Read by QxMD icon Read

hiv dementia

Milton Luiz Gorzoni, Sueli Luciano Pires, Lilian de Fátima Costa Faria, Márcia Regina Valadares Aguado, Miriam Carmen Santana
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: A search in the SciELO and PubMed databases showed few studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals in long-term care institutions (LTCIs), thus prompting the present study. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there were any HIV-positive individuals in LTCIs for the elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in which the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) of a 405-bed LTCI was consulted. METHODS: The medical records of 405 individuals interned in the LTCI who had been tested for HIV infection were requested for analysis of the following variables: [1] age and gender; [2] length of stay at LTCI (months); [3] causes and diagnoses on admission to LTCI according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; [4] date of HIV diagnosis; [5] seropositivity for syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses; [6] medications used at last prescription in medical file; and [7] mean CD4 lymphocyte count based on: total lymphocyte count/6 and total lymphocyte count x 0...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Enrique López, Alexander J Steiner, Kimberly Smith, Nicholas S Thaler, David J Hardy, Andrew J Levine, Hussah T Al-Kharafi, Cristina Yamakawa, Karl Goodkin
Given that neurocognitive impairment is a frequent complication of HIV-1 infection in Spanish-speaking adults, the limited number of studies assessing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in this population raises serious clinical concern. In addition to being appropriately translated, instruments need to be modified, normed, and validated accordingly. The purpose of the current study was to examine the diagnostic utility of the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) and International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) to screen for HAND in Spanish-speaking adults living with HIV infection...
August 15, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
C A T Pinheiro, L D M Souza, J V S Motta, E F Kelbert, M S Souza, C S R Martins, F M C Coelho, K A T Pinheiro, R T Pinheiro
Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is frequently observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and results from the compromise of subcortical brain structures by the virus. The manifestations of NCI range from asymptomatic impairment to dementia. In addition to cognitive impairment resulting from HIV infection, other factors such as depression are associated with the loss of cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of NCI in HIV-positive patients in a city in southern Brazil and to establish possible associations for the prevalence of NCI with HIV-related and other risk factors...
September 12, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Rachael N Kinuthia, Benson N Gakinya, Joseph M Thigiti
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is associated with cognitive impairment which affects psychomotor speed. Psychomotor slowing is a predictor of dementia and death in people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between psychomotor speed neurocognitive score and the HIV disease stage in adults at initiation of care...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
K Narayanan, Avneet Gupta, S Manoj, Kp Seshadri
We present a case of dementia in a young healthy individual. On evaluation he was detected to have HIV infection with low CD4 count and a high viral load. He had no opportunistic infections or any other AIDS defining illnesses. He recovered fully within 3 months of antiretroviral therapy.
August 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
T J Barber, L Bansi, A Pozniak, D Asboe, M Nelson, G Moyle, N Davies, A Margetts, D Ratcliffe, J Catalan, M Boffito, B Gazzard
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected men who have sex with men aged 18-50 years, using a simple battery of screening tests in routine clinical appointments. Those with suspected abnormalities were referred on for further assessment. The cohort was also followed up over time to look at evolving changes. HIV-infected participants were recruited at three clinical sites in London during from routine clinical visits. They could be clinician or self-referred and did not need to be symptomatic...
August 10, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Riddhi Patira, Sarah Smith-Benjamin, Jijo J Wang
Syphilis has long been known as the great imitator. Its heterogeneity can manifest in the form of meningitis, space occupying gummas, vasculitis, strokes, cranial neuropathies, myelopathy, dementia, and seizures. The incidence has been rising with each year, mainly in men who have sex with men accounting for 83% of cases. With the coexistence of immunocompromised states, especially HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), the usually chronic and insidious course of tertiary neurosyphilis can be accelerated. Stroke can occur as a result of neurosyphilis in its meningovascular form, and the likelihood of this increases with HIV co-infection, especially in high-risk groups such as intravenous drug users and men who have sex with men...
August 10, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Cecilia L Moore, Andrew E Grulich, Garrett Prestage, Heather F Gidding, Fengyi Jin, Kathy Petoumenos, Iryna B Zablotska, I Mary Poynten, Limin Mao, Matthew G Law, Janaki Amin
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders (AMDs) in HIV-infected individuals has varied widely due to the variety of measurements used and differences in risk factor profiles between different populations. We aimed to examine the relationship between HIV-status and hospitalisation for AMDs in GBM. DESIGN: and Methods: HIV-infected (n=557) and -uninfected (n=1325) GBM recruited in Sydney, Australia were probabilistically linked to their hospital admissions and death notifications (2000-2012)...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Tiffany Field
In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Raymond Scott Turner, Melanie Chadwick, Wesley A Horton, Gary L Simon, Xiong Jiang, Giuseppe Esposito
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is found in 30%-50% of individuals with HIV infection. To date, no HIV+ individual has been reported to have a positive amyloid PET scan. We report a 71-year-old HIV+ individual with HAND. Clinical and neuropsychologic evaluations confirmed a progressive mild dementia. A routine brain MRI was normal for age. [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET revealed mild hypermetabolism in bilateral basal ganglia and hypometabolism of bilateral parietal cortex including the posterior cingulate/precuneus...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Han Liu, Enquan Xu, Jianuo Liu, Huangui Xiong
Oligodendrocytes wrap neuronal axons to form myelin, an insulating sheath which is essential for nervous impulse conduction along axons. Axonal myelination is highly regulated by neuronal and astrocytic signals and the maintenance of myelin sheaths is a very complex process. Oligodendrocyte damage can cause axonal demyelination and neuronal injury, leading to neurological disorders. Demyelination in the cerebrum may produce cognitive impairment in a variety of neurological disorders, including human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)...
July 22, 2016: Brain Sciences
Jan J Krut, Richard W Price, Henrik Zetterberg, Dietmar Fuchs, Lars Hagberg, Aylin Yilmaz, Paola Cinque, Staffan Nilsson, Magnus Gisslén
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of neurocognitive deficits are reported to be high in HIV-1 positive patients, even with suppressive antiretroviral treatment, and it has been suggested that HIV can cause accelerated aging of the brain. In this study we measured phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a potential marker for premature central nervous system (CNS) aging. P-tau increases with normal aging but is not affected by HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. METHODS: With a cross-sectional retrospective design, p-tau, total tau (t-tau), neopterin and HIV-RNA were measured in CSF together with plasma HIV-RNA and blood CD4(+) T-cells of 225 HIV-infected patients <50 y of age, subdivided into 3 groups: untreated neuroasymptomatic (NA) (n = 145), on suppressive antiretroviral treatment (cART) (n = 49), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (n = 31)...
July 19, 2016: Virulence
Mehrdad Malihi, Xintong Li, Shriji Patel, Thomas Eck, David S Chu, Marco A Zarbin, Neelakshi Bhagat
PURPOSE: To describe the demographics, characteristics, management, and outcomes of eyes with endophthalmitis related to infectious keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all patients treated for infectious keratitis-associated infectious endophthalmitis between 2001 and 2014 at University Hospital, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. RESULTS: Thirty-eight cases with infectious keratitis-associated infectious endophthalmitis were identified (21 men [55%], mean age: 66...
July 14, 2016: Retina
Phil Nottingham
I have been awarded a Fellowship from the Department of Health and Social Security to study the Community Care of People with HIV and AIDS in the Community.
February 6, 1988: Nursing Standard
Albert M Anderson, Jeffrey L Lennox, Mark M Mulligan, David W Loring, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Cari Kessing, Rajeth Koneru, Kirk Easley, William R Tyor
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) continue to be common and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era are not fully understood. Interferon alpha (IFNα) is an antiviral cytokine found to be elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of individuals with advanced HIV-associated dementia in the pre-cART era. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the association between IFNα and neurocognitive performance in ambulatory HIV-infected individuals with milder impairment...
July 11, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Shanshan Qin, Qiang Chen, Chenglong Liu, Changshui Xu
Objective To explore the protective effect of naringin on cognitive disorders induced by HIV-1-enveloped glycoprotein 120 (gp120) mediated by the P2X7 receptor in rats. Methods The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the effect of naringin on cognitive dysfunction induced by gp120 intraventricular perfusion in the rat models of dementia. The expression levels of P2X7 receptor mRNA and protein in hippocampus tissues were detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively...
July 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Nicoletta Ciccarelli, Silio Limiti, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Eleonora Baldonero, Benedetta Milanini, Silvia Lamonica, Roberto Cauda, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Maria Caterina Silveri
HIV+ population is getting older because of progress in treatments. Yet, there are concerns that Older HIV+ individuals (OHIV+) may be more vulnerable for developing a "cortical" dementia such as Alzheimer Disease (AD). Our aim was to explore the hypothesis that the cognitive deficit extends to ''cortical'' functions in OHIV+ by comparing serial position effects (SPE) in different groups of participants affected by "cortical" or "subcortical" damage. We enrolled a total of 122 subjects: 22 OHIV+ (≥60 years of age), 31 Younger HIV+ (YHIV+) (<60 years of age), 18 participants with AD, 23 subjects with Parkinson Disease (PD), and 28 healthy subjects...
June 13, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Piyush Chandra, Archi Agrawal, Nilendu Purandare, Sneha Shah, Venkatesh Rangarajan
AIDS-related dementia complex is the most severe form of cognitive dysfunction in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The use of FDG PET/CT to diagnose AIDS-related dementia complex has been studied previously and shows various specific metabolic patterns from striatal hypermetabolism in early asymptomatic stage to global hypometabolism in advanced stages. We present a case of a 49-year-old patient with long-standing human immunodeficiency virus infection, where global brain hypometabolism was noted coincidentally on FDG PET/CT done for initial staging of primary pulmonary non-Hodgkin lymphoma...
August 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"