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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415071/lower-physical-activity-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis-at-increased-fall-risk-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Emerson Sebastião, Yvonne C Learmonth, Robert W Motl
Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) often report being afraid of falling, and this may have effects on physical activity (PA) engagement. This study investigated PA levels in persons with MS as a function of fall risk categories. Forty-seven persons with MS participated in the study and were categorized into either increased fall risk (IFR; n = 21; 55.5 ± 9.0 years) or normal fall risk (NFR; n = 26; 51.2 ± 12.9 years) groups based on scores from the Activities-Balance Confidence scale. PA was measured by accelerometer and expressed as average steps per day, and time spent in sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous physical activity over the course of 7 consecutive days...
May 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412046/the-epigenetic-mechanism-for-discordance-of-autoimmunity-in-monozygotic-twins
#2
REVIEW
Zhongyuan Xiang, Yuanqing Yang, Christopher Chang, Qianjin Lu
Monozygotic twins share an identical DNA sequence but are not truly "identical". In fact, when it comes to health and disease, they may often display some level of phenotypic discordance. The cause of this discordance is often unknown. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs-mediated regulation regulate gene expression and are sensitive to external stimuli. These modifications may be seen to bridge the gap between genetics and the environment. Over the years, the importance of epigenetics as a primary mechanism for the role that the environment plays in defining phenotype has been increasingly appreciated...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398505/cortical-remyelination-is-heterogeneous-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Eva M M Strijbis, Evert-Jan Kooi, Paul van der Valk, Jeroen J G Geurts
Cortical lesions (CLs) are an important component of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology; they correlate better with physical disability and cognitive impairment than white matter lesions (WMLs). Because remyelination can be extensive in CLs, we quantified remyelination in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), addressing oligodendrocyte (OGD) maturation state and clinical relevance of remyelination. Brain tissue samples from 21 chronic MS patients were immunohistochemically stained for myelin proteolipid protein, Olig2, which is strongly expressed in OGD precursor cells (OPCs), but weakly expressed in mature OGDs and other OGD markers...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396093/what-s-new-about-oral-treatments-in-multiple-sclerosis-immunogenetics-still-under-question
#4
REVIEW
Cristiana Pistono, Cecilia Osera, Chiara Boiocchi, Giulia Mallucci, Mariaclara Cuccia, Roberto Bergamaschi, Alessia Pascale
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic pathology affecting the Central Nervous System characterized by inflammatory processes that lead to demyelination and neurodegeneration. In MS treatment, disease modifying therapies (DMTs) are essential to reduce disease progression by suppressing the inflammatory response responsible for promoting lesion formation. Recently, in addition to the classical injectable DMTs like Interferons and Glatiramer acetate, new orally administered drugs have been approved for MS therapy: dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide and fingolimod...
April 8, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386263/adaptive-immunity-is-the-key-to-the-understanding-of-autoimmune-and-paraneoplastic-inflammatory-central-nervous-system-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Robert Weissert
There are common aspects and mechanisms between different types of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), and autoimmune encephalitis (AE) as well as paraneoplastic inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system. To our present knowledge, depending on the disease, T and B cells as well as antibodies contribute to various aspects of the pathogenesis. Possibly the events leading to the breaking of tolerance between the different diseases are of great similarity and so far, only partially understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360804/affective-temperament-profiles-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-association-with-mood-disorders
#6
Adile Özkan, Kürşat Altinbaş, Emine Rabia Koç, Halil Murat Şen, Handan Işın Özişik Karaman
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to screen for bipolarity and to investigate the affective temperaments of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the possible association between the clinical and demographic characteristics of MS patients and temperament profiles. METHODS: A total of 65 patients with MS and 66 healthy volunteers completed the 32-item hypomania checklist (HCl-32), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), and the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) tests...
December 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321351/bilateral-birdshot-retinochoroiditis-and-retinal-astrocytoma
#7
Sunil Mamtora, Yun Wong, Dugald Bell, Teresa Sandinha
Background. This case highlights the importance of recognising multiple pathologies within the eye which may not necessarily be linked. Both birdshot retinochoroiditis and astrocytoma are rare conditions. The case underlines the need for early identification and treatment of birdshot retinochoroiditis with steroids and disease modifying drugs. Astrocytoma in the absence of tuberous sclerosis is also uncommon. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old male presented with 3-month history of bilateral progressive flashing lights and floaters...
2017: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285547/objective-physical-activity-measurement-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-review-of-the-literature
#8
Blathin Casey, Susan Coote, Alan Donnelly
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify the objective physical activity (PA) measurement tools and outputs that are used within Multiple Sclerosis (MS) literature. METHODS: A systematic search strategy on eight databases (2000-2016) using keywords associated with MS and PA. RESULTS: This review includes 32 papers. Uni-axial accelerometers were the most popular objective PA tool in this review (68%). Pedometers (14%) and multi-sensor systems (3%) were the second and third most common...
March 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283102/the-association-between-physical-activity-and-sleep-characteristics-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Aseel Aburub, Hanan Khalil, Alham Al-Sharman, Mahmoud Alomari, Omar Khabour
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The majority of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer from sleep disorders. In this study, we investigated the relationship between physical activity and sleep characteristics in MS patients. METHODS: Sixty MS patients were recruited in the study. Sleep characteristics were assessed using the Actisleep device while physical activity levels were assessed using mobility accelerometer. RESULTS: The results showed that means (±SD) of sleep latency (SL) and sleep efficiency (ES) for MS patients were 23...
February 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273774/physical-activity-is-associated-with-a-decreased-multiple-sclerosis-risk-the-envims-study
#10
Kristin Wesnes, Kjell-Morten Myhr, Trond Riise, Marianna Cortese, Maura Pugliatti, Inger Boström, Anne-Marie Landtblom, Christina Wolfson, Kjetil Bjørnevik
BACKGROUND: The lifestyle factors smoking and obesity have been associated with the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). Physical activity (PA) may also be of importance. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between PA and MS risk in Italy, Norway, and Sweden and to evaluate the possible influence by established risk factors. METHODS: In this case-control study, 1904 cases and 3694 controls were asked to report their average weekly amounts of light and vigorous PA during adolescence on a scale ranging from none to more than 3 hours activity...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271695/combined-use-of-kappa-free-light-chain-index-and-isoelectrofocusing-of-cerebro-spinal-fluid-in-diagnosing-multiple-sclerosis-performances-and-costs
#11
Ilaria Crespi, Maria Giovanna Sulas, Riccardo Mora, Paola Naldi, Domizia Vecchio, Cristoforo Comi, Roberto Cantello, Giorgio Bellomo
BACKGROUND: Isoelectrofocusing (IEF) to detect oligoclonal bands (OBCs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the gold standard approach for evaluating intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) but the kappa free light chain index (KFLCi) is emerging as an alternative marker, and the combined/sequential uses of IEF and KFLCi have never been challenged. METHODS: CSF and serum albumin, IgG, kFLC and lFLC were measured by nephelometry; albumin, IgG and kFLC quotients as well as Link and kFLC indexes were calculated; OCBs were evaluated by immunofixation...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261960/neurofilament-light-chain-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-prediction-of-disease-activity-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome-and-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#12
I Håkansson, A Tisell, P Cassel, K Blennow, H Zetterberg, P Lundberg, C Dahle, M Vrethem, J Ernerudh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Improved biomarkers are needed to facilitate clinical decision-making and as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). We assessed whether neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at initial sampling could predict disease activity during 2 years of follow-up in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and relapsing-remitting MS. METHODS: Using multiplex bead array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL10, CXCL13, CCL20, CCL22, neurofilament light chain (NFL), neurofilament heavy chain, glial fibrillary acidic protein, chitinase-3-like-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and osteopontin were analysed in CSF from 41 patients with CIS or relapsing-remitting MS and 22 healthy controls...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250648/the-influence-of-pluronic-f68-and-f127-nanocarrier-on-physicochemical-properties-in-vitro-release-and-antiproliferative-activity-of-thymoquinone-drug
#13
Salwa Shaarani, Shahrul Sahul Hamid, Noor Haida Mohd Kaus
BACKGROUND: This study reports on hydrophobic drug thymoquinone (TQ), an active compound found in the volatile oil of Nigella sativa that exhibits anticancer activities. Nanoformulation of this drug could potentially increase its bioavailability to specific target cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to formulate TQ into polymer micelle, Pluronic F127 (5.0 wt %) and Pluronic F68 (0.1 wt %), as a drug carrier to enhance its solubility and instability in aqueous media...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222766/increased-cortical-lesion-load-and-intrathecal-inflammation-is-associated-with-oligoclonal-bands-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-combined-csf-and-mri-study
#14
Gabriele Farina, Roberta Magliozzi, Marco Pitteri, Richard Reynolds, Stefania Rossi, Alberto Gajofatto, Maria Donata Benedetti, Francesco Facchiano, Salvatore Monaco, Massimiliano Calabrese
BACKGROUND: Although IgG oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are a frequent phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, their relationship with grey matter lesions, intrathecal/meningeal inflammation and clinical evolution has not been clarified yet. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between the OCBs, the inflammatory/neurodegenerative CSF profile at diagnosis, the cortical lesion load and the clinical evolution after 10 years. METHODS: This is a 10-year observational, cross-sectional study based on a combined MRI, cognitive and CSF profiling of the examined patients...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195026/from-academic-laboratory-to-the-market-disclosed-and-undisclosed-narratives-of-commercialization
#15
Adi Sapir, Amalya L Oliver
This paper examines how the Weizmann Institute of Science has been telling the story of the successful commercialization of a scientific invention, through its corporate communication channels, from the early 1970s to today. The paper aims to shed light on the transformation processes by which intellectual-property-based commercialization activities have become widely institutionalized in universities all over the world, and on the complexities, ambiguities and tensions surrounding this transition. We look at the story of the scientific invention of Copolymer-1 at the Weizmann Institute of Science and its licensing to Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, which subsequently developed the highly successful drug Copaxone for the treatment of multiple sclerosis...
February 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179807/sex-influences-in-neurological-disorders-case-studies-and-perspectives
#16
Janine Austin Clayton
Beginning in the late 1980s and early 1990s, scientists and the public alike recognized that, for too long, women had been underrepresented in clinical trials. While much progress was made in the following decades, preclinical research still often ignores sex as a fundamental biological variable. Many neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and migraine, show strong sex differences in incidence and disease manifestation. In this commentary, we highlight case studies of neurological disorders affecting men and women to demonstrate the need for more such studies...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174515/upregulation-of-bcl-2-and-its-promoter-signals-in-cd4-t-cells-during-neuromyelitis-optica-remission
#17
Tao Yang, Su Wang, Xiao Yang, Qi Zheng, Lei Wang, Qian Li, Mingyan Wei, Zongpan Du, Yongping Fan
The homeostatic balance between production and elimination of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood plays an important role in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-apoptosis genes Bcl-2 and its promoter signal (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, NFκB) in CD4+ T cells. Healthy subjects (HS, n = 25) and patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 25) and NMO (n = 30) in remission were consecutively enrolled in this prospective study between May and December 2015...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167940/narrowband-uvb-phototherapy-for-clinically-isolated-syndrome-a-trial-to-deliver-the-benefits-of-vitamin-d-and-other-uvb-induced-molecules
#18
Prue H Hart, Robyn M Lucas, David R Booth, William M Carroll, David Nolan, Judith M Cole, Anderson P Jones, Allan G Kermode
Low vitamin D and insufficient sun exposure are additive independent risk factors for the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). The usual measure of vitamin D status, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], is also a marker of recent exposure to the UVB rays of sunshine. The main evidence for a protective effect for MS development of higher 25(OH)D comes from observational studies, but this study design cannot separate out whether 25(OH)D is acting as a marker of vitamin D status, sun exposure, or both. In light of a lack of definitive outcomes in MS patients after trials of vitamin D supplementation and the ability of narrowband UVB to induce vitamin D, as well as other immune-regulatory molecules in skin, the Phototherapy for Clinically Isolated Syndrome (PhoCIS) trial was established to investigate the benefits of narrowband UVB, in addition to supplemented vitamin D, on MS development in individuals with Clinically Isolated Syndrome...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148632/serum-neurofilament-is-associated-with-progression-of-brain-atrophy-and-disability-in-early-ms
#19
Jens Kuhle, Bardia Nourbakhsh, Donna Grant, Steve Morant, Christian Barro, Özgür Yaldizli, Daniel Pelletier, Gavin Giovannoni, Emmanuelle Waubant, Sharmilee Gnanapavan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate a potential effect of riluzole on serum neurofilaments (Nf) compared to placebo and the relationship between longitudinal clinical and MRI outcomes and serum Nf levels. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from participants enrolled in a randomized double-blind trial of neuroprotection with riluzole vs placebo as an add-on to weekly interferon-β (IFN-β)-1a IM initiated 3 months after randomization. Nf measurements were performed by ELISA and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay...
February 28, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135360/retinal-architecture-and-melanopsin-mediated-pupillary-response-characteristics-a-putative-pathophysiologic-signature-for-the-retino-hypothalamic-tract-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Ethan Meltzer, Peter V Sguigna, Adnan Subei, Shin Beh, Eric Kildebeck, Darrel Conger, Amy Conger, Marlen Lucero, Benjamin S Frohman, Ashley N Frohman, Shiv Saidha, Steven Galetta, Peter A Calabresi, Robert Rennaker, Teresa C Frohman, Randy H Kardon, Laura J Balcer, Elliot M Frohman
Importance: A neurophysiologic signature of the melanopsin-mediated persistent constriction phase of the pupillary light reflex may represent a surrogate biomarker for the integrity of the retinohypothalamic tract, with potential utility for investigating alterations in homeostatic mechanisms associated with brain disorders and implications for identifying new treatments. Objective: To characterize abnormalities of retinal architecture in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and corresponding alterations in the melanopsin-mediated sustained pupillary constriction response...
January 30, 2017: JAMA Neurology
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