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transcription Cap binding protein

Huang Wu, Qing-Fei Yin, Zheng Luo, Run-Wen Yao, Chuan-Chuan Zheng, Jun Zhang, Jian-Feng Xiang, Li Yang, Ling-Ling Chen
We identify a type of polycistronic transcript-derived long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are 5' small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) capped and 3' polyadenylated (SPAs). SPA processing is associated with nascent mRNA 3' processing and kinetic competition between XRN2 trimming and Pol II elongation. Following cleavage/polyadenylation of its upstream gene, the downstream uncapped pre-SPA is trimmed by XRN2 until this exonuclease reaches the co-transcriptionally assembled snoRNP. This snoRNP complex prevents further degradation, generates a snoRNA 5' end, and allows continuous Pol II elongation...
November 3, 2016: Molecular Cell
Fan Zhang, Likai Wang, Jae Yun Lim, Taewook Kim, Youngjae Pyo, Sibum Sung, Chanseok Shin, Hong Qiao
Ethylene is one of the most important hormones for plant developmental processes and stress responses. However, the phosphorylation regulation in the ethylene signaling pathway is largely unknown. Here we report the phosphorylation of cap binding protein 20 (CBP20) at Ser245 is regulated by ethylene, and the phosphorylation is involved in root growth. The constitutive phosphorylation mimic form of CBP20 (CBP20S245E or CBP20S245D), while not the constitutive de-phosphorylation form of CBP20 (CBP20S245A) is able to rescue the root ethylene responsive phenotype of cbp20...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
Min Zhang, Jin Zhang, Wensheng Yan, Xinbin Chen
p73, a p53 family tumor suppressor, is regulated by multiple mechanisms, including transcription and mRNA and protein stability. However, whether p73 expression is regulated via mRNA translation has not been explored. To test this, we examined whether ribosomal protein 26 (RPL26) plays a role in p73 expression. Here, we showed that p73 expression is controlled by RPL26 via protein stability and mRNA translation. To examine whether MDM2 mediates RPL26 to regulate p73 protein stability, we generated multiple MDM2-knockout cell lines by CRISPR-cas9...
November 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Xiang Yu, Matthew R Willmann, Stephen J Anderson, Brian D Gregory
RNA turnover is necessary for controlling proper mRNA levels posttranscriptionally. In general, RNA degradation is via exoribonucleases that degrade RNA either from the 5' end to the 3' end, such as XRN4, or in the opposite direction by the multisubunit exosome complex. Here, we use genome-wide mapping of uncapped and cleaved transcripts to reveal the global landscape of cotranslational mRNA decay in the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome. We found that this process leaves a clear three nucleotide periodicity in open reading frames...
October 2016: Plant Cell
Atsuko Miki, Josephine Galipon, Satoshi Sawai, Toshifumi Inada, Kunihiro Ohta
Antisense RNA has emerged as a crucial regulator of opposite-strand protein-coding genes in the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) category, but little is known about their dynamics and decay process in the context of a stress response. Antisense transcripts from the fission yeast fbp1 locus (fbp1-as) are expressed in glucose-rich conditions and anticorrelated with transcription of metabolic stress-induced lncRNA (mlonRNA) and mRNA on the sense strand during glucose starvation. Here, we investigate the localization and decay of antisense RNAs at fbp1 and other loci, and propose a model to explain the rapid switch between antisense and sense mlonRNA/mRNA transcription triggered by glucose starvation...
October 10, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Junfei Wei, Ashish Damania, Xin Gao, Zhuyun Liu, Rojelio Mejia, Makedonka Mitreva, Ulrich Strych, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Bin Zhan
BACKGROUND: The intestine of hookworms contains enzymes and proteins involved in the blood-feeding process of the parasite and is therefore a promising source of possible vaccine antigens. One such antigen, the hemoglobin-digesting intestinal aspartic protease known as Na-APR-1 from the human hookworm Necator americanus, is currently a lead candidate antigen in clinical trials, as is Na-GST-1 a heme-detoxifying glutathione S-transferase. METHODS: In order to discover additional hookworm vaccine antigens, messenger RNA was obtained from the intestine of male hookworms, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, maintained in hamsters...
September 27, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Caitlyn Riedmann, Yvonne N Fondufe-Mittendorf
Chromatin architectural proteins (CAPs) bind the entry/exit DNA of nucleosomes and linker DNA to form higher order chromatin structures with distinct transcriptional outcomes. How CAPs mediate nucleosome dynamics is not well understood. We hypothesize that CAPs regulate DNA target site accessibility through alteration of the rate of spontaneous dissociation of DNA from nucleosomes. We investigated the effects of histone H1, high mobility group D1 (HMGD1), and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), on the biophysical properties of nucleosomes and chromatin...
September 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shunsuke Imai, Parimal Kumar, Christopher U T Hellen, Victoria M D'Souza, Gerhard Wagner
Many viruses bypass canonical cap-dependent translation in host cells by using internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) in their transcripts; IRESs hijack initiation factors for the assembly of initiation complexes. However, it is currently unknown how IRES RNAs recognize initiation factors that have no endogenous RNA binding partners; in a prominent example, the IRES of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) interacts with the HEAT-1 domain of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G). Here we report the solution structure of the J-K region of this IRES and show that its stems are precisely organized to position protein-recognition bulges...
September 2016: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Qing Tang, Kang Yin, Hongliang Qian, Youwen Zhao, Wen Wang, Shan-Ho Chou, Yang Fu, Jin He
Cyclic di-GMP is a ubiquitous second messenger that regulates diverse cellular processes in bacteria by binding to various protein or riboswitch effectors. In Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171, a c-di-GMP riboswitch termed Bc2 RNA resides in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of an mRNA that encodes a collagen adhesion protein (Cap). The expression of cap was strongly repressed in parent strain BMB171 because of the presence of Bc2 RNA but was significantly promoted in the Bc2 RNA markerless deletion mutant. Bc2 RNA acts as a genetic "on" switch, which forms an anti-terminator structure to promote cap read-through transcription upon c-di-GMP binding...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jan Philip Wurm, Jan Overbeck, Remco Sprangers
The removal of the 5' 7-methylguanosine mRNA cap structure (decapping) is a central step in the 5'-3' mRNA degradation pathway and is performed by the Dcp1:Dcp2 decapping complex. The activity of this complex is tightly regulated to prevent premature degradation of the transcript. Here, we establish that the aromatic groove of the EVH1 domain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dcp1 can interact with proline-rich sequences in the exonuclease Xrn1, the scaffolding protein Pat1, the helicase Dhh1, and the C-terminal disordered region of Dcp2...
September 2016: RNA
Yu Feng, Yu Zhang, Richard H Ebright
Class II transcription activators function by binding to a DNA site overlapping a core promoter and stimulating isomerization of an initial RNA polymerase (RNAP)-promoter closed complex into a catalytically competent RNAP-promoter open complex. Here, we report a 4.4 angstrom crystal structure of an intact bacterial class II transcription activation complex. The structure comprises Thermus thermophilus transcription activator protein TTHB099 (TAP) [homolog of Escherichia coli catabolite activator protein (CAP)], T...
June 10, 2016: Science
Jian Wang, Alton B Farris, Kaiming Xu, Ping Wang, Xiangming Zhang, Duc M Duong, Hong Yi, Hui-Kuo Shu, Shi-Yong Sun, Ya Wang
GPRC5A functions as a lung tumour suppressor to prevent spontaneous and environmentally induced lung carcinogenesis; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we reveal that GPRC5A at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane suppresses synthesis of the secreted or membrane-bound proteins including a number of oncogenes, the most important one being Egfr. The ER-located GPRC5A disturbs the assembly of the eIF4F-mediated translation initiation complex on the mRNA cap through directly binding to the eIF4F complex with its two middle extracellular loops...
2016: Nature Communications
Zicong Li, Danhua Jiang, Xing Fu, Xiao Luo, Renyi Liu, Yuehui He
In eukaryotes, genes are transcribed into pre-mRNAs that are subsequently processed into mature mRNAs by adding a 5'-cap and a 3'-polyA tail and splicing introns. Pre-mRNA processing involves their binding proteins and processing factors, whereas gene transcription often involves chromatin modifiers. It has been unclear how the factors involved in chromatin modifications and RNA processing function in concert to control mRNA production. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, the evolutionarily conserved nuclear mRNA cap-binding complex (CBC) forms multi-protein complexes with a conserved histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase complex called COMPASS-like and a histone 3 lysine 36 (H3K36) methyltransferase to integrate active histone methylations with co-transcriptional mRNA processing and cap preservation, leading to a high level of mature mRNA production...
2016: Nature Plants
Nicholas P Gladman, Richard S Marshall, Kwang-Hee Lee, Richard D Vierstra
Proteotoxic stress, which is generated by the accumulation of unfolded or aberrant proteins due to environmental or cellular perturbations, can be mitigated by several mechanisms, including activation of the unfolded protein response and coordinated increases in protein chaperones and activities that direct proteolysis, such as the 26S proteasome. Using RNA-seq analyses combined with chemical inhibitors or mutants that induce proteotoxic stress by impairing 26S proteasome capacity, we defined the transcriptional network that responds to this stress in Arabidopsis thaliana This network includes genes encoding core and assembly factors needed to build the complete 26S particle, alternative proteasome capping factors, enzymes involved in protein ubiquitylation/deubiquitylation and cellular detoxification, protein chaperones, autophagy components, and various transcriptional regulators...
June 2016: Plant Cell
Ying-Hsi Lin, Chad M Warren, Jieli Li, Timothy A McKinsey, Brenda Russell
The mechanotransduction signaling pathways initiated in heart muscle by increased mechanical loading are known to lead to long-term transcriptional changes and hypertrophy, but the rapid events for adaptation at the sarcomeric level are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that actin filament assembly during cardiomyocyte growth is regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) of CapZβ1. In rapidly hypertrophying neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) stimulated by phenylephrine (PE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) of CapZβ1 revealed a shift toward more negative charge...
August 2016: Cellular Signalling
Xin Liu, Hongyuan Li, Lingxia Liu, Yang Lu, Yanyan Gao, Pengyu Geng, Xiaoxue Li, Baiqu Huang, Yu Zhang, Jun Lu
The cap 'n' collar (CNC) family of transcription factors play important roles in resistance of oxidative and electrophilic stresses. Among the CNC family members, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is critical for regulating the antioxidant and phase II enzymes through antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated transactivation. The activity of Nrf2 is controlled by a variety of post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, acetylation and sumoylation. Here we demonstrate that the arginine methyltransferase-1 (PRMT1) methylates Nrf2 protein at a single residue of arginine 437, both in vitro and in vivo...
August 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Dipali Bhoye, Abhisek Kumar Behera, Sarah S Cherian
The cap binding domain of the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) subunit of influenza polymerases plays a critical role in mediating the 'cap-snatching' mechanism by binding the 5' cap of host pre-mRNAs during viral mRNA transcription. Monitoring variations in the PB2 protein is thus vital for evaluating the pathogenic potential of the virus. Based on selection pressure analysis of PB2 gene sequences of the pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses of the period 2009-2014, we identified a site, 344V/M, in the vicinity of the cap binding pocket showing evidence of adaptive evolution and another co-evolving residue, 354I/L, in close vicinity...
August 2016: Journal of General Virology
Shengping Li, Yanhe Zhao, Zheng Zhao, Xiuling Wu, Lifang Sun, Qingsong Liu, Yunkun Wu
GRAS proteins belong to a plant-specific protein family with many members and play essential roles in plant growth and development, functioning primarily in transcriptional regulation. Proteins in the family are minimally defined as containing the conserved GRAS domain. Here, we determined the structure of the GRAS domain of Os-SCL7 from rice (Oryza sativa) to 1.82 Å. The structure includes cap and core subdomains and elucidates the features of the conserved GRAS LRI, VHIID, LRII, PFYRE, and SAW motifs. The structure is a dimer, with a clear groove to accommodate double-stranded DNA...
May 2016: Plant Cell
Fumiki Katsuoka, Masayuki Yamamoto
The small Maf proteins (sMafs) are basic region leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factors. The basic region of the Maf family is unique among the bZIP factors, and it contributes to the distinct DNA-binding mode of this class of proteins. MafF, MafG and MafK are the three vertebrate sMafs, and no functional differences have been observed among them in terms of their bZIP structures. sMafs form homodimers by themselves, and they form heterodimers with cap 'n' collar (CNC) proteins (p45 NF-E2, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Nrf3) and also with Bach proteins (Bach1 and Bach2)...
July 25, 2016: Gene
Lea S Flocke, Robert Trondl, Michael A Jakupec, Bernhard K Keppler
Sodium trans-[tetrachloridobis(1H-indazole)ruthenate(III)] (NKP-1339) is a clinically investigated ruthenium-based metal complex, which shows promising results in solid tumors, such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal carcinoma, and most distinctively in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors. In previous studies, fast binding to albumin as well as transferrin could be shown. The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, which is diversely being exploited for tumor targeting, could therefore be applicable for NKP-1339...
June 2016: Investigational New Drugs
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