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Min-Jae Lee, Dong-Ho Park, Ju-Hee Kang
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that contain molecules that regulate the metabolic functions of adjacent or remote cells. Recent in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies support the hypothesis that exosomes released from various cell types play roles in the progression of metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes. Based on this concept and advances in other diseases, the proteins, mRNA, microRNA and lipids in exosomes isolated from biological fluids have been proposed as biomarkers in metabolic disorders...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Giuseppe Lippi, Raffick Bowen, Dorothy M Adcock
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Raffick A R Bowen, Dorothy Adcock
Blood collection tubes (BCTs) are an often under-recognized variable in the preanalytical phase of clinical laboratory testing. Unfortunately, even the best-designed and manufactured BCTs may not work well in all clinical settings. Clinical laboratories, in collaboration with healthcare providers, should carefully evaluate BCTs prior to putting them into clinical use to determine their limitations and ensure that patients are not placed at risk because of inaccuracies due to poor tube performance. Selection of the best BCTs can be achieved through comparing advertising materials, reviewing the literature, observing the device at a scientific meeting, receiving a demonstration, evaluating the device under simulated conditions, or testing the device with patient samples...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Abel Jacobus Bronkhorst, Janine Aucamp, Piet J Pretorius
In recent years, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) analysis has received increasing amounts of attention as a potential non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of genetic aberrations and a wide variety of diseases, especially cancer. However, except for some prenatal tests and BEAMing, a technique used to detect mutations in various genes of cancer patients, cfDNA analysis is not yet routinely applied in clinical practice. Although some confusing biological factors inherent to the in vivo setting play a key part, it is becoming increasingly clear that this struggle is mainly due to the lack of an analytical consensus, especially as regards quantitative analyses of cfDNA...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zhi-Qi Wu, Hua-Guo Xu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to analyze the effects of temperature, time delay, and time to centrifugation on the stability of human plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) measurements. METHODS: Twenty-one EDTA whole blood sample pools were centrifuged at 1100 ×g for 10 minutes at 4°C either immediately or after storage for 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours at 4°C or room temperature. Plasma ACTH was then measured either immediately or after 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours storage at 4°C or room temperature...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Caitlyn R Martinez, Kelly S Santangelo
Synovial fluid analysis is a key component of the minimum database needed to diagnose and manage primary and secondary articular joint disorders. Unfortunately, preanalytical variables can drastically alter samples submitted for evaluation to veterinary laboratories and it is considered the stage at which most laboratory error occurs. This article addresses common sources of preanalytical variability and error that are seen in veterinary medicine. With consistent quality control and reporting of specimens, downstream clinical decision making and management of patients can be accelerated and improved...
October 5, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
J G Toffaletti, C R Rackley
Although part of a common "blood gas" test panel with pH and pCO2, the pO2, %O2Hb, and related parameters are independently used to detect and monitor oxygen deficits from a variety of causes. Measurement of blood gases and cooximetry may be done by laboratory analyzers, point of care testing, noninvasive pulse oximetry, and transcutaneous blood gases. The specimen type and mode of monitoring oxygenation that are chosen may be based on a combination of urgency, practicality, clinical need, and therapeutic objectives...
2016: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
Claudio Bellevicine, Roberta Sgariglia, Umberto Malapelle, Elena Vigliar, Mariantonia Nacchio, Giuseppe Ciancia, Markus Eszlinger, Ralf Paschke, Giancarlo Troncone
BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is accurate and cost-effective in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Molecular techniques may contribute to risk stratification in indeterminate cases. Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a promising technique for the molecular testing of thyroid FNA specimens, thyroid-specific cancer gene panels are not commercially available. Conversely, the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 (CHPv2), which includes the genes most frequently mutated in thyroid neoplasms, is commercially available and may represent an alternative to thyroid-specific panels...
September 26, 2016: Cancer
Rachel D Le, Stacy E F Melanson, Athena K Petrides, Ellen M Goonan, Ida Bixho, Adam B Landman, Anne Marie Brogan, David W Bates, Milenko J Tanasijevic
OBJECTIVES: Most preanalytical errors at our institution occur during nonphlebotomy blood draws. We implemented an electronic health record (EHR), interfaced the EHR to the laboratory information system, and designed a new specimen collection module. We studied the effects of the new system on nonphlebotomy preanalytical errors. METHODS: We used an electronic database of preanalytical errors and calculated the number and type of the most common errors in the emergency department (ED) and inpatient nursing for 3-month periods before (August-October 2014) and after (August-October 2015) implementation...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
Barna Vasarhelyi, Gergely Toldi, Attila Balog
The assessment of the general inflammatory condition of patients with autoimmune connective tissue disorders (ACTD) is a major challenge. The use of traditional inflammatory markers including CRP-levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is limited by several preanalytical factors and their low specificities. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is one of the novel candidate markers that is increasingly used in immune mediated disorders. In our studies we compared suPAR levels of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and ankylosing spondylitis with those of healthy controls...
April 2016: EJIFCC
Cory Ann Leonard, Marina L Meli, Marilisa Novacco, Nicole Borel
The 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene is present in all eukaryotic cells. In this study, we evaluated the use of this gene to verify the presence of PCR-amplifiable host (animal) DNA as an indicator of sufficient sample quality for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis. We compared (i) samples from various animal species, tissues, and sample types, including swabs; (ii) multiple DNA extraction methods; and (iii) both fresh and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Results showed that 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplification was possible from all tissue samples evaluated, including avian, reptile, and FFPE samples and most swab samples...
2016: BioMed Research International
María Antonia Llopis, Josep Miquel Bauça, Nuria Barba, Virtudes Álvarez, Montserrat Ventura, Mercè Ibarz, Rubén Gómez-Rioja, Itziar Marzana, Juan Jose Puente, Marta Segovia, Debora Martinez, María Jesús Alsina
BACKGROUND: Preanalytical variables, such as sample collection, handling and transport, may affect patient results. Preanalytical phase quality monitoring should be established in order to minimize laboratory errors and improve patient safety. METHODS: A retrospective study (2001-2013) of the results obtained through the Spanish Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SEQC) External quality assessment (preanalytical phase) was performed to summarize data regarding the main factors affecting preanalytical phase quality...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Søren Feddersen, Lars Bastholt, Susanne Møller Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of serum thyroglobulin (TG) in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) may be compromised by the presence of endogenous anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb). To prevent interference by TGAb several groups have developed real-time PCR (RT-PCR) based assays for quantification of blood TG mRNA levels. For accurate quantification of TG mRNA in blood preanalytical factors must be recognized and controlled. In this study we evaluate the effect of different blood RNA stabilizing systems - the Tempus(T) (M) Blood RNA system and the PAXgene(T) (M) Blood RNA system - and storage time on RNA yield and quality, and TG mRNA stability...
September 13, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Claudia Cicognola, Davide Chiasserini, Paolo Eusebi, Ulf Andreasson, Hugo Vanderstichele, Henrik Zetterberg, Lucilla Parnetti, Kaj Blennow
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have gained increasing importance in the diagnostic work-up of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The core CSF biomarkers related to AD pathology (Aβ42, t-tau and p-tau) are currently used in CSF diagnostics, while candidate markers of amyloid metabolism (Aβ38, Aβ40, sAPPα, sAPPβ), synaptic loss (neurogranin), neuroinflammation (YKL-40), neuronal damage (VILIP-1) and genetic risk (apolipoprotein E) are undergoing evaluation. Diurnal fluctuation in the concentration of CSF biomarkers has been reported and may represent a preanalytical confounding factor in the laboratory diagnosis of AD...
2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Hakan Turkon, Burak Toprak, Hulya Yalcin, Ayfer Colak, Nurinnisa Ozturk
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of temperature and protease inhibitor on adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) stability. METHODS: We collected blood specimens from 10 donors into K3 EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and K3 EDTA + aprotinin tubes. Plasma specimens were held at room temperature and at 2 °C to 8[Formula: see text] for 0, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 72 hours. ACTH concentrations in 4 storage conditions were compared with repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) at each time point...
November 2016: Laboratory Medicine
Fang Zhou, Andre L Moreira
Context .- In the burgeoning era of molecular genomics, immunoperoxidase (IPOX) testing grows increasingly relevant as an efficient and effective molecular screening tool. Patients with lung carcinoma may especially benefit from the use of IPOX because most lung carcinomas are inoperable at diagnosis and only diagnosed by small tissue biopsy or fine-needle sampling. When such small specimens are at times inadequate for molecular testing, positive IPOX results still provide actionable information. Objective ...
September 2, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Zlata Flegar-Meštrić, Sonja Perkov, Andrea Radeljak, Mirjana Marijana Kardum Paro, Ingrid Prkačin, Ana Devčić-Jeras
BACKGROUND: Improving quality and patient safety in the medical biochemistry laboratory accredited according to the International Standard Organization (ISO 15189:2012) requires the patient-centered evaluation of errors based on the implementation of quality indicators (QIs) across the total testing process. Our main goal was to achieve quality improvement of the preanalytical process in an emergency laboratory which had the highest error rate using risk management principles. METHODS: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was applied to analyze predefined preanalytical QIs and score laboratory failures for the failure demerit value (FDV), probability of failure (PF) and probability of failure remedy (PFR)...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Eun Jin Lee, Miyoung Kim, Han Sung Kim, Min Jeong Park, Young Kyung Lee, Hee Jung Kang
Hemolysis frequently causes preanalytical errors in laboratory measurements. We aimed to develop a quality improvement indicator for evaluating the extent of inappropriate procedures causing hemolysis in clinical samples collected in medical care units. We defined the threshold value of the hemolysis index (H index) causing significant interference with analyte measurement and analyzed the H index values of clinical samples in relation to the threshold. The H index threshold value causing a 10% bias in the measurement of lactate dehydrogenase was found to be 25...
November 2016: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Rikke Bæk, Evo K L Søndergaard, Kim Varming, Malene M Jørgensen
The research field of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is increasing immensely and the potential uses of EVs seem endless. They are found in large numbers in various body fluids, and blood samples may well serve as liquid biopsies. However, these small membrane-derived entities of cellular origin are not straightforward to work with in regard to isolation and characterization. A broad range of relevant preanalytical issues was tested, with a focus on the phenotypic impact of smaller EVs. The influences of the i) blood collection tube used, ii) incubation time before the initial centrifugation, iii) transportation/physical stress, iv) storage temperature and time (short term and long term), v) choice of centrifugation protocol, vi) freeze-thaw cycles, and vii) exosome isolation procedure (ExoQuick™) were examined...
November 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
Zeynep Tosuner, Zühal Gücin, Tuğçe Kiran, Nur Büyükpinarbaşili, Seval Turna, Olcay Taşkiran, Dilek Sema Arici
OBJECTIVE: A major target of quality assurance is the minimization of error rates in order to enhance patient safety. Six Sigma is a method targeting zero error (3.4 errors per million events) used in industry. The five main principles of Six Sigma are defining, measuring, analysis, improvement and control. Using this methodology, the causes of errors can be examined and process improvement strategies can be identified. The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of Six Sigma methodology in error reduction in our pathology laboratory...
2016: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
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