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biochemical markers in gastrointestinal cancer

Austin B Hopper, Ajay P S Sandhu, J Kellogg Parsons, Brent Rose, John P Einck
Purpose: Cryotherapy is an option for the primary treatment of localized prostate cancer, along with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, and brachytherapy. Although it is known that local recurrence can occur in >20% of patients treated with primary cryotherapy, unfortunately there is a paucity of data on later salvage treatments. The use of external beam radiation therapy is an attractive option after cryotherapy failure, but there is little data on its efficacy and toxicity...
January 2018: Advances in Radiation Oncology
Shubhankar Suman, Santosh Kumar, Albert J Jr Fornace, Kamal Datta
Carbon irradiation due to its higher biological effectiveness relative to photon radiation is a concern for toxicity to proliferative normal gastrointestinal (GI) tissue after radiotherapy and long-duration space missions such as mission to Mars. Although radiation-induced oxidative stress is linked to chronic diseases such as cancer, effects of carbon irradiation on normal GI tissue have not been fully understood. This study assessed and compared chronic oxidative stress in mouse intestine and colon after different doses of carbon and γ radiation, which are qualitatively different...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Alexandra L Whittaker, Ying Zhu, Gordon S Howarth, Chi S Loung, Susan E P Bastian, Michelle G Wirthensohn
AIM: To determine if almond extracts reduce the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis as determined through biochemical, histological and behavioural markers. METHODS: Intestinal mucositis is a debilitating condition characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the gastrointestinal mucosa experienced by cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Certain bioactive plant products have shown promise in accelerating mucosal repair and alleviating clinical symptoms...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Pei-Chun Chao, Cheau-Feng Lin, Hui-Ju Chuang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether total parenteral nutrition combined with enteral nutrition is associated with improved biochemical and clinical outcomes in cancer patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: From January to December 2014, the clinical data of 68 patients in a cancer ward were retrospectively collected, and these patients were classified into two groups according to nutrition delivery, through parenteral nutrition, combined with enteral nutrition more (group A) or less (group B) than 250 kcal/day...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Kiyonao Nakamura, Takashi Mizowaki, Haruo Inokuchi, Itaru Ikeda, Takahiro Inoue, Tomomi Kamba, Osamu Ogawa, Masahiro Hiraoka
BACKGROUND: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a major therapeutic option for localized prostate cancer. Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) allows tumor visualization and corrects the errors caused by daily internal movement of the prostate. The current study retrospectively compared the acute toxicities and biochemical tumor control outcomes of prostate IMRT achieved using two IGRT techniques: bony structure-based IGRT (B-IGRT) and prostate-based IGRT (P-IGRT). METHODS: Between February 2011 and July 2014, 96 patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated using P-IGRT based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT; 76 Gy) without fiducial markers...
February 2018: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
Ee Siang Choong, George Hruby, Jean Yang, Carol Kwong, Nitya Patanjali
AIM: In prostate cancer, fiducial marker image-guided radiotherapy (FMIGRT) allows correction of setup errors and interfraction physiological motion resulting in improved accuracy of target and sparing of at risk organs. We aim to report outcomes and toxicities observed in patients treated with dose escalation to 78Gy with FMIGRT in our center. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Retrospective review of consecutive patients with histologically confirmed T1-4N0M0 localized prostate cancer treated with dose escalation to 78Gy with FMIGRT in our center...
October 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Thorsten H Ecke, Hui-Juan Huang-Tiel, Klaus Golka, Silvia Selinski, Berit Christine Geis, Stephan Koswig, Katrin Bathe, Steffen Hallmann, Holger Gerullis
High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is a common treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-nine male patients (median age 71 years, range 50 to 79) with high-risk PCa underwent HDR-BT following EBRT between December 2009 and January 2016 with a median follow-up of 21 months. HDR-BT was administered in two treatment sessions (one week interval) with 9 Gy per fraction using a planning system and the Ir192 treatment unit GammaMed Plus iX. EBRT was performed with CT-based 3D-conformal treatment planning with a total dose administration of 50...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pratima Nangia-Makker, Yingjie Yu, Adhip Pn Majumdar
Colorectal cancer (CRC) that comprises about 50% of estimated gastrointestinal cancers remains a high mortality malignancy. It is estimated that CRC will result in 9% of all cancer related deaths. CRC is the third leading malignancy affecting both males and females equally; with 9% of the estimated new cancer cases and 9% cancer related deaths. Sporadic CRC, whose incidence increases markedly with advancing age, occurs in 80%-85% patients diagnosed with CRC. Little is known about the precise biochemical mechanisms responsible for the rise in CRC with aging...
November 15, 2015: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
Salvatore Scarà, Patrizia Bottoni, Roberto Scatena
CA19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9, also called cancer antigen 19-9 or sialylated Lewis a antigen) is the most commonly used and best validated serum tumor marker for pancreatic cancer diagnosis in symptomatic patients and for monitoring therapy in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Normally synthesized by normal human pancreatic and biliary ductal cells and by gastric, colon, endometrial and salivary epithelia, CA 19-9 is present in small amounts in serum, and can be over expressed in several benign gastrointestinal disorders...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lise Sofie Bislev, Bjarke Johannesen Bruun, Søren Gregersen, Søren Tang Knudsen
INTRODUCTION: Danish patients diagnosed with cancer who present with unspecific signs and symptoms are diagnosed with unfavourable delay, which has led to the establishment of a national fast-track (cancer) pathway. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cancer and other diagnoses in patients referred to this programme at Aarhus University Hospital from general practitioners. Furthermore, we aimed to characterise the patient cohort, assess survival and estimate the predictive values of symptoms, signs and biochemical abnormalities...
September 2015: Danish Medical Journal
Xiaoyu Wang, Jiaqi Wang, Zhenghua Wang, Qingjun Wang, Hua Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to observe the plasma amino acid and carnitine characteristics in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies during chemotherapy and to identify markers for the early diagnosis and evaluation of adverse reactions and prognosis of the digestive tract malignant tumor patients. METHODS: Blood samples of 30 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies were collected at four time points: before chemotherapy, the first day after chemotherapy (+1 day), bone marrow depression period (+14 days), and hematopoietic recovery period (+21 days)...
2015: OncoTargets and Therapy
Jose L Lopez Guerra, Raul Matute, Fernando Puebla, Alberto Sánchez-Reyes, Beatriz Pontes, Cristina Rubio, Isabel Nepomuceno, Catalina Acevedo, Nicolas Isa, Rafael Lengua, Juan Manuel Praena-Fernandez, Eleonor Rivin del Campo, Maria Jose Ortiz, Ignacio Azinovic
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the influence of ethnicity on toxicity in patients treated with dynamic arc radiation therapy (ART) for prostate cancer (PC). METHODS: From June 2006 to May 2012, 162 cT1-T3 cN0 cM0 PC patients were treated with ART (primary diagnosis, n = 125; post-prostatectomy/brachytherapy biochemical recurrence, n = 26; adjuvant post-prostatectomy, n = 11) at 2 institutions. Forty-five patients were Latin Americans and 117 were Europeans...
July 2015: Tumori
Stefania Clemente, Roberta Nigro, Caterina Oliviero, Chiara Marchioni, Marco Esposito, Francesca Romana Giglioli, Pietro Mancosu, Carmelo Marino, Serenella Russo, Michele Stasi, Lidia Strigari, Ivan Veronese, Valeria Landoni
The increasing use of moderate (<35 fractions) and extreme (<5 fractions) hypofractionated radiation therapy in prostate cancer is yielding favorable results, both in terms of maintained biochemical response and toxicity. Several hypofractionation (HF) schemes for the treatment of prostate cancer are available, although there is considerable variability in the techniques used to manage intra-/interfraction motion and deliver radiation doses. We performed a review of the published studies on HF regimens as a topic of interest for the Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy working group, which is part of the Italian Association of Medical Physics...
January 1, 2015: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Masayuki Kobayashi, Kazuo Hatano, Satoshi Fukasawa, Atsushi Komaru, Takeshi Namekawa, Toshiyuki Imagumbai, Hitoshi Araki, Ryusuke Hara, Tomohiko Ichikawa, Takeshi Ueda
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the therapeutic outcomes of neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen-deprivation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy with gold marker implantation for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 325 patients with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines who underwent androgen-deprivation therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (76 Gy) after gold marker implantation between 2001 and 2010...
May 2015: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Shea William Wilcox, Noel J Aherne, Craig Steven McLachlan, Michael J McKay, Andrew J Last, Thomas P Shakespeare
INTRODUCTION: We compare the results of modern external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT), using combined androgen deprivation and dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with MRI-CT fusion and daily image guidance with fiducial markers (DE-IG-IMRT), with recently published Australian series of brachytherapy and surgery. METHODS: Five-year actuarial biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), metastasis-free survival (MFS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCaSS) were calculated for 675 patients treated with DE-IG-IMRT and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)...
February 2015: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Jesper Carl, Lotte Sander
PURPOSE: To report results from the five-year follow-up on a previously reported study using image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (PC) and a removable prostate stent as fiducial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with local or locally advanced PC were treated using five-field 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DRT). The clinical target volumes (CTV) were treated to 78 Gy in 39 fractions using daily on-line image guidance (IG). Late genito-urinary (GU) and gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicities were scored using the radiotherapy oncology group (RTOG) score and the common toxicity score of adverse events (CTC) score...
June 2015: Acta Oncologica
Justyna A Barzał, Cezary Szczylik, Piotr Rzepecki, Małgorzata Jaworska, Elżbieta Anuszewska
Regimen-related mucosal toxicity is extremely common following cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Mucositis is as an important determinant of the inflammatory response and infectious complications in cancer treated patients. Most assessment scales for mucosal damage are focussed on oral mucositis, since it is easy to evaluate. Measuring gastrointestinal musocal damage objectively remains difficult because it cannot be seen directly or readily detected. One of potential non-invasive biomarkers of gastrointestinal mucosal damage is plasma citrulline level...
2014: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Sara Massironi, Roberta Elisa Rossi, Giovanni Casazza, Dario Conte, Clorinda Ciafardini, Marianna Galeazzi, Maddalena Peracchi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Plasma chromogranin A (CgA) is the most widely used biochemical biomarker in the diagnostic workup and follow-up of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendo- crine neoplasms (GEP-NENs). Herein, we assessed the clinical utility of CgA in diagnosing and monitoring a large series of GEP-NENs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 181 GEP-NEN patients (87 males, 94 females) with pancreatic (n = 81) and gastrointestinal neoplasms (n = 100) were included; 99 patients had grade (G)1 NENs (Ki-67 ≤2%), 57 G2 NENs (Ki-67 3-20%) and 25 G3 NENs (Ki-67 >20%); 81 patients had tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage I, 14 stage II, 17 stage III and 69 stage IV cancer...
2014: Neuroendocrinology
Zan Hou, Guangjun Li, Sen Bai
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and toxicity between high-dose radiotherapy (HDRT) and conventional-dose radiotherapy (CDRT) by collecting randomized controlled trials of long-term follow-ups. METHODS: Unrestricted by language, we searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index (Web of Science) and for the following end points: biochemical failure (BF), overall survival (OS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) and side effects...
June 2015: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Chun-Hao Huang, Shyh-Horng Chiou
The development of gastrointestinal diseases has been found to be associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and various biochemical stresses in stomach and intestine. These stresses, such as oxidative, osmotic and acid stresses, may bring about bi-directional effects on both hosts and H. pylori, leading to changes of protein expression in their proteomes. Therefore, proteins differentially expressed in H. pylori under various stresses not only reflect gastrointestinal environment but also provide useful biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis...
February 14, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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