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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028800/spatial-distribution-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-xdr-tb-patients-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#1
Thandi Kapwata, Natashia Morris, Angela Campbell, Thuli Mthiyane, Primrose Mpangase, Kristin N Nelson, Salim Allana, James C M Brust, Pravi Moodley, Koleka Mlisana, Neel R Gandhi, N Sarita Shah
BACKGROUND: KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, has among the highest burden of XDR TB worldwide with the majority of cases occurring due to transmission. Poor access to health facilities can be a barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of TB, which can contribute to ongoing transmission. We sought to determine the geographic distribution of XDR TB patients and proximity to health facilities in KwaZulu-Natal. METHODS: We recruited adults and children with XDR TB diagnosed in KwaZulu-Natal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027495/monitoring-and-managing-antibiotic-resistance-in-refugee-children
#2
Helena C Maltezou, Dana Elhadad, Daniel Glikman
The past decade the Middle East and Southeastern Europe have witnessed an enormous movement of refugees due to the Syrian war and conflicts in Asia and Africa. Although carriage of and infections with multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens in refugees have been reported, pediatric data are scarce. Areas covered: MDR bacterial carriage and infections, and MDR-tuberculosis (TB) in refugee children from 2010. Expert commentary: High MDR carriage rates in refugee children are attributed to high pre-civil war MDR rates, war-damaged infrastructure and healthcare systems, and poor hygiene conditions...
October 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025631/effect-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-on-risk-of-death-in-west-african-hiv-infected-adults-with-high-cd4-cell-counts-long-term-follow-up-of-the-temprano-anrs-12136-trial
#3
Anani Badje, Raoul Moh, Delphine Gabillard, Calixte Guéhi, Mathieu Kabran, Jean-Baptiste Ntakpé, Jérôme Le Carrou, Gérard M Kouame, Eric Ouattara, Eugène Messou, Amani Anzian, Albert Minga, Joachim Gnokoro, Patrice Gouesse, Arlette Emieme, Thomas-d'Aquin Toni, Cyprien Rabe, Baba Sidibé, Gustave Nzunetu, Lambert Dohoun, Abo Yao, Synali Kamagate, Solange Amon, Amadou-Barenson Kouame, Aboli Koua, Emmanuel Kouamé, Marcelle Daligou, Denise Hawerlander, Simplice Ackoundzé, Serge Koule, Jonas Séri, Alex Ani, Fassery Dembélé, Fatoumata Koné, Mykayila Oyebi, Nathalie Mbakop, Oyewole Makaila, Carolle Babatunde, Nathaniel Babatunde, Gisèle Bleoué, Mireille Tchoutedjem, Alain-Claude Kouadio, Ghislaine Sena, Sahinou-Yediga Yededji, Sophie Karcher, Christine Rouzioux, Abo Kouame, Rodrigue Assi, Alima Bakayoko, Serge K Domoua, Nina Deschamps, Kakou Aka, Thérèse N'Dri-Yoman, Roger Salamon, Valérie Journot, Hughes Ahibo, Timothée Ouassa, Hervé Menan, André Inwoley, Christine Danel, Serge P Eholié, Xavier Anglaret
BACKGROUND: Temprano ANRS 12136 was a factorial 2 × 2 trial that assessed the benefits of early antiretroviral therapy (ART; ie, in patients who had not reached the CD4 cell count threshold used to recommend starting ART, as per the WHO guidelines that were the standard during the study period) and 6-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in HIV-infected adults in Côte d'Ivoire. Early ART and IPT were shown to independently reduce the risk of severe morbidity at 30 months. Here, we present the efficacy of IPT in reducing mortality from the long-term follow-up of Temprano...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018588/do-chain-pharmacies-perform-better-than-independent-pharmacies-evidence-from-a-standardised-patient-study-of-the-management-of-childhood-diarrhoea-and-suspected-tuberculosis-in-urban-india
#4
Rosalind Miller, Catherine Goodman
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacies and drug stores are frequently patients' first point of care in many low-income and middle-income countries, but their practice is often poor. Pharmacy retailing in India has traditionally been dominated by local, individually owned shops, but recent years have seen the growth of pharmacy chains. In theory, lower-powered profit incentives and self-regulation to preserve brand identity may lead to higher quality in chain stores. In practice, this has been little studied...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017219/-consensus-based-guidelines-for-diagnosis-prevention-and-treatment-of-tuberculosis-in-children-and-adolescents-a-guideline-on-behalf-of-the-german-society-for-pediatric-infectious-diseases-dgpi
#5
C Feiterna-Sperling, F Brinkmann, C Adamczick, F Ahrens, M Barker, C Berger, L D Berthold, M Bogyi, U von Both, T Frischer, W Haas, P Hartmann, D Hillemann, F W Hirsch, K Kranzer, F Kunitz, E Maritz, A Pizzulli, N Ritz, R Schlags, T Spindler, S Thee, K Weizsäcker
Recently, epidemiological data shows an increase of childhood tuberculosis in Germany. In addition to this, drug resistant tuberculosis becomes more frequent. Therefore, diagnosis, prevention and therapy in childhood and adolescence remain a challenge. Adult guidelines do not work for children, as there are age specific differences in manifestation, risk of progression and diagnostic as well as therapeutic pathways.The German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI) has initiated a consensus-based (S2k) process and completed a paediatric guideline in order to improve and standardize care for children and adolescents with tuberculosis exposure, infection or disease...
October 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016524/incidence-of-tuberculosis-amongst-hiv-positive-individuals-initiating-antiretroviral-treatment-at-higher-cd4-counts-in-the-hptn-071-popart-trial-in-south-africa
#6
Peter Bock, Karen Jennings, Redwaan Vermaak, Helen Cox, Graeme Meintjes, Geoffrey Fatti, James Kruger, Virginia Azevedo, Leonard Maschilla, Francoise Louis, Colette Gunst, Nelis Grobbelaar, Rory Dunbar, Mohammed Limbada, Sian Floyd, Ashraf Grimwood, Helen Ayles, Richard Hayes, Sarah Fidler, Nulda Beyers
INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines recommend lifelong ART for all HIV positive individuals. This study evaluated TB incidence on ART in a cohort of HIV positive individuals starting ART regardless of CD4 count in a programmatic setting at three clinics included in the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial in South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-positive individuals aged ≥18 years starting ART, between January 2014 and November 2015, was conducted...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016303/undiagnosed-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-pilgrims-during-the-2015-hajj-mass-gathering-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#7
Saber Yezli, Alimuddin Zumla, Yara Yassin, Ali M Al-Shangiti, Gamal Mohamed, Abdulhafiz M Turkistani, Badriah Alotaibi
Mass gatherings pose a risk for tuberculosis (TB) transmission and reactivation of latent TB infection. The annual Hajj pilgrimage attracts 2 million pilgrims from high TB-endemic countries. We evaluated the burden of undiagnosed active pulmonary TB in pilgrims attending the 2015 Hajj mass gathering. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study in Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for nonhospitalized adult pilgrims from five high TB-endemic countries. Enrollment criteria were the presence of a cough and the ability to produce a sputum sample...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991694/dilemmas-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-intracranial-tuberculomas
#8
REVIEW
Rajeswari Ramachandran, M Muniyandi, Vijay Iyer, T Sripriya, B Priya, T G Govindarajan
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem across the globe. A common form of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) with high mortality and morbidity is neuro TB or tuberculosis of the nervous system. The management of brain TB remains a big challenge due to the lack of specific diagnostic tools and appropriate treatment guidelines. In this context, this manuscript discusses clinical, diagnostic and treatment dilemmas in the management of intracranial tuberculomas. Brain tuberculoma may occur at any site within the cranium, no part of the brain substance or ventricular surface being exempt...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990409/hiv-primary-care-by-the-infectious-disease-physician-in-the-united-states-extending-the-continuum-of-care
#9
Seetha Lakshmi, Susan E Beekmann, Philip M Polgreen, Allan Rodriguez, Maria L Alcaide
Models of care for people living with HIV (PLWH) have varied over time due to long term survival, development of HIV-associated non-AIDS conditions, and HIV specific primary care guidelines that differ from those of the general population. The objectives of this study are to assess how often infectious disease (ID) physicians provide primary care for PLWH, assess their practice patterns and barriers in the provision of primary care. We used a 6-item survey electronically distributed to ID physician members of Emerging Infections Network (EIN)...
October 9, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986117/screening-prophylaxis-and-counselling-before-the-start-of-biological-therapies-a-practical-approach-focused-on-ibd-patients
#10
REVIEW
Cândida Abreu, António Sarmento, Fernando Magro
The standard of care in the management of immune-mediated inflammatory conditions relies on immunomodulators, glucocorticoids, and biologicals (including anti-tumour necrosis factor -α and other monoclonal antibodies). These agents have an overall favourable benefit/risk ratio; however, they modulate the immune response as part of their mechanisms of action, and therefore they may increase the risk of developing infections, particularly in older patients or in patients with concomitant corticosteroids. Some of these infections may be preventable by immunization, chemoprophylaxis or counselling...
September 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948099/analysis-of-drug-binding-pockets-and-repurposing-opportunities-for-twelve-essential-enzymes-of-eskape-pathogens
#11
Sadia Naz, Tony Ngo, Umar Farooq, Ruben Abagyan
BACKGROUND: The rapid increase in antibiotic resistance by various bacterial pathogens underlies the significance of developing new therapies and exploring different drug targets. A fraction of bacterial pathogens abbreviated as ESKAPE by the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control have been considered a major threat due to the rise in nosocomial infections. Here, we compared putative drug binding pockets of twelve essential and mostly conserved metabolic enzymes in numerous bacterial pathogens including those of the ESKAPE group and Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947041/treatment-outcomes-of-rifampin-sparing-treatment-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-with-rifampin-mono-resistance-or-rifampin-adverse-events-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#12
Shinhee Park, Kyung-Wook Jo, Sang Do Lee, Woo Sung Kim, Tae Sun Shim
BACKGROUND: Rifampin (RIF) mono-resistant tuberculosis (RMR-TB) is a rare disease. Current guidelines recommend that RMR-TB be treated as multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) but the evidence is scarce. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on pulmonary TB patients to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of RMR-TB. The characteristics of RMR-TB were compared with those with adverse events to rifampin (RAE-TB). RESULTS: Forty-four RMR-TB and 29 RAE-TB patients were enrolled...
October 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905529/who-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update-applicability-in-south-korea
#13
REVIEW
Doosoo Jeon
Despite progress made in tuberculosis control worldwide, the disease burden and treatment outcome of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients have remained virtually unchanged. In 2016, the World Health Organization released new guidelines for the management of MDR-TB. The guidelines are intended to improve detection rate and treatment outcome for MDR-TB through novel, rapid molecular testing and shorter treatment regimens. Key changes include the introduction of a new, shorter MDR-TB treatment regimen, a new classification of medicines and updated recommendations for the conventional MDR-TB regimen...
October 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902004/antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-with-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#14
Giorgia Sulis, Silvia Amadasi, Anna Odone, Martina Penazzato, Alberto Matteelli
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is the major cause of mortality in HIV-infected children globally. Current guidelines about the management of antiretroviral therapy in children with tuberculosis are based on a limited number of non-randomized studies involving small numbers of participants. The aim of the study was to systematically retrieve and critically appraise available evidence on the efficacy and safety of different antiretroviral regimens in children with HIV infection who are receiving treatment for active tuberculosis...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893741/prevention-and-assessment-of-infectious-diseases-among-children-and-adult-migrants-arriving-to-the-european-union-european-economic-association-a-protocol-for-a-suite-of-systematic-reviews-for-public-health-and-health-systems
#15
Kevin Pottie, Alain D Mayhew, Rachael L Morton, Christina Greenaway, Elie A Akl, Prinon Rahman, Dominik Zenner, Manish Pareek, Peter Tugwell, Vivian Welch, Joerg Meerpohl, Pablo Alonso-Coello, Charles Hui, Beverley-Ann Biggs, Ana Requena-Méndez, Eric Agbata, Teymur Noori, Holger J Schünemann
INTRODUCTION: The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control is developing evidence-based guidance for voluntary screening, treatment and vaccine prevention of infectious diseases for newly arriving migrants to the European Union/European Economic Area. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to guide the identification, appraisal and synthesis of the best available evidence on prevention and assessment of the following priority infectious diseases: tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis (polio), Haemophilus influenza disease, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892896/detection-of-cytomegalovirus-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-from-hiv-positive-individuals-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
Arati Mane, Pankaj Gujar, Shraddha Gaikwad, Tilak Dhamgaye, Arun Risbud
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is one of the frequent viral pneumonia reported in persons with HIV infection. Knowledge of pulmonary CMV infection is important for deciding appropriate diagnostic strategies. However, there is scanty literature addressing the role of CMV aetiology among HIV positive individuals presenting with Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) using Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) samples from India. AIM: To detect CMV in BAL fluid from HIV-positive individuals presenting with CAP...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885339/role-of-chemotherapy-and-thrombolysis-in-treatment-of-choriocarcinoma-accompanied-with-pulmonary-embolism-a-case-report-with-literature-review
#17
Mei Yang, Li Peng
RATIONALE: Choriocarcinoma accompanied with pulmonary embolism (PE) is rare and difficult to diagnose and treat. There are about 25 cases reported in literature, which presented variable clinical characteristics and prognosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported a case of choriocarcinoma presenting PE as the first manifestation in a 26-year-old Chinese female. DIAGNOSES: Four months before her admission to our hospital, she presented to a local hospital with respiratory manifestations, and was first diagnosed as bronchitis and treated with antibiotics without improvement, and subsequently suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis and receive anti-tuberculosis therapy, with no response...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878523/transcultural-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-korean-version-of-the-brief-illness-perception-questionnaire-for-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#18
Jinsoo Min, Youjin Chang, Ki Man Lee, Kang Hyeon Choe, Jin Young An
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The brief illness perception questionnaire (BIPQ) has been used in many populations for both adults and children, and it provides a rapid assessment of illness perception. This study was performed to create a translated version of the BIPQ to fit the Korean society and to test its validity through pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. METHODS: Translation and transcultural adaptation of BIPQ, applicable to the Korean society, was performed in accordance with the international guidelines...
July 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862176/index-tb-guidelines-guidelines-on-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-for-india
#19
Surendra K Sharma, H Ryan, Sunil Khaparde, K S Sachdeva, Achintya D Singh, Alladi Mohan, Rohit Sarin, C N Paramasivan, Prahlad Kumar, Neeraj Nischal, Saurav Khatiwada, Paul Garner, Prathap Tharyan
Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is frequently a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a common opportunistic infection in people living with HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus and malnutrition. There is a paucity of data from clinical trials in EPTB and most of the information regarding diagnosis and management is extrapolated from pulmonary TB. Further, there are no formal national or international guidelines on EPTB. To address these concerns, Indian EPTB guidelines were developed under the auspices of Central TB Division and Directorate of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843114/clinical-and-radiological-predictors-of-outcome-in-tubercular-meningitis-a-prospective-study-of-209-patients
#20
M Modi, K Sharma, S Prabhakar, M K Goyal, A Takkar, N Sharma, A Garg, S Faisal, N Khandelwal, P Singh, J Sachdeva, R Shree, V Rishi, V Lal
OBJECTIVES: The predictors of poor outcome in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) remain to be delineated. We determined role of various clinical, radiological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters in prediction of outcome in TBM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Current study was a prospective observational study including 209 patients of TBM. All patients underwent detailed evaluation including Gadolinium enhanced Magnetic resonance imaging (GdMRI) of brain as well as tests to detect evidence of tuberculosis elsewhere in body...
October 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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