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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334194/swga-a-primer-design-toolkit-for-selective-whole-genome-amplification
#1
Erik L Clarke, Sesh A Sundararaman, Stephanie N Seifert, Frederic D Bushman, Beatrice H Hahn, Dustin Brisson
Motivation: Population genomic analyses are often hindered by difficulties in obtaining sufficient numbers of genomes for analysis by DNA sequencing. Selective whole-genome amplification (SWGA) provides an efficient approach to amplify microbial genomes from complex backgrounds for sequence acquisition. However, the process of designing sets of primers for this method has many degrees of freedom and would benefit from an automated process to evaluate the vast number of potential primer sets...
February 27, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331043/world-health-organization-treatment-guidelines-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-2016-update
#2
Dennis Falzon, Holger J Schünemann, Elizabeth Harausz, Licé González-Angulo, Christian Lienhardt, Ernesto Jaramillo, Karin Weyer
Antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern. Tuberculosis (TB) strains resistant to rifampicin and other TB medicines challenge patient survival and public health. The World Health Organization (WHO) has published treatment guidelines for drug-resistant TB since 1997 and last updated them in 2016 based on reviews of aggregated and individual patient data from published and unpublished studies. An international expert panel formulated recommendations following the GRADE approach. The new WHO guidelines recommend a standardised 9-12 months shorter treatment regimen as first choice in patients with multidrug- or rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB) strains not resistant to fluoroquinolones or second-line injectable agents; resistance to these two classes of core second-line medicines is rapidly detectable with molecular diagnostics also approved by WHO in 2016...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318613/latent-tuberculosis-infection-screening-prior-to-biological-treatment-in-tunisian-patients
#3
Marwa Slouma, Ines Mahmoud, Olfa Saidane, Selma Bouden, Leila Abdelmoula
OBJECTIVES: The screening of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is necessary to prevent infection in patients with chronic inflammatory disease (CID) undergoing biological treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacy of LTBI screening prior to biological treatment in Tunisia, considered as a high-incidence area of active TB disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study over a period of 8 years [2007-2014] including patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatism receiving biologic agents since at least 6 months...
February 24, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298223/migration-to-middle-income-countries-and-tuberculosis-global-policies-for-global-economies
#4
Julia Moreira Pescarini, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, M Gabriela M Gomes, Eliseu Alves Waldman
BACKGROUND: International migration to middle-income countries is increasing and its health consequences, in particular increasing transmission rates of tuberculosis (TB), deserve consideration. Migration and TB are a matter of concern in high-income countries and targeted screening of migrants for active and latent TB infection is a main strategy to manage risk and minimize transmission. In this paper, we discuss some aspects of TB control and migration in the context of middle-income countries, together with the prospect of responding with equitable and comprehensive policies...
March 15, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293159/intensified-tuberculosis-case-finding-implementation-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-and-associated-factors-among-people-living-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-at-public-health-facilities-of-harari-region-eastern-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Ayele Geleto, Degu Abate, Gudina Egata
OBJECTIVE: Globally, the number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) particularly in sub-Saharan Africa is growing. This has been resulted in increased number of tuberculosis (TB) new cases. To control burden of TB among PLHIV, a number of collaborative TB/HIV activities were recommended. However, data about collaborative TB/HIV services in the study area is scarce. The objective of this study is to assess intensified TB case finding, implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and associated factors among PLHIV...
January 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292352/prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-adverse-drug-reactions-among-previously-treated-tuberculosis-patients-in-china
#6
Xi Qin Han, Yu Pang, Yan Ma, Yu Hong Liu, Ru Guo, Wei Shu, Xue Rui Huang, Qi Ping Ge, Jian DU, Wei Wei Gao
We assessed the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with anti-TB medications and evaluated the risk factors for developing ADRs in previously treated tuberculosis patients in China. All patients received the first-line anti-TB regimen (2HREZS/6HRE) as recommended by the national guidelines. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed once a month. Out of the 354 participants, 262 (74.0%) experienced ADRs such as hyperuricemia (65.0%, 230/354), hepatotoxicity (6.2%, 22/354) and hearing disturbances (4...
February 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281682/screening-for-diabetes-mellitus-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-southern-nigeria-a-multi-centre-implementation-study-under-programme-settings
#7
Ngozi Ekeke, Kingsley N Ukwaja, Joseph N Chukwu, Charles C Nwafor, Anthony O Meka, Eruke E Egbagbe, Festus O Soyinka, Isaac Alobu, Ifeanyi Agujiobi, Samuel Akingbesote, Osagie Igbinigie, Job B Offor, Nelson O Madichie, Chukwuka Alphonsus, Moses C Anyim, Obinna K Mbah, Daniel C Oshi
Implementation studies are recommended to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of programmes. In Nigeria, little is known about the burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The objective of this study was to determine screening efficacy, prevalence of DM and determinants of DM among TB patients. We report on a multi-centre implementation study carried-out in 13 health facilities in six States of Southern Nigeria. All newly diagnosed TB patients registered from March to October 2015 were screened for DM using current World Health Organisation guidelines...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278411/infection-control-guidelines-for-the-management-of-patients-with-suspected-or-confirmed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-healthcare-settings
#8
Chris Coulter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 30, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277228/utility-of-phenotypic-and-genotypic-testing-in-the-study-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-resistance-to-first-line-anti-tuberculosis-drugs
#9
Luz María Alba Álvarez, José María García García, M Dolores Pérez Hernández, Susana Martínez González, Juan José Palacios Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of molecular techniques in the diagnosis of resistance and the extent of resistance to first-line drugs in our region. MATERIAL AND METHOD: From 2004 to 2013, 1,889 strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Asturias, Spain, were studied using phenotypic (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines) and molecular (INNOLiPA RIF-TB(©); GenotypeMDRplus(©); GenotypeMDRsl(©)) sensitivity tests. RESULTS: 1,759 strains (94...
October 27, 2016: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256380/the-cursed-duet-today-tuberculosis-and-hiv-coinfection
#10
Simon Tiberi, Anna Cristina C Carvalho, Giorgia Sulis, Devan Vaghela, Adrian Rendon, Fernanda C de Q Mello, Ananna Rahman, Nashaba Matin, Ali Zumla, Emanuele Pontali
The tuberculosis (TB) and HIV syndemic continues to rage and are a major public health concern worldwide. This deadly association raises complexity and represent a significant barrier towards TB elimination. TB continues to be the leading cause of death amongst HIV-infected people. This paper reports the challenges that lay ahead and outlines some of the current and future strategies that may be able to address this co-epidemic efficiently. Improved diagnostics, cheaper and more effective drugs, shorter treatment regimens for both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB are discussed...
February 27, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255643/use-of-etanercept-to-treat-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-a-case-based-review
#11
REVIEW
Shen-Ju Liang, Quan-You Zheng, Yan-Long Yang, Yi Yang, Chong-Yang Liu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a relatively common autoimmune disease that is associated with progressive disability and systemic complications, with a relatively high socioeconomic burden. The treatment of RA has been revolutionized by the use of biological drugs, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents. A wide spectrum of RA disease severity has been reported among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Yet, only a few cases using anti-TNF therapy have been described in this clinical population...
March 2, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253020/efficacy-of-treatment-for-latent-tuberculosis-in-patients-undergoing-treatment-with-a-tumor-necrosis-factor-antagonist
#12
Jungsil Lee, Eunyoung Kim, Eun Jin Jang, Chang-Hoon Lee, Eun Young Lee, Jong Pil Im, Sung Koo Han, Jae-Joon Yim
RATIONALE: Current guidelines recommend that all patients undergoing treatment with a tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists should receive screening for latent tuberculosis and appropriate treatment before initiating the inhibitor. However, no well-designed study has shown the efficacy of treating these patients for latent tuberculosis. OBJECTIVES: To compare the risk of active tuberculosis between tumor-necrosis-factorantagonists users who have received treatment for latent tuberculosis and those who have not...
March 2, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250514/peer-led-active-tuberculosis-case-finding-among-people-living-with-hiv-lessons-from-nepal
#13
Dipu Joshi, Raisha Sthapit, Miranda Brouwer
PROBLEM: People living with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have a high risk of tuberculosis and should undergo regular screening. However, they can be difficult to reach because they are stigmatized and discriminated against. APPROACH: In Nepal, the nongovernmental organization Naya Goreto implemented a peer-led tuberculosis screening project in which people living with HIV volunteered to contact others in this high-risk population. Volunteers took part in a short training course, after which they attempted to contact people living with HIV through existing networks and self-help groups...
February 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248018/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cystitis-more-questions-than-answers
#14
E V Kulchavenya, S Yu Shevchenko, A G Cherednichenko
INTRODUCTION: Despite the prevalence of acute cystitis, there are still many unsolved problems of diagnosis and treatment of this disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To determine the nosological structure of dysuria, 126 female patients who sought medical attention for frequent painful urination were examined. To determine the incidence of outpatient visits to an urologist for patients with cystitis, medical records of 6753 patients of municipal outpatient clinic were analyzed...
November 2016: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240565/methodological-considerations-in-clinical-trials-for-new-mdr-tb-treatment-regimens
#15
P P J Phillips
In contrast to the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), the evidence base underpinning global guidelines for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB is very poor. This, combined with the lack of experience from previous trials and the nature of the disease, means that a number of methodological aspects are specific only to trials for new MDR-TB regimens. These aspects include the weight of evidence required to change policy and practice, the flexibility to make adaptations to an ongoing trial, the choice of patient population, the importance of internal control, the duration and frequency of follow-up, and safety monitoring of novel combinations of new and repurposed drugs...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221125/comparison-of-sputum-culture-conversion-for-mycobacterium-bovis-and-m-tuberculosis
#16
Colleen Scott, Joseph S Cavanaugh, Benjamin J Silk, Julia Ershova, Gerald H Mazurek, Philip A LoBue, Patrick K Moonan
Current US guidelines recommend longer treatment for tuberculosis (TB) caused by pyrazinamide-resistant organisms (e.g., Mycobacterium bovis) than for M. tuberculosis TB. We compared treatment response times for patients with M. bovis TB and M. tuberculosis TB reported in the United States during 2006-2013. We included culture-positive, pulmonary TB patients with genotyping results who received standard 4-drug treatment at the time of diagnosis. Time to sputum-culture conversion was defined as time between treatment start date and date of first consistently culture-negative sputum...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217253/miliary-tuberculosis-infection-during-hepatitis-c-treatment-with-sofosbuvir-and-ledipasvir-plus-ribavirin
#17
Maria Pilar Ballester-Ferré, Fernando Martínez, Natalia Garcia-Gimeno, Francisco Mora, Miguel A Serra
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. In the last 5 years, treatment for HCV infection has experienced a marked development. In 2014, the use of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without concomitant weight-based ribavirin was approved with a very significant increase in the sustained virological response. However, new side effects have been associated. We report the first case of an HCV infected patient treated for 12 wk with the combination of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir plus ribavirin who developed a miliary tuberculosis (TB) infection while on therapy...
January 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212479/-spinal-tuberculosis-experience-in-a-third-level-medical-facility-in-puebla-mexico
#18
Rolando Joshua Medina-Peñasco, Martha Imelda Rosas-Ramírez, Rodolfo Gregorio Barragán-Hervella, Ivan Alvarado-Ortega, Gerardo López-Cázares, Álvaro José Montiel-Jarquín, María Socorro Romero-Figueroa
BACKGROUND: Pott's disease or spinal tuberculosis (STB) is a serious infectious disease, caused by the migration of the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the spine. Knowing this disease is a priority for all the physicians. The objective was to show the experience in patients with STB treated in a third level hospital in Puebla, Mexico. METHODS: Descriptive study. From January to December, 2014, we collected information of patients with STB. The variables were age, gender, length of hospital stay, affected segment of the spine, associated diseases, symptoms, diagnostic methods, type of treatment and complication...
2017: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208905/n-acetylcysteine-combined-with-home-based-physical-activity-effect-on-health-related-quality-of-life-in-stable-copd-patients-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Vijay Tukaram Salve, Jitesh S Atram
INTRODUCTION: Quality of life is adversely affected in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), due to irreversible, progressive nature of the disease and limitations of current treatment options available. One of the important aim of treatment of COPD is to improve Quality of Life (QoL). Cigarette smoke contains numerous free radicals and other oxidants. Oxidative stress has been implicated in pathogenesis, progression of disease and exacerbation in COPD. Pulmonary tuberculosis, outdoor and indoor air pollution and many others are aetiologies of COPD in non-smokers...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207542/rifampicin-induced-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-treatment-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Guo Chen, Jian-Qing He
RATIONALE: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) induced by daily rifampicin therapy is rare, especially the patient is absent of malignancy, severe infection, and prior exposure to rifampicin. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of DIC induced by daily rifampicin treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. A 22-year-old, previously healthy man received an anti-tuberculosis therapy consisting of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide on the daily dose recommended by the World Health Organization tuberculosis guidelines after a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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