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Neuromuscular medicine

Michael J Murray, Heidi DeBlock, Brian Erstad, Anthony Gray, Judi Jacobi, Che Jordan, William McGee, Claire McManus, Maureen Meade, Sean Nix, Andrew Patterson, M Karen Sands, Richard Pino, Ann Tescher, Richard Arbour, Bram Rochwerg, Catherine Friederich Murray, Sangeeta Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2002 version of "Clinical practice guidelines for sustained neuromuscular blockade in the adult critically ill patient." DESIGN: A Task Force comprising 17 members of the Society of Critical Medicine with particular expertise in the use of neuromuscular-blocking agents; a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation expert; and a medical writer met via teleconference and three face-to-face meetings and communicated via e-mail to examine the evidence and develop these practice guidelines...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Lene H Garvey
Perioperative hypersensitivity reactions are rare, often life-threatening events, and subsequent investigations to identify the culprit are important to avoid re-exposure. All exposures in the perioperative setting may potentially be the cause of a hypersensitivity reaction, but drugs administered intravenously such as neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), induction agents and antibiotics have traditionally been reported to be implicated most commonly. It has recently become apparent that there are geographical differences in sensitization patterns related to variation in exposures, referral patterns and performance and interpretation of investigations...
October 4, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Qiaodan Ji, Hongchen He, Chi Zhang, Chunlan Lu, Yu Zheng, Xiao Tian Luo, Chengqi He
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of whole-body vibration on neuromuscular performance in people with spinal cord injury and evaluate the safe and effective vibration protocols. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PEDro were mainly searched for English literatures. Other data sources were, Current Controlled Trials and reference lists of all relevant articles. The PEDro scale was used to evaluate the methodological quality, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine level of evidence was used to assess the level of evidence...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Rehabilitation
Tiphaine Bourseau, Flavie Fremondière, Valérie Dubus, Bénédicte Gohier, Dewi Le Gal, Fabien Cave, Isabelle Richard, Nicolas Lerolle
OBJECTIVE: After critical illness, some survivors experience long-term physical, functional, neurocognitive and/or mental health impairments, which has been termed "Post-Intensive Care syndrome" (PICS) [1]. A specific follow-up is required and many specialized follow-up clinics have been created both abroad and in France. The aim of this study is to evaluate long-term outcomes after critical illness, through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and to analyse rehabilitation needs after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Beth E Pollot, Benjamin T Corona
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury is prevalent in severe extremity trauma and is an emerging focus area among orthopedic and regenerative medicine fields. VML injuries are the result of an abrupt, frank loss of tissue and therefore of different etiology from other standard rodent injury models to include eccentric contraction, ischemia reperfusion, crush, and freeze injury. The current focus of many VML-related research efforts is to regenerate the lost muscle tissue and thereby improve muscle strength. Herein, we describe a VML model in the anterior compartment of the hindlimb that is permissible to repeated neuromuscular strength assessments and is validated in mouse, rat, and pig...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Matti D Allen, Timothy J Doherty, Charles L Rice, Kurt Kimpinski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Elodie Blanchard, Manuel Tunon de Lara
Pholcodine is an opioid that has been widely used worldwide since 1950 for the treatment of non-productive cough in children and adults. The results of early preclinical studies but also those of recent clinical trials have shown the antitussive efficacy of pholcodine to be superior to that of codeine, of longer duration, and with an equivalent or safer toxicity profile. Also, there is no risk of addiction. Concern had been raised over a possible cross-sensitisation with neuromuscular blocking agents. While a recent assessment of the available data by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has confirmed the favourable risk-benefit ratio of pholcodine, further studies are needed to clear this point...
March 2013: Thérapie
Raing Kyu Kim, Soon Yul Kim
Myasthenia gravis causes weakness and fatigue of the skeletal muscles, including respiratory muscles. When immobile surgical fields are needed, neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are often administered to block muscle activity, leading to an immobile surgical field and respiratory arrest. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are administered to reverse the muscle block, promoting spontaneous respiration for patient recovery. If immobile surgical fields are required in myasthenic patient operations, NMBAs should be administered...
March 2016: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
Ruben Herrendorff, Maria Teresa Faleschini, Adeline Stiefvater, Beat Erne, Tatiana Wiktorowicz, Frances Kern, Matthias Hamburger, Olivier Potterat, Jochen Kinter, Michael Sinnreich
Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) is a disabling neuromuscular disease with no causal treatment available. This disease is caused by expanded CTG trinucleotide repeats in the 3' UTR of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase gene. On the RNA level, expanded (CUG)n repeats form hairpin structures that sequester splicing factors such as muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1). Lack of available MBNL1 leads to misregulated alternative splicing of many target pre-mRNAs, leading to the multisystemic symptoms in DM1. Many studies aiming to identify small molecules that target the (CUG)n-MBNL1 complex focused on synthetic molecules...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Laura Edwards, Margaret Phillips
The Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and the British Society of Rehabilitation Medicine co-hosted a meeting entitled 'Neuromuscular conditions for physicians - what you need to know' at the RCP on 30 November 2015. There was a series of talks, ranging from in-depth genetic and molecular descriptions of pathology to multidisciplinary management of chronic neuromuscular conditions, which stimulated lively debate and discussion. Some overarching themes emerged from the day, most notably: i) the changing expectations and survival rates in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which are transforming this disorder into an adult as much as a paediatric condition; ii) the need for integrated management and good communication -between services - whether primary, secondary and tertiary care, medical teams and intensivists, or the multiple teams involved in providing treatment to neuromuscular patients; and iii) in line with the above, the essential need for streamlining care such that patients can avoid spending most of their time attending outpatient appointments, and instead concentrate on living full lives and exploring educational, occupational, leisure and social opportunities...
June 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Timothy Dillingham, Shan Chen, Michael Andary, Ralph Buschbacher, David Del Toro, Benn Smith, Kuno Zimmermann, Yuen So
INTRODUCTION: There are not uniform standards for nerve conduction testing across the United States. The objective of this study is to present a set of methodologically sound criteria to evaluate the literature for the purpose of identifying high-quality normative nerve conduction studies (NCS) suitable for widespread use. METHODS: The Normative Data Task Force (NDTF) was formed to review published studies on methodological issues related to NCS. A set of criteria was then developed to evaluate the literature...
September 2016: Muscle & Nerve
Alireza Showraki, Masoumeh Emamghoreishi, Somayeh Oftadegan
BACKGROUND: Carum carvi L. (caraway), known as black zeera in Iran, has been indicated for the treatment of epilepsy in Iranian folk medicine. This study evaluated whether the aqueous extract and essential oil of caraway seeds have anticonvulsant effects in mice. METHODS: The anticonvulsant effects of the aqueous extract (200, 400, 800, 1600, and 3200 mg/kg, i.p.) and essential oil (25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) of caraway were assessed using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 95 mg/kg i...
May 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
James P Charles, Ornella Cappellari, Andrew J Spence, Dominic J Wells, John R Hutchinson
Musculoskeletal modelling has become a valuable tool with which to understand how neural, muscular, skeletal and other tissues are integrated to produce movement. Most musculoskeletal modelling work has to date focused on humans or their close relatives, with few examples of quadrupedal animal limb models. A musculoskeletal model of the mouse hindlimb could have broad utility for questions in medicine, genetics, locomotion and neuroscience. This is due to this species' position as a premier model of human disease, having an array of genetic tools for manipulation of the animal in vivo, and being a small quadruped, a category for which few models exist...
October 2016: Journal of Anatomy
Kim De Vasconcellos, David Lee Skinner, Dhivendra Singh
BACKGROUND: Transport of the critically ill patient poses the risk of numerous complications. Hypoxaemia is one such serious adverse event and is associated with potential morbidity and mortality. It is, however, potentially preventable. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of hypoxaemia on arrival in a tertiary multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) and to identify risk factors for this complication. METHOD: A retrospective observational study was conducted at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa, from May 2013 to February 2014...
May 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Sherif Galal
UNLABELLED: Subtrochanteric femoral fractures in children are uncommon and have received limited attention in the literature. Its treatment is controversial, and different options are available: traction, spica casting, internal fixation and external fixation. The aim of this study is to present our results with external fixation of subtrochanteric femoral fractures in children using Ilizarov frame. Between January 2012 and January 2014, 14 patients with closed subtrochanteric femoral fractures were treated in Cairo University School of Medicine Teaching Hospital...
August 2016: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
Rachel Thompson, Volker Straub
The limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a diverse group of genetic neuromuscular conditions that usually manifest in the proximal muscles of the hip and shoulder girdles. Since the identification of the first gene associated with the phenotype in 1994, an extensive body of research has identified the genetic defects responsible for over 30 LGMD subtypes, revealed an increasingly varied phenotypic spectrum, and exposed the need to move towards a systems-based understanding of the molecular pathways affected...
May 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Andrea N Leep Hunderfund, Devon I Rubin, Ruple S Laughlin, Eric J Sorenson, James C Watson, Lyell K Jones, Dorthea Juul, Yoon Soo Park
OBJECTIVE: To develop a new workplace-based EMG direct observation tool (EMG-DOT) and gather validity evidence supporting its use for assessing electrodiagnostic skills among postgraduate medical trainees. METHODS: The EMG-DOT was developed by experts using an iterative process. Validity evidence from content, response process, internal structure, relations to other variables, and consequences of testing was collected during the 2013-2014 academic year. RESULTS: Of 3,412 studies performed by trainees during the study period, 299 (9%) were assessed using the EMG-DOT...
April 26, 2016: Neurology
Bryan Holvoet, Liesbeth De Waele, Mattia Quattrocelli, Olivier Gheysens, Maurillio Sampaolesi, Catherine M Verfaillie, Christophe M Deroose
Numerous neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders are associated with cell-specific depletion in the human body. This imbalance in tissue homeostasis is in healthy individuals repaired by the presence of endogenous stem cells that can replace the lost cell type. However, in most disorders, a genetic origin or limited presence or exhaustion of stem cells impairs correct cell replacement. During the last 30 years, methods to readily isolate and expand stem cells have been developed and this resulted in a major change in the regenerative medicine field as it generates sufficient amount of cells for human transplantation applications...
2016: Stem Cells International
Matti D Allen, Timothy J Doherty, Charles L Rice, Kurt Kimpinski
Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) refers to peripheral nerve dysfunction as a complication of diabetes mellitus. This condition is relatively common and is likely a result of vascular and/or metabolic disturbances related to diabetes. In the early or less severe stages of DPN it typically results in sensory impairments but can eventually lead to major dysfunction of the neuromuscular system. Some of these impairments may include muscle atrophy and weakness, slowing of muscle contraction, and loss of power and endurance...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
J Claesson, M Freundlich, I Gunnarsson, J H Laake, M H Møller, P O Vandvik, T Varpula, T A Aasmundstad
BACKGROUND: The objective of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (SSAI) task force on fluid and drug therapy in adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was to provide clinically relevant, evidence-based treatment recommendations according to standards for trustworthy guidelines. METHODS: The guideline was developed according to standards for trustworthy guidelines, including a systematic review of the literature and use of the GRADE methodology for assessment of the quality of evidence and for moving from evidence to recommendations...
July 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
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