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multiple sclerosis + light therapy

Sunil Mamtora, Yun Wong, Dugald Bell, Teresa Sandinha
Background. This case highlights the importance of recognising multiple pathologies within the eye which may not necessarily be linked. Both birdshot retinochoroiditis and astrocytoma are rare conditions. The case underlines the need for early identification and treatment of birdshot retinochoroiditis with steroids and disease modifying drugs. Astrocytoma in the absence of tuberous sclerosis is also uncommon. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old male presented with 3-month history of bilateral progressive flashing lights and floaters...
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Christopher Dowson, Nathan Simpson, Laura Duffy, Steven O'Reilly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease which has defined three hallmarks: Small vessel vasculopathy, production of autoantibodies and fibroblast dysfunction. The exact aetiology of the disease remains unknown, due to the complex nature of the cellular signalling pathways involved. However, there is strong and consistent evidence that the innate system, in particular toll-like receptor signalling, is contributing to the progression and perhaps onset of systemic sclerosis...
January 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
Karolina A Zielińska, Laura Van Moortel, Ghislain Opdenakker, Karolien De Bosscher, Philippe E Van den Steen
The endothelium plays a crucial role in inflammation. A balanced control of inflammation requires the action of glucocorticoids (GCs), steroidal hormones with potent cell-specific anti-inflammatory properties. Besides the classic anti-inflammatory effects of GCs on leukocytes, recent studies confirm that endothelial cells also represent an important target for GCs. GCs regulate different aspects of endothelial physiology including expression of adhesion molecules, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and maintenance of endothelial barrier integrity...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Kidsadagon Pringproa, Anucha Sathanawongs, Chananthida Khamphilai, Sarocha Sukkarinprom, Apichart Oranratnachai
Induction of demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) of experimental mice using cuprizone is widely used as an animal model for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of demyelination. However, different mouse strains used result in different pathological outcomes. Moreover, because current medicinal treatments are not always effective in multiple sclerosis patients, so the study of exogenous cell transplantation in an animal model is of great importance. The aims of the present study were to establish an alternative ICR outbred mouse model for studying demyelination and to evaluate the effects of intravenous cell transplantation in the present developed mouse model...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Antonio Leo, Rita Citraro, Rosario Marra, Ernesto Palma, Eugenio Donato Di Paola, Andrew Constanti, Giovambattista De Sarro, Emilio Russo
It is currently known that erythrocytes are the major source of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in the body. S1P acts both extracellularly as a cellular mediator and intracellularly as an important second messenger molecule. Its effects are mediated by interaction with five specific types of G protein-coupled S1P receptor. Fingolimod, is a recognized modulator of S1P receptors, and is the first orally active disease-modifying therapy that has been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging data suggest that fingolimod may be effective in multiple sclerosis MS by preventing blood-brain barrier disruption and brain atrophy...
November 4, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Lenka Novakova, Markus Axelsson, Mohsen Khademi, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Clas Malmeström, Fredrik Piehl, Tomas Olsson, Jan Lycke
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers can reflect different aspects of the pathophysiology of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Understanding the impact of different disease modifying therapies on the CSF biomarker profile may increase their implementation in clinical practice and their appropriateness for monitoring treatment efficacy. This study investigated the influence of first-line (interferon beta) and second-line (natalizumab) therapies on seven CSF biomarkers in RRMS and their correlation with clinical and radiological outcomes...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Pierre de Flon, Martin Gunnarsson, Katarina Laurell, Lars Söderström, Richard Birgander, Thomas Lindqvist, Wolfgang Krauss, Ann Dring, Joakim Bergman, Peter Sundström, Anders Svenningsson
OBJECTIVE: To describe the effects of switching treatment from ongoing first-line injectable therapies to rituximab on inflammatory activity measured by MRI and levels of CSF neurofilament light chain (CSF-NFL) in a cohort of patients with clinically stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHOD: Seventy-five patients with clinically stable RRMS treated with the first-line injectables interferon-β (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate (GA) at 3 Swedish centers were switched to rituximab in this open-label phase II multicenter study...
July 12, 2016: Neurology
Vikram Bhise, Suhayl Dhib-Jalbut
INTRODUCTION: The understanding of the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has expanded with more research into T-cell subtypes, cytokine contributors, B-cell participation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and more. Treatment options have rapidly expanded with three relatively recent oral therapy alternatives entering the arena. AREAS COVERED: In the following review, we discuss current mechanisms of immune dysregulation in MS, how they relate to current treatments, and the impact these findings will have on the future of therapy...
October 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Bernhard F Décard, Tobias Derfuss
Recently, there have been major advances in the development of disease-modifying treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) and new promising treatment compounds are on the horizon. The available drugs mainly target inflammatory components of MS; hence, there is an urgent need for new treatment approaches that focus on the neurodegenerative aspects of the disease. Innovative study designs and biomarkers such as neurofilament light chain and brain atrophy measurement could help to identify neuroprotective treatments for the progressive phase of MS...
April 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Bruce A C Cree, Hans-Peter Hartung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review evaluates current and late-phase developing therapies for multiple sclerosis in regard to therapeutic efficacy and patient safety in light of recent published and presented observations from 2015. RECENT FINDINGS: We describe data that provide supportive evidence for comparisons of therapeutic efficacy of multiple sclerosis therapies and review available data on rare but serious adverse events associated with these therapies. SUMMARY: Serious adverse events that are sometimes rare and unpredictable may substantially alter current approaches to multiple sclerosis treatments...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
Xiao Mei Li, Hao Chen Rui, Dan Dan Liang, Feng Xu, Shao Shan Liang, Xiao Dong Zhu, Xiang Hua Huang, Zhi Hong Liu, Cai Hong Zeng
To explore the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of light chain deposition disease (LCDD) in a Chinese population, we retrospectively studied the clinicopathological data, treatment, and outcomes of 48 patients with biopsy-proven LCDD from a single center. Among the patients, there were 29 males and 19 females, with an average age of 51 years. The patients presented with hypertension (79.2 %), edema (60.4 %), renal insufficiency (95.8 %), anemia (93.8 %), nephrotic proteinuria (≥3.0 g/24 h) (44...
May 2016: Annals of Hematology
Alessandro Didonna
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with an unknown etiology. MS complex pathophysiology-characterized by CNS inflammation, demyelination and axonal injury-has made its modeling in experimental systems particularly problematic. Moreover, the evidence that MS does not naturally occur in other species has further complicated MS preclinical studies. Through the years, several MS in vivo models have been developed. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) represents the most widely used MS experimental model and relies upon the autoimmune paradigm to explore MS neuropathology...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
GianPietro Sechi, Elia Sechi, Chiara Fois, Neeraj Kumar
B vitamin deficiency is a leading cause of neurological impairment and disability throughout the world. Multiple B vitamin deficiencies often coexist, and thus an understanding of the complex relationships between the different biochemical pathways regulated in the brain by these vitamins may facilitate prompter diagnosis and improved treatment. Particular populations at risk for multiple B vitamin deficiencies include the elderly, people with alcoholism, patients with heart failure, patients with recent obesity surgery, and vegetarians/vegans...
May 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Teiichiro Miyazaki, Hideki Nakajima, Masakatsu Motomura, Keiko Tanaka, Yasuhiro Maeda, Hirokazu Shiraishi, Akira Tsujino
A previously healthy 16-year-old girl developed sudden eye pain and visual loss in her right eye. On day 7 from onset her right visual acuity had decreased to light perception, and she underwent 5 courses of intravenous methylprednisolone therapy (IVMP, 1 g/day for 3 consecutive days per week). Her eye pain and her visual acuity had improved immediately. Eleven months later, follow-up MRI revealed three T2-hyperintense plaques involving subcortical white matter in the left occipital lobe, right frontal lobe, right thalamus, and thoracic spinal cord...
April 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Bhupendra O Khatri
Since the approval in 2010 of fingolimod 0.5 mg (Gilenya; Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) in the USA as an oral therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, long-term clinical experience with this therapy has been increasing. This review provides a summary of the cumulative dataset from clinical trials and their extensions, plus postmarketing studies that contribute to characterizing the efficacy and safety profile of fingolimod in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Data from the controlled, phase III, pivotal studies [FREEDOMS (FTY720 Research Evaluating Effects of Daily Oral therapy in Multiple Sclerosis), FREEDOMS II and TRANSFORMS (Trial Assessing Injectable Interferon versus FTY720 Oral in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis)] in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis have shown that fingolimod has a robust effect on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes...
March 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Lenka Novakova, Markus Axelsson, Mohsen Khademi, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Clas Malmeström, Fredrik Piehl, Tomas Olsson, Jan Lycke
BACKGROUND: The disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) vary in their mode of action and when therapies are changed, the consequences on inflammatory and degenerative processes are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of switching from other DMTs to fingolimod on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. METHODS: 43 RRMS patients were followed up after 4-12 months of fingolimod treatment...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Mihoko Kai
Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate...
February 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Steffen Unkel, Christian Röver, Nigel Stallard, Norbert Benda, Martin Posch, Sarah Zohar, Tim Friede
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard design of clinical research to assess interventions. However, RCTs cannot always be applied for practical or ethical reasons. To investigate the current practices in rare diseases, we review evaluations of therapeutic interventions in paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). In particular, we shed light on the endpoints used, the study designs implemented and the statistical methodologies applied...
February 20, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Oriana Trubiani, Sabrina Giacoppo, Patrizia Ballerini, Francesca Diomede, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease mostly of autoimmune origin that affects and damages the central nervous system, leading to a disabling condition. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether administration of mesenchymal stem cells from human periodontal ligament (hPDLSCs) could ameliorate multiple sclerosis progression by exerting neuroprotective effects in an experimental model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). METHODS: EAE was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein peptide (MOG)35-55 in C57BL/6 mice...
January 4, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Qinghui Mu, Husen Zhang, Xin M Luo
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disease. Despite years of study, the etiology of SLE is still unclear. Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the disease mechanisms. In the past decade, a growing body of evidence has indicated an important role of gut microbes in the development of autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. However, such knowledge on SLE is little, though we have already known that environmental factors can trigger the development of lupus...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
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