Read by QxMD icon Read

Candida AND defence

Ilias Kounatidis, Lauren Ames, Rupal Mistry, Hsueh-Lui Ho, Ken Haynes, Petros Ligoxygakis
Candida glabrata ( C. glabrata ) forms part of the normal human gut microbiota but can cause life-threatening invasive infections in immune-compromised individuals. C. glabrata displays high resistance to common azole antifungals, which necessitates new treatments. In this investigation, we identified five C. glabrata deletion mutants ( ∆ada2 , ∆bas1 , ∆ hir3, ∆ino2 and ∆met31 ) from a library of 196 transcription factor mutants that were unable to grow and activate an immune response in Drosophila larvae...
May 4, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Jonathan P Richardson, David L Moyes, Jemima Ho, Julian R Naglik
The tremendous diversity in microbial species that colonise the mucosal surfaces of the human body is only now beginning to be fully appreciated. Distinguishing between the behaviour of commensal microbes and harmful pathogens that reside at mucosal sites in the body is a complex, and exquisitely fine-tuned process central to mucosal health. The fungal pathobiont Candida albicans is frequently isolated from mucosal surfaces with an asymptomatic carriage rate of approximately 60% in the human population. While normally a benign member of the microbiota, overgrowth of C...
March 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Michiyo Kobayashi-Sakamoto, Riyoko Tamai, Emiko Isogai, Yusuke Kiyoura
Normally, Candida albicans is a commensal microbe that resides in the human oral cavity, gut and vagina. However, the fungus can cause mucosal and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. The mechanism by which local mucosal infections progress to systemic candidiasis is poorly understood. Here, a murine model of gastrointestinal (GI) candidiasis was developed by inoculation of the oral cavity, followed by treatment with tetracycline (TC) and prednisolone (PSL). Temporal progression from a local infection of the oral cavity to a systemic infection was then monitored...
April 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sunithi Gunasekera, Taj Muhammad, Adam A Strömstedt, K Johan Rosengren, Ulf Göransson
The human host defence peptide LL-37 is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with immunomodulatory functions. Residues 18-29 in LL-37 have previously been identified as a minimal peptide (KR-12) that retains antibacterial activity with decreased cytotoxicity. In this study, analogues of KR-12 were generated by Ala and Lys scans to identify key elements for activity. These were tested against a panel of human pathogens and for membrane permeabilisation on liposomes. Replacements of hydrophobic and cationic residues with Ala were detrimental for antibiotic potency...
February 11, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Brigitte M E Hayes, Mark R Bleackley, Marilyn A Anderson, Nicole L van der Weerden
Antimicrobial peptides are widespread in nature and are produced by many organisms as a first line of defence against pathogens. These peptides have a broad range of biological activities, such as antibacterial or antifungal activities and act with varied mechanisms of action. A large number of the peptides are amphipathic α-helices which act by disrupting plasma membranes and allowing leakage of intracellular contents. However, some peptides have more complex mechanisms of action that require internalisation into the target organisms' cytoplasm...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Iliyana N Kaneva, Joseph Longworth, Peter E Sudbery, Mark J Dickman
Stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with MS analysis is a sensitive and reliable technique for quantifying relative differences in protein abundance and posttranslational modifications between cell populations. We develop and utilise SILAC-MS workflows for quantitative proteomics in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Arginine metabolism provides important cues for escaping host defences during pathogenesis, which limits the use of auxotrophs in Candida research...
March 2018: Proteomics
M A O Lewis, D W Williams
Candida is a fungus (yeast) that is generally regarded as a normal and harmless member of the oral microbiome in humans. Should host defences against these commensals be compromised in any way then Candida can cause clinical signs and symptoms, which manifest as distinct forms of oral candidosis (candidiasis). Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated candidal species from the oral cavity, although a range of non-C. albicans Candida species are being increasingly encountered. The basic principle of the management of candidosis is to identify and eliminate any underlying host predisposing factor...
November 10, 2017: British Dental Journal
Yonghong Zhou, Guoyan Liu, Xi Cheng, Qianqian Wang, Bo Wang, Beilei Wang, Hui Zhang, Qian He, Liming Zhang
In this study, we reported a jellyfish-derived Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor, named CcKPI1, from Cyanea capillata. CcKPI1 has a calculated molecular mass of 19.02kDa and contains three typical Kazal domains. Soluble recombinant CcKPI1 (rCcKPI1) was successfully expressed and purified. rCcKPI1 exhibited significant inhibitory activities against elastase, subtilisin A and proteinase K, but not against trypsin or chymotrypsin. Kinetic studies showed that all of the inhibitory effects of rCcKPI1 were competitive, indicating that it may be a microbial serine protease inhibitor and can exhibit antimicrobial activity...
February 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Vania Polesello, Ludovica Segat, Sergio Crovella, Luisa Zupin
BACKGROUND: Candida species infections are an important worldwide health issue since they do not only affect immunocompromised patients but also healthy individuals. The host developed different mechanisms of protection against Candida infections; specifically the immune system and the innate immune response are the first line of defence. Defensis are a group of antimicrobial peptides, components of the innate immunity, produced at mucosal level and known to be active against bacteria, virus but also fungi...
2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
Giovanni D'Arena, Candida Vitale, Omar Perbellini, Marta Coscia, Francesco La Rocca, Vitalba Ruggieri, Carlo Visco, Nicola Matteo Dario Di Minno, Idanna Innocenti, Vincenzo Pizza, Silvia Deaglio, Giovanni Di Minno, Aldo Giudice, Gioacchino Calapai, Pellegrino Musto, Luca Laurenti, Eugenio Luigi Iorio
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic significance of oxidative stress (OS) and antioxidant defence status measurement in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). METHODS: d-ROMs test and BAP test were evaluated at diagnosis of 165 patients with CLL and correlated with clinical-biological features and prognosis. RESULTS: An increased oxidative damage (d-ROMs test) and a reduced antioxidant potential (BAP test) were found in CLL patients than normal controls (P<...
June 24, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
Elaine F Kenny, Alf Herzig, Renate Krüger, Aaron Muth, Santanu Mondal, Paul R Thompson, Volker Brinkmann, Horst von Bernuth, Arturo Zychlinsky
Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) which ensnare pathogens and have pathogenic functions in diverse diseases. We examined the NETosis pathways induced by five stimuli; PMA, the calcium ionophore A23187, nigericin, Candida albicans and Group B Streptococcus. We studied NET production in neutrophils from healthy donors with inhibitors of molecules crucial to PMA-induced NETs including protein kinase C, calcium, reactive oxygen species, the enzymes myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase...
June 2, 2017: ELife
Camila G Freitas, Stella M F Lima, Mirna S Freire, Ana Paula C Cantuária, Nelson G O Júnior, Tatiane S Santos, Jéssica S Folha, Suzana M Ribeiro, Simoni C Dias, Taia M B Rezende, Patrícia Albuquerque, André M Nicola, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Robert E W Hancock, Octávio L Franco, Maria Sueli S Felipe
Fungal Candida species are commensals present in the mammalian skin and mucous membranes. Candida spp. are capable of breaching the epithelial barrier of immunocompromised patients with neutrophil and cell-mediated immune dysfunctions and can also disseminate to multiple organs through the bloodstream. Here we examined the action of innate defense regulator 1018 (IDR-1018), a 12-amino-acid-residue peptide derived from bovine bactenecin (Bac2A): IDR-1018 showed weak antifungal and antibiofilm activity against a Candida albicans laboratory strain (ATCC 10231) and a clinical isolate (CI) (MICs of 32 and 64 μg · ml-1 , respectively), while 8-fold lower concentrations led to dissolution of the fungal cells from preformed biofilms...
August 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Adél Tóth, Erik Zajta, Katalin Csonka, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Mihai G Netea, Attila Gácser
Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis are human pathogens causing severe infections. The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a crucial role in host defence against C. albicans, but it has been previously unknown whether C. parapsilosis activates this complex. Here we show that C. parapsilosis induces caspase-1 activation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in THP-1, as well as primary, human macrophages. IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3, K(+)-efflux, TLR4, IRAK, Syk, caspase-1, caspase-8 and NADPH-oxidase. Importantly, while C...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Vito Rodolico, Paola Di Carlo, Gaspare Gulotta, Francesco D'Arpa, Giuseppe Salamone, Gianfranco Cocorullo, Antonino Agrusa, Anna Giammanco, Consolato Sergi
AIMS: To evaluate the contribution of light microscopy to detecting Candida spp infection in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) admitted for acute abdomen to a quality assurance (QA)-certified surgical emergency ward. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study (2008-2012) of 809 abdominal intraoperative or biopsy tissue specimens obtained from patients admitted with acute abdomen and microbiological samples positive for Candida spp. Demographic data, mortality, comorbidities, specimen type, microscopy results, special histological staining performed, antimicrobial therapy were collected and analysed...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Yu Luo, Hannah L Bolt, Gabriela A Eggimann, Danny F McAuley, Ronan McMullan, Tanya Curran, Mei Zhou, Professor Colin A B Jahoda, Steven L Cobb, Fionnuala T Lundy
Biofilms containing Candida albicans are responsible for a wide variety of clinical infections. The protective effects of the biofilm matrix, the low metabolic activity of microorganisms within a biofilm and their high mutation rate, significantly enhance the resistance of biofilms to conventional antimicrobial treatments. Peptoids are peptide-mimics that share many features of host defence antimicrobial peptides but have increased resistance to proteases and therefore have better stability in vivo. The activity of a library of peptoids was tested against monospecies and polymicrobial bacterial/fungal biofilms...
January 3, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Joana Barros, Liliana Grenho, Sílvia Fontenente, Cândida M Manuel, Olga C Nunes, Luís F Melo, Fernando J Monteiro, Maria P Ferraz
Implant-associated infections are caused by surface-adhering microorganisms persisting as biofilms, resistant to host defense and antimicrobial agents. Given the limited efficacy of traditional antibiotics, novel strategies may rely on the prevention of such infections through the design of new biomaterials. In this work, two antimicrobial agents applied to nanohydroxyapatite materials-namely, chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles-were compared concerning their ability to avoid single- or dual-species biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli...
February 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Fabiola Hernández-Martínez, Carlos Iván Briones-Roblero, David R Nelson, Flor Nohemí Rivera-Orduña, Gerardo Zúñiga
Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and associated microorganisms must overcome a complex tree's defence system, which includes toxic monoterpenes, to successfully complete their life cycle. A number of studies have suggested these microorganisms could have ecological roles related with the nutrition, detoxification, and semiochemical production. In particular, in filamentous fungi symbionts, cytochrome P450 (CYP) have been involved with terpenoid detoxification and biotransformation processes. Candida oregonensis has been isolated from the gut, ovaries, and frass of different bark beetle species, and it is a dominant species in the Dendroctonus rhizophagus gut...
September 2016: Fungal Biology
Shagun Goel, Seema Mittal, Uma Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Candida spp. remains the fungal species most commonly associated with biofilm formation. Increase in Candida infections in last decades has almost paralleled the increase and wide spread use of a broad range of medical implant devices mainly in population with impaired host defences. One of the most important characteristics of biofilms is their high level of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to know the prevalence of different Candida spp...
2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
M T Clancy, J Gad-Al-Rab, C T Keane
Opportunistic fungal infection is recognised as a complication of intravenous therapy (Zinneret al., 1969), prolonged antibiotic usage, immuno-suppressives, steroids, radiotherapy and in patients whose host defences are impaired (Klainer and Beisel, 1969). We describe here a patient with Hodgkin's disease who developed disseminated candidiasis associated with an indwelling venous catheter.
December 1976: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Daniel Prieto, Inês Correia, Jesús Pla, Elvira Román
Candida albicans is a common resident of the oral cavity, GI tract and vagina in healthy humans where it establishes a commensal relationship with the host. Colonization of the gut, which is an important niche for the microbe, may lead to systemic dissemination and disease upon alteration of host defences. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the adaptation of C. albicans to the gut is therefore important for the design of new ways of combating fungal diseases. In this review we discuss the available models to study commensalism of this yeast, the main mechanisms controlling the establishment of the fungus, such as microbiota, mucus layer and antimicrobial peptides, and the gene regulatory circuits that ensure its survival in this niche...
2016: Future Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"