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Preanalytical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089353/cerebrospinal-fluid-mitochondrial-dna-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-continuum
#1
Laura Cervera-Carles, Daniel Alcolea, Ainara Estanga, Mirian Ecay-Torres, Andrea Izagirre, Montserrat Clerigué, Maite García-Sebastián, Jorge Villanúa, Clàudia Escalas, Rafael Blesa, Pablo Martínez-Lage, Alberto Lleó, Juan Fortea, Jordi Clarimón
Low levels of cell-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have been identified and proposed as a novel biomarker for the disease. The lack of validation studies of previous results prompted us to replicate this finding in a comprehensive series of patients and controls. We applied droplet digital polymerase chain reaction in CSF specimens from 124 patients representing the AD spectrum and 140 neurologically healthy controls. The following preanalytical and analytical parameters were evaluated: the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on mtDNA, the linearity of mtDNA load across serial dilutions, and the mtDNA levels in the diagnostic groups...
December 22, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079593/improving-the-clinic-laboratory-interface-in-the-context-of-hiv-diagnosis-treatment-and-monitoring
#2
Timothy Johan Tucker, Peter Tsakani Manyike
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Laboratory support is central to clinical medicine. The present review focuses on the health systems strengthening needs of the clinic-laboratory-interface (CLI) in developing countries within the context of HIV diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring. RECENT FINDINGS: Although significant improvements have been made in reducing error rates in the analytical phase of pathology services within laboratories, there remain substantial deficits in both the preanalytic and postanalytic phases of the entire value chain that require strengthening...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077275/investigations-of-blood-ammonia-analysis-test-matrices-storage-and-stability
#3
Brittany N Goldstein, Jordan Wesler, Amy S Nowacki, Edmunds Reineks, Marvin R Natowicz
An assessment of blood ammonia concentration is common medical practice in the evaluation of an individual with an unexplained mental status change or coma. The determination of a blood ammonia level is most commonly done using a glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH)-based assay, although there are many potential sources of artifact and the literature is inconsistent regarding key preanalytic issues. Using a GLDH-based assay, we first investigated matrix effects using three anticoagulants: heparin, EDTA and oxalate...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074201/metabolic-stability-of-cells-for-extended-metabolomical-measurements-using-nmr-a-comparison-between-lysed-and-additionally-heat-inactivated-cells
#4
G Diserens, D Hertig, M Vermathen, B Legeza, C E Flück, J M Nuoffer, P Vermathen
NMR measurements for metabolic characterization of biological samples like cells, biopsies or plasma, may take several hours for advanced methods. Preanalytical issues, such as sample preparation and stability over the measurement time, may have a high impact on metabolite content, and potentially lead to misinterpretation. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate by (1)H HR-MAS NMR the impact of different cell handling preparation protocols on the stability of the cell metabolite content over the measurement time...
January 11, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072712/seniorlab-a-prospective-observational-study-investigating-laboratory-parameters-and-their-reference-intervals-in-the-elderly
#5
Martin Risch, Urs Nydegger, Lorenz Risch
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, laboratory results are often important for making diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic decisions. Interpreting individual results relies on accurate reference intervals and decision limits. Despite the considerable amount of resources in clinical medicine spent on elderly patients, accurate reference intervals for the elderly are rarely available. The SENIORLAB study set out to determine reference intervals in the elderly by investigating a large variety of laboratory parameters in clinical chemistry, hematology, and immunology...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069401/analytes-related-to-erythrocyte-metabolism-are-reliable-biomarkers-for-preanalytical-error-due-to-delayed-plasma-processing-in-metabolomics-studies
#6
Mahim Jain, Adam D Kennedy, Sarah H Elsea, Marcus J Miller
INTRODUCTION: Delaying plasma separation after phlebotomy (processing delay) can cause perturbations of numerous small molecule analytes. This poses a major challenge to the clinical application of metabolomics analyses. We define the analyte changes that occur during processing delays and generate a model for the post hoc detection of this preanalytical error. METHODS: Using an untargeted metabolomics platform we analyzed EDTA-preserved plasma specimens harvested after processing delays lasting from minutes to days...
January 6, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062617/growth-differentiation-factor-15-as-a-biomarker-in-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Kai C Wollert, Tibor Kempf, Lars Wallentin
BACKGROUND: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is expressed and secreted in response to inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, telomere erosion, and oncogene activation. Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a major driver of GDF-15 production. GDF-15 has favorable preanalytic characteristics and can be measured in serum and plasma by immunoassay. CONTENT: In community-dwelling individuals higher concentrations of GDF-15 are associated with increased risks of developing CV disease, chronic kidney disease, and cancer, independent of traditional CV risk factors, renal function, and other biomarkers (C-reactive protein, B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin)...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062611/natriuretic-peptides-and-analytical-barriers
#8
REVIEW
Vlad C Vasile, Allan S Jaffe
BACKGROUND: The natriuretic peptide system is an endocrine, autocrine and paracrine system that plays an important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. Biomarkers based on these peptides are important diagnostic and prognostic tools for myocardial function. CONTENT: Although natriuretic peptides were discovered more than 2 decades ago, their intricate and complex biology is associated with important questions not yet elucidated. The diversity of circulating forms of natriuretic peptides, the distinct expression of these forms in particular patients, and the heterogeneity of heart failure forms, along with specific assay-related and preanalytic issues, cause assays to be poorly harmonized...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041871/development-and-validation-of-a-preanalytic-procedure-for-performing-the-cobas-hpv-test-in-surepath-preservative-fluid
#9
Mark D Krevolin, David Hardy, Jim Pane, Shagufta Aslam, Catherine M Behrens
The formation of chemical cross-links between nucleic acids and proteins in formalin-containing media presents challenges for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing of cervical samples collected in SurePath Preservative Fluid. A preanalytic process involving addition of a nucleophilic buffer and heating the sample to 120°C was developed to reverse the effects of cross-linking and improve nucleic acid accessibility for the cobas HPV Test in SurePath. Cycle threshold (CT) values for cobas HPV detection were evaluated over time and various temperatures, and mean CT differences between pretreated and both untreated SurePath samples and those collected in PreservCyt were assessed...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027117/precision-medicine-starts-with-preanalytics-real-time-assessment-of-tissue-fixation-quality-by-ultrasound-time-of-flight-analysis
#10
Melissa L Lerch, Daniel R Bauer, David Chafin, Abbey Theiss, Michael Otter, Geoffrey S Baird
Personalized medicine promises diagnosis and treatment of disease at the individual level and relies heavily on clinical specimen integrity and diagnostic assay quality. Preanalytics, the collection and handling steps of a clinical specimen before immunohistochemistry or other clinical assay, are critically important to enable the correct diagnosis of disease. However, the effects of preanalytics are often overlooked due to a lack of standardization and limited assessment tools to quantify their variation. Here, we report a novel real-time ultrasound time-of-flight instrument that is capable of monitoring and imaging the critical step in formalin fixation, diffusion of the fixative into tissue, which provides a quantifiable quality metric for tissue fixation in the clinical laboratory ensuring consistent downstream molecular assay results...
December 23, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024691/detection-of-alk-rearrangements-in-4002-russian-patients-the-utility-of-different-diagnostic-approaches
#11
Irina Demidova, Viacheslav Grinevich, Ashot Avdalian, Evgeny Imyanitov, Marina Gikalo, Nikita Savelov, Inna Novikova, Olga Samuilenkova, Vladislav Tiurin, Elena Ulianova, Ilya Tsimafeyeu, Sergey Tjulandin
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines highly recommended the detection of potentially targetable genetic aberrations such as anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Few methods, such as the ALK break apart FISH assay and IHC for ALK protein, are approved for routine diagnostics. However, some challenges exist in selecting the most reliable, robust and cost-effective algorithm, especially for large-scale screening of NSCLC patients...
January 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988499/the-effect-of-storage-temperature-fluctuations-on-the-stability-of-biochemical-analytes-in-blood-serum
#12
Helmuth Haslacher, Thomas Szekeres, Marlene Gerner, Elisabeth Ponweiser, Manuela Repl, Oswald F Wagner, Thomas Perkmann
BACKGROUND: Irreproducibility of scientific results constitutes an undesirably onerous economic burden and is in many cases caused by low-quality materials. Therefore, researchers are increasingly devoting their attention to the bioresources they use. In turn, those bioresources are required to validate their preanalytical processes in order to ensure best possible quality. The present study thus aimed to evaluate the impact of repeated temperature fluctuations, as they occur in most research biobanks due to repetitive opening and closing of freezer doors, on the stability of 26 biochemical analytes...
December 19, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976780/a-method-for-the-quantification-of-8-methoxypsoralen-by-mass-spectrometry-for-offline-extracorporeal-photopheresis
#13
Viola Hähnel, Frauke Dormann, Athanasios Nitsopoulos, Albrecht Friedle, Norbert Ahrens
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is an efficient method to treat various autoimmune diseases, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and graft-versus-host disease. It is based on the ex vivo inactivation of lymphocytes by 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP)/UV light treatment. Despite the adhesive, lipophilic nature of 8-MOP, no quality control is established for the ECP procedure. METHODS: We developed a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) assay to monitor residual 8-MOP concentration after UVA irradiation in the whole blood supernatant after acetonitrile precipitation...
December 15, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974411/antimicrobial-stewardship-how-the-microbiology-laboratory-can-right-the-ship
#14
REVIEW
Philippe Morency-Potvin, David N Schwartz, Robert A Weinstein
SUMMARYAntimicrobial stewardship is a bundle of integrated interventions employed to optimize the use of antimicrobials in health care settings. While infectious-disease-trained physicians, with clinical pharmacists, are considered the main leaders of antimicrobial stewardship programs, clinical microbiologists can play a key role in these programs. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive discussion of the different components of antimicrobial stewardship in which microbiology laboratories and clinical microbiologists can make significant contributions, including cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility reports, enhanced culture and susceptibility reports, guidance in the preanalytic phase, rapid diagnostic test availability, provider education, and alert and surveillance systems...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940448/bone-turnover-markers-in-the-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-metabolic-bone-disease
#15
REVIEW
Matthew B Greenblatt, Joy N Tsai, Marc N Wein
BACKGROUND: Disorders of bone metabolism, most notably osteoporosis, are highly prevalent and predispose to fractures, causing high patient morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and monitoring of bone metabolic defects can present a major challenge as these disorders are largely asymptomatic and radiographic measures of bone mass respond slowly to changes in bone physiology. CONTENT: Bone turnover markers (BTMs) are a series of protein or protein derivative biomarkers released during bone remodeling by osteoblasts or osteoclasts...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924587/qualitative-and-quantitative-proteome-analysis-of-oral-fluids-in-health-and-periodontal-disease-by-mass-spectrometry
#16
Erdjan Salih
The significance of protein identification and characterization by classical protein chemistry approaches is clearly highlighted by our detailed understanding of the biological systems assembled over a time period of almost a century. The advent of state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS) with sensitivity, speed, and global protein analysis capacity without individual protein purification has transformed the classical protein chemistry with premise to accelerate discovery. These combined with the ability of the oral fluids such as whole saliva (WS) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) to reflect both systemic and locally derived proteins have generated significant interest to characterize these fluids more extensively by MS technology...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919600/preanalytic-of-total-antioxidant-capacity-assays-performed-in-serum-plasma-urine-and-saliva
#17
REVIEW
Cristiano Ialongo
The investigation of oxidative stress (OS), its mechanisms and connections with human diseases, is a topic of interest with more than 36,000 PubMed citations to date. The OS can be approached either from the perspective of pro-oxidation, either of anti-oxidation, and both can be investigated considering individual chemical constituents or their pooled effect. Actually, as it is for any laboratory assay, whatever source of variability introduces a bias potentially undermining the test results regardless of its application...
December 3, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917319/the-effectiveness-of-cooling-conditions-on-temperature-of-canine-edta-whole-blood-samples
#18
Karen M Tobias, Leslie Serrano, Xiaocun Sun, Bente Flatland
BACKGROUND: Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870110/the-hematology-of-captive-bobtail-lizards-tiliqua-rugosa-blood-counts-light-microscopy-cytochemistry-and-ultrastructure
#19
Cheryl A Moller, Tibor Gaál, Jennifer N Mills
INTRODUCTION: Bobtail lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) are native to Australia. The only previous study on the hematology of this species documented just 6 animals. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to characterize the light microscopy, ultrastructure and cytochemistry of blood cells, and evaluate CBCs of captive Bobtail lizards. METHODS: Over 2 consecutive summers, heparinized venous blood was collected from the ventral coccygeal vein of 46 clinically healthy, captive indoor- or outdoor-housed adult Bobtails...
December 2016: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867890/bone-turnover-markers-emerging-tool-in-the-management-of-osteoporosis
#20
REVIEW
Sahana Shetty, Nitin Kapoor, Joseph Dian Bondu, Nihal Thomas, Thomas Vizhalil Paul
Bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes constant remodeling throughout the life span. Bone turnover is balanced with coupling of bone formation and resorption at various rates leading to continuous remodeling of bone. A study of bone turnover markers (BTMs) provides an insight of the dynamics of bone turnover in many metabolic bone disorders. An increase in bone turnover seen with aging and pathological states such as osteoporosis leads to deterioration of bone microarchitecture and thus contributes to an increase in the risk of fracture independent of low bone mineral density (BMD)...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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