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tuberculosis guidelines

Stevens M B Kisaka, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, Simon Kasasa, Francis Ocen, Joan Nankya-Mutyoba
BACKGROUND: Most tuberculosis (TB) case management guidelines emphasize microbiological cure as treatment goal without highlighting quality of life outcomes. This study assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and related factors in the pre-treatment, intensive and continuation phases of anti-TB therapy among sputum smear positive pulmonary TB patients in Mbale region, Eastern Uganda. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey Version 2...
October 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Marieke J Van Der Werf, Csaba Ködmön, Phillip Zucs, Vahur Hollo, Andrew J Amato-Gauci, Anastasia Pharris
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB)/HIV co-infection in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) for planning of prevention and control measures. DESIGN: Analysis of surveillance data. METHODS: We performed an analysis of the 2014 TB and AIDS data to assess the burden of TB/HIV co-infection and we applied multivariable logistic regression to evaluate predictors for co-infection. RESULTS: Twenty-one of 31 EU/EEA countries reported HIV testing results for 64...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Maritza Samayoa-Peláez, Nancy Ayala, Zaida E Yadon, Einar Heldal
Objective To assess whether the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) guidelines for culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) in Guatemala were successfully implemented, particularly in cases of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or previously treated TB, by documenting notification rates by department (geographic area), disease type and category, and culture and DST results. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study that merged and linked all patients registered by the NTP and the National Reference Laboratory in 2013, eliminating duplicates...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Tawanda Gumbo, Mamodikoe K Makhene, James A Seddon
There has been a recent expansion of preclinical models to predict the efficacy of regimens to treat adults with tuberculosis. Despite increasing global interest in childhood tuberculosis, these same tools have not been employed to develop pediatric regimens. Children differ from adults in bacillary burden, spectrum of disease, the metabolism and distribution of antituberculosis drugs, and the toxicity experienced. The studies documented in this series describe a proof-of-concept approach to pediatric regimen development...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Padmavali Palange, Rahul Narang, Venkataramana Kandi
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis has undergone a rapid change during last few years and a number of techniques for culture as well as molecular diagnosis have been used with their respective advantages and disadvantages. Sporadic studies have also reported the isolation of M. tuberculosis on standard blood agar (BA), which at one time was not considered as a suitable medium for mycobacterial culture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the routine use of 5% sheep BA in a mycobacteriology laboratory by comparing isolation rates and time for isolation of mycobacteria from pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples with those on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium...
August 30, 2016: Curēus
Pravin Rathi, Pravir Gambhire
Abdomen is involved in 11% of patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis; The most common site of involvement is the ileocaecal region, other locations of involvement, in order of descending frequency, are the ascending colon, jejunum, appendix, duodenum, stomach, oesophagus, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Apart from the basic work up, Investigations like CT scan, EUS, Capsule endoscopy, Balloon enteroscopy, Ascitic fluid ADA, TB-PCR, GeneXpert, Laproscopy are being increasingly used to diagnose tuberculosis.Therapy with standard antituberculous drugs is usually highly effective for intestinal TB...
February 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Wilson Kwong, Thomas Krahn, Ann Cleland, Janet Gordon, Wendy Wobeser
BACKGROUND: Current Canadian guidelines suggest that neonatal Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination does not result in false-positive tuberculosis (TB) skin tests, despite a growing body of evidence that interferon-γ release assays may be a more specific alternative in identifying latent tuberculosis infections in vaccinated populations. We set out to evaluate the relationship between TB skin tests and interferon-γ release assays in patients who previously received neonatal BCG vaccine...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
C H Stillson, H Okatch, R Frasso, L Mazhani, T David, T Arscott-Mills, M Matlhare, A P Steenhoff
SETTING: Government-funded public health clinics in and around Gaborone, Botswana. OBJECTIVE: To explore the challenges faced by care givers of children on treatment for tuberculosis (TB) to inform a more child-friendly approach to Botswana's National TB Programme (NTP) strategy. DESIGN: Qualitative study using 28 in-depth interviews with care givers of children receiving anti-tuberculosis treatment. RESULTS: Care givers identified five main challenges: long delays in their child's diagnosis, difficulty attending clinic for daily treatment, difficulty administering TB medications, stock-outs of TB medications leading to treatment interruptions, and inadequate TB education...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
E P Budgell, D Evans, K Schnippel, P Ive, L Long, S Rosen
BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of tuberculosis (TB) patients treated in South Africa (SA), there are few descriptions in the published literature of drug-susceptible TB patient characteristics, mode of diagnosis or treatment outcomes in routine public sector treatment programmes. OBJECTIVE: To enhance the evidence base for public sector TB treatment service delivery, we reported the characteristics of and outcomes for a retrospective cohort of adult TB patients at public sector clinics in the Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality (JHB), SA...
September 5, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Sutapa Khatua, Abby M Geltemeyer, Anand Gourishankar
Robert Heinrich Herman Koch, a German physician and microbiologist, received Nobel Prize in 1905 for identifying the specific causative agent of Tuberculosis. During his time it was believed that TB was an inherited disease. However he was convinced that the disease was caused by a bacterium and was infectious, tested his postulates using guinea pigs, and found the causative agent to be slow growing Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.TB is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases after HIV/AIDS...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Research
Chandy Sara, Heylen Elsa, Mishra Baijayanti, Ekstrand Maria Lennartsdotter
OBJECTIVES: To examine demographics, clinical correlates, sputum AFB (acid fast bacilli) smear grading DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course) uptake, and drug resistance in a cohort of newly-diagnosed, smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients with respect to HIV status at baseline, and compare smear conversion rates, side effects and mortality after two months. DESIGN: A prospective study among 54 HIV positive and 41 HIV negative pulmonary TB patients...
September 2016: World Journal of AIDS
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
Houda Snène, Anissa Berraies, Besma Hamdi, Jamel Ammar, Hanadi Ouali, Agnes Hamzaoui
Objective to assess the different localizations of tuberculosis (TB) in children in a pneumopediatric department in Tunisia and to describe its diagnosis tools since clinical investigations of childhood TB are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. Methods Forty-six cases of TB in children were studied between 2008 and 2013. Clinical history, examination and chest radiography were reported. Several investigations have been conducted to confirm the diagnosis of TB such as: tuberculin skin test (TST), bacteriological and histological investigations...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Kenneth Turinawe, Greet Vandebriel, David W Lowrance, Francois Uwinkindi, Philippe Mutwa, Kimberly R Boer, Grace Mutembayire, David Tugizimana, Sabin Nsanzimana, Eric Pevzner, Andrea A Howard, Michel Gasana
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines for intensified tuberculosis (TB) case finding (ICF) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) includes a recommendation that PLHIV receive routine TB screening. Since 2005, the Rwandan Ministry of Health has been using a five-question screening tool. Our study objective was to assess the operating characteristics of the tool designed to identify PLHIV with presumptive TB as measured against a composite reference standard, including bacteriologically confirmed TB...
2016: PloS One
Wei Chen, Yang Li, Haiqin Yang, John Ehiri, Zaiping Chen, Ying Liu, Mei Wang, Shili Liu, He Tang, Ying Li
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about tuberculosis (TB) is important for TB control, and China's national TB control guidelines emphasise TB health promotion. A 2010 national TB epidemiology survey showed that the general public had limited knowledge and awareness of TB. OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of TB knowledge after 5 years of TB health promotion in Guizhou Province, one of the regions with the highest TB burden in China. DESIGN AND SETTING: A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 10 237 residents of Guizhou Province from June to August 2015...
2016: BMJ Open
Sally Hargreaves, Knut Lönnroth, Laura B Nellums, Ioana D Olaru, Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Marie Norredam, Jon S Friedland
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in low-incidence countries in Europe is more prevalent among migrants than the native population. The impact of the recent increase in migration to EU and EEA countries with a low incidence of TB (fewer than 20 cases per 100,000 [1]) on MDR-TB epidemiology is unclear. This narrative review synthesises evidence on MDR-TB and migration identified through an expert panel and database search. A significant proportion of MDR-TB cases in migrants result from reactivation of latent infection...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Sankalp Yadav, Gautam Rawal, Mudit Baxi
The developing countries are having an abruptly growing number of drug resistant tuberculosis cases. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a type of TB in which the strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is resistant to at least Isoniazid and Rifampicin, the two most effective of the four first-line TB drugs (the other two drugs being Ethambutol and Pyrazinamide). The management of such cases is complex and requires a treatment for 24-27 months. The current guidelines available for the management of this type of TB are largely based on the second line TB drugs which are relatively costly, less efficacious and are associated with greater side-effects...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Muhammad Yahya Noori, Zaheer Ali, Syed Adnan Ali Wahidi, Muhammad Nouman Mughal, Shaheen Sharafat, Muhammad Masroor, Muhammad Rafiq Khanani
OBJECTIVE: To study the ratio of false negativity in sputum samples in diagnostic smears received for acid fast bacilli smear microscopy. METHODS: The retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Ojha Institute of Chest Diseases, Karachi, and comprised specimens for microscopy and culture from presumptive tuberculosis patients for 38 months starting from November 2010.All laboratory investigations had been done as per the National Tuberculosis Control Programme guidelines...
September 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Koné Kaniga, Daniela M Cirillo, Sven Hoffner, Nazir A Ismail, Devinder Kaur, Nacer Lounis, Beverly Metchock, Gaby E Pfyffer, Amour Venter
OBJECTIVES: To establish reference minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) quality control (QC) ranges for drug susceptibility testing of antimycobacterials, including first-line agents, second-line injectables, fluoroquinolones and World Health Organization Category 5 drugs for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, using a 7H9 broth microdilution MIC method. METHODS: A Tier-2 reproducibility study was conducted in eight participating laboratories using Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Koné Kaniga, Daniela M Cirillo, Sven Hoffner, Nazir A Ismail, Devinder Kaur, Nacer Lounis, Beverly Metchock, Gaby E Pfyffer, Amour Venter
OBJECTIVES: To establish standardized drug susceptibility testing (DST) methodologies and reference minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) quality control (QC) ranges for bedaquiline, a diarylquinoline antimycobacterial, used in the treatment of adults with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: Two tier-2 QC reproducibility studies of bedaquiline DST were conducted in eight laboratories using Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Agar dilution and broth microdilution methods were evaluated...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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