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multiple sclerosis + light

Rachel Waller, M Nicola Woodroofe, Stephen B Wharton, Paul G Ince, Simona Francese, Paul R Heath, Alex Cudzich-Madry, Ruth H Thomas, Natalie Rounding, Basil Sharrack, Julie E Simpson
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). White matter lesions in MS are surrounded by areas of non-demyelinated normal appearing white matter (NAWM) with complex pathology, including blood brain barrier dysfunction, axonal damage and glial activation. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type within the CNS, may respond and/or contribute to lesion pathogenesis. We aimed to characterise the transcriptomic profile of astrocytes in NAWM to determine whether specific glial changes exist in the NAWM which contribute to lesion development or prevent disease progression...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Satoshi Sugita, Leland L Fleming, Caleb Wood, Sydney K Vaughan, Matheus P S M Gomes, Wallace Camargo, Ligia A Naves, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Cristina Guatimosim, Gregorio Valdez
BACKGROUND: Cholinergic dysfunction occurs during aging and in a variety of diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it remains unknown whether changes in cholinergic transmission contributes to age- and disease-related degeneration of the motor system. Here we investigated the effect of moderately increasing levels of synaptic acetylcholine (ACh) on the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), muscle fibers, and motor neurons during development and aging and in a mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
J Mellergård, A Tisell, I Blystad, A Grönqvist, K Blennow, B Olsson, C Dahle, M Vrethem, P Lundberg, J Ernerudh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain atrophy is related to clinical deterioration in multiple sclerosis (MS) but its association with intrathecal markers of inflammation or neurodegeneration is unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of inflammation or neurodegeneration are associated with brain volume change in natalizumab-treated MS and whether this change is reflected in non-lesional white matter metabolites. METHODS: About 25 patients with natalizumab-treated MS were followed for 3 years with assessment of percentage brain volume change (PBVC) and absolute quantification of metabolites with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H MRS)...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Saskia M Leibowitz, Jun Yan
Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathways are involved in cell immune responses, apoptosis and infections. In multiple sclerosis (MS), NF-κB pathways are changed, leading to increased levels of NF-κB activation in cells. This may indicate a key role for NF-κB in MS pathogenesis. NF-κB signaling is complex, with many elements involved in its activation and regulation. Interestingly, current MS treatments are found to be directly or indirectly linked to NF-κB pathways and act to adjust the innate and adaptive immune system in patients...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Morten Stilund, Mikkel Carstensen Gjelstrup, Tove Christensen, Holger Jon Møller, Thor Petersen
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the levels of the macrophage marker sCD163 and other biomarkers at the time of diagnosis of patients with either clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and assess relation to clinical indicators of prognosis, disease activity (DA), and changes in the levels of these biomarkers at follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical status and MRI were reevaluated in 56 patients more than 1 year after diagnosis with a median follow-up time of 2 years...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
Jeff Boissoneault, Janelle Letzen, Song Lai, Michael E Robinson, Roland Staud
Studies using arterial spin labelling (ASL) have shown that individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have decreased regional cerebral blood flow, which may be associated with changes in functional neural networks. Indeed, recent studies indicate disruptions in functional connectivity (FC) at rest in chronically fatigued patients including perturbations in static FC (sFC), that is average FC at rest between several brain regions subserving neurocognitive, motor and affect-related networks. Whereas sFC often provides information of functional network reorganization in chronic illnesses, investigations of temporal changes in functional connectivity between multiple brain areas may shed light on the dynamic characteristics of brain network activation associated with such maladies...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Leandro B C Teixeira, James N Ver Hoeve, Joshua A Mayer, Richard R Dubielzig, Chelsey M Smith, Abigail B Radcliff, Ian D Duncan
Purpose: We determined whether the chronic lack of optic nerve myelination and subsequent axon loss is associated with optical coherence tomography (OCT) changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), and whether this models what occurs in multiple sclerosis (MS) and confers its use as a surrogate marker for axon degeneration. Methods: Using an animal model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (shp) bilateral longitudinal measurements of the peripapillary RNFL (spectral-domain OCT), electroretinograms (ERG), and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were performed in affected and control animals from 5 months to 2 years and in individual animals at single time points...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Cheryl Schofield, Saloumeh K Fischer, Michael J Townsend, Sofia Mosesova, Kun Peng, Alvernia Francesca Setiadi, An Song, Amos Baruch
AIM: IL-17 is thought to play a prominent role in immune disorders. Sensitive and specific IL-17AA and IL-17FF assays were developed and used to determine levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). RESULTS: Qualified assays detected IL-17AA and IL-17FF in healthy and disease samples. Serum IL-17AA was significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis and RRMS as compared with normal healthy subjects...
November 2016: Bioanalysis
A A Kudriaeva, N A Khaustova, D V Maltseva, E S Kuzina, I S Glagoleva, E A Surina, V D Knorre, A A Belogurov, A G Tonevitsky, A G Gabibov
In this study, we performed transcriptome profiling of oligodendrocyte culture of mice treated with the remyelinating therapeutic agent benztropine in the presence and absence of interferon gamma (IFNγ). The results of this work are important for understanding the expression profile of oligodendrocytes under conditions of systemic inflammation in the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis as well as the mechanisms of cellular response to benztropine in light of its possible use for the treatment of multiple sclerosis...
July 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Marc Tardieu, Brenda Banwell, Jerry S Wolinsky, Daniela Pohl, Lauren B Krupp
In light of the published 2012 International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Group definitions for pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and related disorders and given that pediatric-onset MS is now formally included in the 2010 McDonald criteria for MS, we sought to review these criteria and summarize their application in children with acquired CNS demyelination. In addition, proposals are made for definitions of no evidence of disease activity and inadequate treatment response that are important because of new therapeutic options and trials...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Sergey L Andreev, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
In the literature, there are no available data on how anti-DNA antibodies recognize DNA. In the present work, to study the molecular mechanism of DNA recognition by antibodies, we have used anti-DNA IgGs from blood sera of patients with multiple sclerosis. A stepwise increase in ligand complexity approach was used to estimate the relative contributions of virtually every nucleotide unit of different single- (ss) and double-stranded (ds) oligonucleotides to their affinity for IgG fraction having high affinity to DNA-cellulose...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
Rona Shaharabani, Maor Ram-On, Ram Avinery, Rina Aharoni, Ruth Arnon, Yeshayahu Talmon, Roy Beck
In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, disrupted myelin structures impair the functional role of the sheath as an insulating layer for proper nerve conduction. Though the etiology and recovery pathways remain unclear, in vivo studies show alterations in the lipid and the adhesive protein (myelin basic protein, MBP) composition. We find that in vitro cytoplasmic myelin membranes with modified lipid composition and low MBP concentration, as in demyelinating disease, show structural instabilities and pathological phase transition from a lamellar to inverted hexagonal, which involve enhanced local curvature...
September 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Alessandro Didonna, Egle Cekanaviciute, Jorge R Oksenberg, Sergio E Baranzini
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltration, demyelination and neurodegeneration. Despite the recent advances in understanding MS molecular basis, no reliable biomarkers have been identified yet to monitor disease progression. Our group has previously reported that low levels of TOB1 in CD4(+) T cells are strongly associated with a higher risk of MS conversion in individuals experiencing an initial demyelinating event. Consistently, Tob1 ablation in mice exacerbates the clinical phenotype of the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Joakim Bergman, Ann Dring, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Niklas Norgren, Jonathan Gilthorpe, Tommy Bergenheim, Anders Svenningsson
OBJECTIVE: In an ongoing, open-label, phase 1b study on the intrathecal administration of rituximab for progressive multiple sclerosis, an intraventricular catheter was inserted for drug delivery. The objective of this study was to characterize the limited white matter axonal injury evoked by catheter insertion by analyzing a panel of markers for tissue damage in CSF and serum. METHODS: Lumbar CSF and serum were collected before catheter insertion and at regular intervals during the follow-up period of 1 year...
October 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Georgina Arrambide, Carmen Espejo, Herena Eixarch, Luisa M Villar, José C Alvarez-Cermeño, Carmen Picón, Jens Kuhle, Giulio Disanto, Ludwig Kappos, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Deborah Pareto, Eva Simon, Manuel Comabella, Jordi Río, Carlos Nos, Carmen Tur, Joaquín Castilló, Angela Vidal-Jordana, Ingrid Galán, Maria J Arévalo, Cristina Auger, Alex Rovira, Xavier Montalban, Mar Tintore
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic value of selected biomarkers in clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) for conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS) and disability accrual. METHODS: Data were acquired from 2 CIS cohorts. The screening phase evaluated patients developing clinically definite MS (CIS-CDMS) and patients who remained as CIS during a 2-year minimum follow-up (CIS-CIS). We determined levels of neurofascin, semaphorin 3A, fetuin A, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and neurofilament light (NfL) and heavy chains in CSF (estimated mean [95% confidence interval; CI])...
September 13, 2016: Neurology
Michael Khalil, Jonatan Salzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Neurology
E Fernández-Tenorio, D Serrano-Muñoz, J Avendaño-Coy, J Gómez-Soriano
INTRODUCTION: Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) has traditionally been used to treat pain, some studies have observed decreased spasticity after use of this technique. However, its use in clinical practice is still limited. Our purpose was twofold: to determine whether TENS is effective for treating spasticity or associated symptoms in patients with neurological involvement, and to determine which stimulation parameters exert the greatest effect on variables associated with spasticity...
July 26, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Jens O Watzlawik, Robert J Kahoud, Bharath Wootla, Meghan M Painter, Arthur E Warrington, William A Carey, Moses Rodriguez
Antibodies of the IgM isotype are often neglected as potential therapeutics in human trials, animal models of human diseases as well as detecting agents in standard laboratory techniques. In contrast, several human IgMs demonstrated proof of efficacy in cancer models and models of CNS disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Reasons for their lack of consideration include difficulties to express, purify and stabilize IgM antibodies, challenge to identify (non-protein) antigens, low affinity binding and fundamental knowledge gaps in carbohydrate and lipid research...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Magda A Lam, Ghassan J Maghzal, Mohsen Khademi, Fredik Piehl, Rikke Ratzer, Jeppe Romme Christensen, Finn Thorup Sellebjerg, Tomas Olsson, Roland Stocker
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry nonenzymatic (F2-isoprostanes) and enzymatic oxidation products of arachidonic acid (prostaglandin F2α [PGF2α]) in plasma and CSF of 45 controls (other neurologic disease [OND] with no signs of inflammation) and 62 patients with MS. Oxidation products were correlated with disease severity and validated biomarkers of inflammation (chemokine ligand 13; matrix metalloproteinase-9; osteopontin) and axonal damage (neurofilament light protein)...
August 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Rachel E Klaren, Emerson Sebastiao, Chung-Yi Chiu, Dominique Kinnett-Hopkins, Edward McAuley, Robert W Motl
There is much evidence supporting the safety and benefits of physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) and recent evidence of beneficial effects on physical function in older adults with MS. However, there is very little known about physical activity participation in older adults with conditions such as MS. This study compared levels of physical activity (i.e., sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)) and rates of meeting public health guidelines for MVPA (i...
May 2016: Aging and Disease
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