryam F Afzali, Marie E Legare, Ronald B Tjalkens
BACKGROUND: As the primary immune response cell in the central nervous system, microglia constantly monitor the microenvironment and respond rapidly to stress, infection, and injury, making them important modulators of neuroinflammatory responses. In diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-induced dementia, activation of microglia precedes astrogliosis and overt neuronal loss. Although microgliosis is implicated in manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity, the role of microglia and glial crosstalk in Mn-induced neurodegeneration is poorly understood...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471944/geriatric-syndromes-new-frontiers-in-hiv-and-sarcopenia
#8
Kellie L Hawkins, Todd T Brown, Joseph B Margolick, Kristine M Erlandson
: HIV infection, in many circumstances, can now be managed as a chronic disease due to the marked increase in life expectancy since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). As the patients who first had access to combination ART age into their 50s and 60s, the effects of chronic HIV infection on health have become an important research focus in HIV infection. People living with HIV appear to exhibit an earlier occurrence of some aging-related conditions compared to people without HIV, in part due to higher rates of comorbidities, high-risk behaviors (e...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471826/chronic-comorbidities-associated-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-prevalence-and-impact-on-healthcare-costs-in-switzerland
#9
Caroline Bähler, Alain M Schoepfer, Stephan R Vavricka, Beat Brüngger, Oliver Reich
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was shown to be associated with a variety of chronic comorbidities. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of 21 chronic conditions and compared frequencies in IBD and non-IBD populations. Further, healthcare costs of those (additional) chronic conditions were calculated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 4791 IBD patients, who were insured at Helsana Insurance Group in 2014, were compared with 1 114 638 individuals without IBD...
August 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470583/interaction-effects-between-hiv-and-aging-on-selective-neurocognitive-impairment
#10
Yingying Ding, Haijiang Lin, Weiwei Shen, Qionghai Wu, Meiyang Gao, Na He
HIV infection and aging are each associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI). This study examined the combined effects of HIV infection and aging on NCI. We performed a cross-sectional survey among 345 HIV-infected and 345 HIV-uninfected participants aged at least 40 years. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) and Chinese version of Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to screen for NCI. HIV-infected individuals had higher prevalence of NCI than uninfected individuals (46.7% vs 15...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458492/prevalence-of-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-deficit-among-hiv-positive-people-in-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study-at-ayder-referral-hospital
#11
Tilahun Belete, Girmaw Medfu, Ephrem Yemiyamrew
BACKGROUND: HIV associated neurocognitive deficit impairs motor activity, neuropsychiatric functioning, daily activity and work activity usually due to the immune suppression effect of the virus. Sub-Saharan region including Ethiopia is the region with the highest burden of HIV. However, a few studies are found on this aspect nationally. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and the factors associated with cognitive impairment among HIV positive people in Ethiopia who attended Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital...
January 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452647/a-case-of-fronto-temporal-dementia-ftd-masquerading-as-mood-disorder
#12
Sarah Pospos, Min Xi, Guanjie Chen, Ruiguo Zhang, Qingrong Tan, Andrius Baskys
A 56-year old Chinese female was referred to an academic medical center with atypical, treatment-resistant depression that continued for approximately 3 years after her sister's death. Comprehensive evaluation including neurocognitive testing, EEG, spinal tap, HIV testing and brain MRI revealed behavioral variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD) with significant frontal and temporal lobe atrophy.This patient's unusual clinical presentation emphasizes the overlap between depression and bvFTD, and underlines the importance of prompt, accurate diagnosis to minimize often-ineffective pharmacological interventions and caregiver burnout...
December 23, 2016: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441414/regional-early-and-progressive-loss-of-brain-pericytes-but-not-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-in-adult-mice-with-disrupted-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-signaling
#13
Angeliki Maria Nikolakopoulou, Zhen Zhao, Axel Montagne, Berislav V Zlokovic
Pericytes regulate key neurovascular functions of the brain. Studies in pericyte-deficient transgenic mice with aberrant signaling between endothelial-derived platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in pericytes have contributed to better understanding of the role of pericytes in the brain. Here, we studied PdgfrβF7/F7 mice, which carry seven point mutations that disrupt PDGFRβ signaling causing loss of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the developing brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433855/the-electrophysiology-of-neurohiv-a-systematic-review-of-eeg-and-meg-studies-in-people-with-hiv-infection-since-the-advent-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
Ana Lucia Fernández-Cruz, Lesley K Fellows
OBJECTIVE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has an impact on the brain, even when the infection is well-controlled with modern highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). While dementia is rare in those on HAART, milder cognitive impairment is common. The causes, patterns, and evolution of brain dysfunction in people living with HIV remain uncertain. We evaluate whether electrophysiological methods provide informative measures of brain dysfunction in this population. METHODS: A systematic literature search identified studies that used EEG or MEG to evaluate persons living with HIV published between 1996 (when HAART became available) and 2016...
June 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413625/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-recent-advances-in-pathogenesis-biomarkers-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Antonia Carroll, Bruce Brew
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite plasma viral suppression by antiretroviral agents. In fact, the prevalence of milder subtypes of cognitive impairment is increasing. Neuropsychologic testing remains the "gold standard" of diagnosis; however, this is time consuming and costly in a resource-poor environment. Recently developed screening tools, such as CogState and the revised HIV dementia scale, have very good sensitivity and specificity in the more severe stages of HAND...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387447/withdrawn-interventions-for-fatigue-and-weight-loss-in-adults-with-advanced-progressive-illness
#16
REVIEW
Cathy Payne, Philip J Wiffen, Suzanne Martin
BACKGROUND: Fatigue and unintentional weight loss are two of the commonest symptoms experienced by people with advanced progressive illness. Appropriate interventions may bring considerable improvements in function and quality of life to seriously ill people and their families, reducing physical, psychological and spiritual distress. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an overview of the evidence available on the efficacy of interventions used in the management of fatigue and/or unintentional weight loss in adults with advanced progressive illness by reviewing the evidence contained within Cochrane reviews...
April 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383502/the-role-of-hiv-infection-in-neurologic-injury
#17
REVIEW
Rossana Scutari, Claudia Alteri, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher, Stefano Aquaro
The central nervous system (CNS) is a very challenging HIV-1 sanctuary, in which HIV-1 replication is established early on during acute infection and can persist despite potent antiretroviral treatments. HIV-1 infected macrophages play a pivotal role acting as vehicles for HIV-1 to spread into the brain, and can be the major contributor of an early compartmentalization. HIV-1 infection in CNS may lead to a broad spectrum of neurological syndromes, such as dementia, mild neurocognitive disorders, and asymptomatic impairment...
April 6, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367733/prevalence-and-correlates-of-probable-hiv-associated-dementia-in-hiv-outpatients-in-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#18
Thanh Truc Thai, Mairwen K Jones, Lynne M Harris, Robert C Heard
This study identified prevalence and correlates of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) among people living with HIV (PLWHA) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Four hundred PLWHA completed a self-report questionnaire and were interviewed by a trained researcher to assess HAD using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS). Clinical information concerning HIV treatment was also extracted from medical records. The results indicate the prevalence of probable HAD based on IHDS score <10.5 was 39.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358738/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-inhibition-by-indinavir-implications-for-cognitive-dysfunction-in-treated-hiv-disease
#19
Sean Ekins, Paul Mathews, Erin K Saito, Natalie Diaz, David Naylor, Julia Chung, Aaron M McMurtray
OBJECTIVE: The study set out to determine if the HIV protease inhibitor, indinavir, alters responsiveness of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to acetylcholine. DESIGN: Treatment with HAART has dramatically reduced development of HIV-associated dementia and more severe forms of cognitive impairment. However, many individuals continue to experience cognitive decline of uncertain cause. Previous studies have failed to demonstrate significant alterations of functional brain connectivity, structural brain changes, or changes in cerebral blood flow sufficient to explain cognitive decline in virally suppressed individuals...
May 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302163/matrix-metalloproteinase-activity-stimulates-n-cadherin-shedding-and-the-soluble-n-cadherin-ectodomain-promotes-classical-microglial-activation
#20
Katherine Conant, Stefano Daniele, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Tsion Abdi, Amanda Edwards, Arek Szklarczyk, India Olchefske, David Ottenheimer, Kathleen Maguire-Zeiss
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that are typically released from intracellular stores to act on specific extracellular substrates. MMP expression and activity can be increased in a neuronal activity-dependent manner, and further increased in response to tissue injury. MMP substrates include cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that are abundantly expressed in the brain and well positioned for membrane proximal cleavage. Importantly, CAM integrity is important to synaptic structure and axon-myelin interactions, and shed ectodomains may themselves influence cellular function...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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