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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900840/peptoid-efficacy-against-polymicrobial-biofilms-determined-by-using-propidium-monoazide-modified-quantitative-pcr
#1
Yu Luo, Hannah L Bolt, Gabriela A Eggimann, Danny F McAuley, Ronan McMullan, Tanya Curran, Mei Zhou, Professor Colin A B Jahoda, Steven L Cobb, Fionnuala T Lundy
Biofilms containing Candida albicans are responsible for a wide variety of clinical infections. The protective effects of the biofilm matrix, the low metabolic activity of microorganisms within a biofilm and their high mutation rate, significantly enhance the resistance of biofilms to conventional antimicrobial treatments. Peptoids are peptide-mimics that share many features of host defence antimicrobial peptides but have increased resistance to proteases and therefore have better stability in vivo. The activity of a library of peptoids was tested against monospecies and polymicrobial bacterial/fungal biofilms...
November 7, 2016: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706907/s-aureus-and-e-coli-dual-species-biofilms-on-nanohydroxyapatite-loaded-with-chx-or-zno-nanoparticles
#2
Joana Barros, Liliana Grenho, Sílvia Fontenente, Cândida M Manuel, Olga C Nunes, Luís F Melo, Fernando J Monteiro, Maria P Ferraz
Implant-associated infections are caused by surface-adhering microorganisms persisting as biofilms, resistant to host defence and antimicrobial agents. Given the limited efficacy of traditional antibiotics, novel strategies may rely on the prevention of such infections through the design of new biomaterials. In the present work, two antimicrobial agents applied to nanohydroxyapatite materials, namely chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, were compared concerning their ability to avoid single- or dual-species biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567714/cytochrome-p450-complement-cypome-of-candida-oregonensis-a-gut-associated-yeast-of-bark-beetle-dendroctonus-rhizophagus
#3
Fabiola Hernández-Martínez, Carlos Iván Briones-Roblero, David R Nelson, Flor Nohemí Rivera-Orduña, Gerardo Zúñiga
Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and associated microorganisms must overcome a complex tree's defence system, which includes toxic monoterpenes, to successfully complete their life cycle. A number of studies have suggested these microorganisms could have ecological roles related with the nutrition, detoxification, and semiochemical production. In particular, in filamentous fungi symbionts, cytochrome P450 (CYP) have been involved with terpenoid detoxification and biotransformation processes. Candida oregonensis has been isolated from the gut, ovaries, and frass of different bark beetle species, and it is a dominant species in the Dendroctonus rhizophagus gut...
September 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538491/role-of-non-albicans-candida-spp-and-biofilm-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#4
Shagun Goel, Seema Mittal
BACKGROUND: Candida spp. remains the fungal species most commonly associated with biofilm formation. Increase in Candida infections in last decades has almost paralleled the increase and wide spread use of a broad range of medical implant devices mainly in population with impaired host defences. One of the most important characteristics of biofilms is their high level of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to know the prevalence of different Candida spp...
August 18, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517253/venous-catheter-associated-candida-albicans-septicaemia
#5
M T Clancy, J Gad-Al-Rab, C T Keane
Opportunistic fungal infection is recognised as a complication of intravenous therapy (Zinneret al., 1969), prolonged antibiotic usage, immuno-suppressives, steroids, radiotherapy and in patients whose host defences are impaired (Klainer and Beisel, 1969). We describe here a patient with Hodgkin's disease who developed disseminated candidiasis associated with an indwelling venous catheter.
December 1976: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27070839/adaptation-of-candida-albicans-to-commensalism-in-the-gut
#6
Daniel Prieto, Inês Correia, Jesús Pla, Elvira Román
Candida albicans is a common resident of the oral cavity, GI tract and vagina in healthy humans where it establishes a commensal relationship with the host. Colonization of the gut, which is an important niche for the microbe, may lead to systemic dissemination and disease upon alteration of host defences. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the adaptation of C. albicans to the gut is therefore important for the design of new ways of combating fungal diseases. In this review we discuss the available models to study commensalism of this yeast, the main mechanisms controlling the establishment of the fungus, such as microbiota, mucus layer and antimicrobial peptides, and the gene regulatory circuits that ensure its survival in this niche...
2016: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26843519/epithelial-discrimination-of-commensal-and-pathogenic-candida-albicans
#7
S X Tang, D L Moyes, J P Richardson, M Blagojevic, J R Naglik
All mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells and are colonised by opportunistic microbes. In health, these opportunistic microbes remain commensal and are tolerated by the immune system. However, when the correct environmental conditions arise, these microbes can become pathogenic and need to be controlled or cleared by the immune system to prevent disease. The mechanisms that enable epithelial cells to initiate the 'danger' signals activated specifically by pathogenic microbes are critical to mucosal defence and homeostasis but are not well understood...
April 2016: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26709773/role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-systemic-candida-albicans-infections
#8
REVIEW
Maria Luisa Gil, Celia Murciano, Alberto Yáñez, Daniel Gozalbo
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a family of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize molecular signatures of microbial pathogens and function as sensors for infection. Recognition of Candida albicans by TLRs on mature immune cells, such as phagocytic cells, activates intracellular signalling pathways that trigger production of proinflammatory cytokines which are critical for innate host defence and orchestrate the adaptive response. TLR2, and TLR4 in a minor extent, recognize cell wall-associated ligands; endosomal TLR9 and TLR7 recognize DNA and RNA respectively...
January 1, 2016: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26641636/monomeric-and-gemini-surfactants-as-antimicrobial-agents-influence-on-environmental-and-reference-strains
#9
Anna Koziróg, Bogumił Brycki
Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) belong to surfactant commonly used both, in the household and in different branches of industry, primarily in the process of cleaning and disinfection. They have several positive features inter alia effectively limiting the development of microorganisms on many surfaces. In the present work, two compounds were used as biocides: hexamethylene-1,6-bis-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium bromide) that belongs to the gemini surfactant (GS), and its single analogue - dodecyl(trimethyl)ammonium bromide (DTAB)...
2015: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608260/quantitative-differential-proteomics-of-yeast-extracellular-matrix-there-is-more-to-it-than-meets-the-eye
#10
Fábio Faria-Oliveira, Joana Carvalho, Célia Ferreira, Maria Luisa Hernáez, Concha Gil, Cândida Lucas
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae multicellular communities are sustained by a scaffolding extracellular matrix, which provides spatial organization, and nutrient and water availability, and ensures group survival. According to this tissue-like biology, the yeast extracellular matrix (yECM) is analogous to the higher Eukaryotes counterpart for its polysaccharide and proteinaceous nature. Few works focused on yeast biofilms, identifying the flocculin Flo11 and several members of the HSP70 in the extracellular space...
2015: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26388329/immune-defence-against-candida-fungal-infections
#11
REVIEW
Mihai G Netea, Leo A B Joosten, Jos W M van der Meer, Bart-Jan Kullberg, Frank L van de Veerdonk
The immune response to Candida species is shaped by the commensal character of the fungus. There is a crucial role for discerning between colonization and invasion at mucosal surfaces, with the antifungal host defence mechanisms used during mucosal or systemic infection with Candida species differing substantially. Here, we describe how innate sensing of fungi by pattern recognition receptors and the interplay of immune cells (both myeloid and lymphoid) with non-immune cells, including platelets and epithelial cells, shapes host immunity to Candida species...
October 2015: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26366292/a-unique-biofilm-in-human-deep-mycoses-fungal-amyloid-is-bound-by-host-serum-amyloid-p-component
#12
Melissa C Garcia-Sherman, Tracy Lundberg, Richard E Sobonya, Peter N Lipke, Stephen A Klotz
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We have demonstrated the presence of Candida cell surface amyloids that are important in aggregation of fungi and adherence to tissue. Fungal amyloid was present in invasive human candidal infections and host serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound to the fungal amyloid. SAP is a protease-resistant glycoprotein that binds avidly to amyloid and interferes with host defence, especially against bacterial pathogens for which neutrophils are important. In this study, we investigated whether biofilm of fungal amyloid and SAP was a feature of other disseminated fungal infections...
2015: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26192232/the-expression-of-inflammatory-cytokines-tam-tyrosine-kinase-receptors-and-their-ligands-is-upregulated-in-venous-leg-ulcer-patients-a-novel-insight-into-chronic-wound-immunity
#13
Kata Filkor, Tibor Németh, István Nagy, Éva Kondorosi, Edit Urbán, Lajos Kemény, Győző Szolnoky
The systemic host defence mechanisms, especially innate immunity, in venous leg ulcer patients are poorly investigated. The aim of the current study was to measure Candida albicans killing activity and gene expressions of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and innate immune response regulators, TAM receptors and ligands of peripheral blood mononuclear cells separated from 69 venous leg ulcer patients and 42 control probands. Leg ulcer patients were stratified into responder and non-responder groups on the basis of wound healing properties...
August 2016: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26098675/isolation-of-vaginal-lactobacilli-and-characterization-of-anti-candida-activity
#14
Carola Parolin, Antonella Marangoni, Luca Laghi, Claudio Foschi, Rogers Alberto Ñahui Palomino, Natalia Calonghi, Roberto Cevenini, Beatrice Vitali
Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17) by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26028405/in-vitro-modulation-of-probiotic-bacteria-on-the-biofilm-of-candida-glabrata
#15
Shu Yih Chew, Yoke Kqueen Cheah, Heng Fong Seow, Doblin Sandai, Leslie Thian Lung Than
A conspicuous new concept of pathogens living as the microbial societies in the human host rather than free planktonic cells has raised considerable concerns among scientists and clinicians. Fungal biofilms are communities of cells that possess distinct characteristic such as increased resistance to the immune defence and antimycotic agents in comparison to their planktonic cells counterpart. Therefore, inhibition of the biofilm may represent a new paradigm for antifungal development. In this study, we aim to evaluate the in vitro modulation of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata biofilms using probiotic lactobacilli strains...
August 2015: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25880788/defective-trained-immunity-in-patients-with-stat-1-dependent-chronic-mucocutaneaous-candidiasis
#16
D C Ifrim, J Quintin, L Meerstein-Kessel, T S Plantinga, L A B Joosten, J W M van der Meer, F L van de Veerdonk, M G Netea
Patients with signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1)-dependent chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and patients with STAT3-dependent hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig)E syndrome (HIES) display defects in T helper type 17 (Th17) cytokine production capacity. Despite this similar immune defect in Th17 function, they show important differences in the type of infections to which they are susceptible. Recently, our group reported differential regulation of STAT-1 and STAT-3 transcription factors during epigenetic reprogramming of trained immunity, an important host defence mechanism based on innate immune memory...
September 2015: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25742266/bay-41-2272-activates-host-defence-against-local-and-disseminated-candida-albicans-infections
#17
Paulo Vítor Soeiro-Pereira, Angela Falcai, Christina Arslanian Kubo, Edson Antunes, Antonio Condino-Neto
In our previous study, we have found that 5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine (BAY 41-2272), a guanylate cyclase agonist, activates human monocytes and the THP-1 cell line to produce the superoxide anion, increasing in vitro microbicidal activity, suggesting that this drug can be used to modulate immune functioning in primary immunodeficiency patients. In the present work, we investigated the potential of the in vivo administration of BAY 41-2272 for the treatment of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus infections introduced via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous inoculation...
February 2015: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25711406/guideline-vulvovaginal-candidosis-awmf-015-072-s2k-excluding-chronic-mucocutaneous-candidosis
#18
Werner Mendling, J Brasch, O A Cornely, I Effendy, K Friese, G Ginter-Hanselmayer, H Hof, P Mayser, I Mylonas, M Ruhnke, M Schaller, E-R Weissenbacher
The oestrogenised vagina is colonised by Candida species in at least 20% of women; in late pregnancy and in immunosuppressed patients, this increases to at least 30%. In most cases, Candida albicans is involved. Host factors, particularly local defence mechanisms, gene polymorphisms, allergies, serum glucose levels, antibiotics, psycho-social stress and oestrogens influence the risk of candidal vulvovaginitis. Non-albicans species, particularly Candida glabrata, and in rare cases also Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cause less than 10% of all cases of vulvovaginitis with some regional variation; these are generally associated with milder signs and symptoms than normally seen with a C...
March 2015: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25626456/bay-41-2272-activates-host-defence-against-local-and-disseminated-candida-albicans-infections
#19
Paulo Vítor Soeiro-Pereira, Angela Falcai, Christina Arslanian Kubo, Edson Antunes, Antonio Condino-Neto
In our previous study, we have found that 5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine (BAY 41-2272), a guanylate cyclase agonist, activates human monocytes and the THP-1 cell line to produce the superoxide anion, increasing in vitro microbicidal activity, suggesting that this drug can be used to modulate immune functioning in primary immunodeficiency patients. In the present work, we investigated the potential of the in vivo administration of BAY 41-2272 for the treatment of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus infections introduced via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous inoculation...
January 23, 2015: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25626077/aaeap1-and-aaeap2-novel-antimicrobial-peptides-from-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-androctonus-aeneas-structural-characterisation-molecular-cloning-of-biosynthetic-precursor-encoding-cdnas-and-engineering-of-analogues-with-enhanced-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-activities
#20
Qiang Du, Xiaojuan Hou, Lei Wang, Yingqi Zhang, Xinping Xi, Hui Wang, Mei Zhou, Jinao Duan, Minjie Wei, Tianbao Chen, Chris Shaw
The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity...
February 2015: Toxins
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