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fasting longevity

Ling Huang, Jun-Hua Peng, Qing-Hua Liang, Rui-Xing Yin, Cheng-Wu Liu, Shang-Ling Pan, Hao Huang, Hua-Yu Wu, Rui-Jing Gan, Lan-Ying Tang, Li-Na Zhu, Yan-Zhen Xu, Si-Bang Chen, Xiao-Ling Zhou
OBJECTIVES: To look at the possible effect of IGF2R rs9456497 on cardiovascular risks in a long-lived population. METHODS: IGF-2R rs9456497 was genotyped by iMLDR for 496 long-lived Zhuang Chinese (90-107 y/o) and their offspring (n = 723, 60-75 y/o) and healthy controls (n = 611, 60-75 y/o). Association analyses were then conducted among genotypes and cardiovascular risks. RESULTS: The G genotype (GA/GG) was found to represent more frequently in males of general population...
March 3, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Shelley Macaulay, Martha Ngobeni, David B Dunger, Shane A Norris
AIMS: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of GDM amongst black South African women, describe GDM-associated risk factors and clinical management, and evaluate the efficacy of the fasting plasma glucose reading in diagnosing GDM. METHODS: A cross-sectional screening study was performed. Pregnant women were recruited from the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Johannesburg. A total of 1906 women underwent a two-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks gestation...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Grace Y S Goh, Johnathan J Winter, Forum Bhanshali, Kelsie R S Doering, Regina Lai, Kayoung Lee, Elizabeth A Veal, Stefan Taubert
Endogenous and exogenous stresses elicit transcriptional responses that limit damage and promote cell/organismal survival. Like its mammalian counterparts, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), Caenorhabditis elegans NHR-49 is a well-established regulator of lipid metabolism. Here, we reveal that NHR-49 is essential to activate a transcriptional response common to organic peroxide and fasting, which includes the pro-longevity gene fmo-2/flavin-containing monooxygenase...
March 5, 2018: Aging Cell
Meng-Chen Lo, Shuwu Wang, Sagar Singh, Vinod B Damodaran, Ijaz Ahmed, Kevin Coffey, David Barker, Kshitij Saste, Karanvir Kals, Hilton M Kaplan, Joachim Kohn, David I Shreiber, Jeffrey D Zahn
OBJECTIVE: Despite the feasibility of short-term neural recordings using implantable microelectrodes, attaining reliable, chronic recordings remains a challenge. Most neural recording devices suffer from a long-term tissue response, including gliosis, at the device-tissue interface. It was hypothesized that smaller, more flexible intracortical probes would limit gliosis by providing a better mechanical match with surrounding tissue. APPROACH: This paper describes the in vivo evaluation of flexible parylene microprobes designed to improve the interface with the adjacent neural tissue to limit gliosis and thereby allow for improved recording longevity...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Jason G Wood, Bjoern Schwer, Priyan C Wickremesinghe, Davis A Hartnett, Lucas Burhenn, Meyrolin Garcia, Michael Li, Eric Verdin, Stephen L Helfand
Sirtuins are an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD+-dependent deacylases that control metabolism, stress response, genomic stability, and longevity. Here, we show the sole mitochondrial sirtuin in Drosophila melanogaster, Sirt4, regulates energy homeostasis and longevity. Sirt4 knockout flies have a short lifespan, with increased sensitivity to starvation and decreased fertility and activity. In contrast, flies overexpressing Sirt4 either ubiquitously or specifically in the fat body are long-lived. Despite rapid starvation, Sirt4 knockout flies paradoxically maintain elevated levels of energy reserves, including lipids, glycogen, and trehalose, while fasting, suggesting an inability to properly catabolize stored energy...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sheila A Grant, Jiaxun Zhu, Jonathan Gootee, Colten L Snider, Mitch Bellrichard, David A Grant
Collagen soft tissue fillers suffer from fast reabsorption, which minimizes their use as a tissue engineered construct. Extensive cross-linking can be utilized to extend longevity, but changes in microstructure and biomechanics can have deleterious effects. To enhance longevity while still achieving a natural microstructure, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were conjugated to fibrilized collagen and homogenized into an injectable form for use as a soft tissue filler. A long-term animal study in Yucatan swine was conducted to assess biocompatibility and longevity...
January 27, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Pat Monaghan, Susan E Ozanne
Much telomere loss takes place during the period of most rapid growth when cell proliferation and potentially energy expenditure are high. Fast growth is linked to reduced longevity. Therefore, the effects of somatic cell proliferation on telomere loss and cell senescence might play a significant role in driving the growth-lifespan trade-off. While different species will have evolved a growth strategy that maximizes lifetime fitness, environmental conditions encountered during periods of growth will influence individual optima...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Peter Stenvinkel, Johanna Painer, Makoto Kuro-O, Miguel Lanaspa, Walter Arnold, Thomas Ruf, Paul G Shiels, Richard J Johnson
Many of the >2 million animal species that inhabit Earth have developed survival mechanisms that aid in the prevention of obesity, kidney disease, starvation, dehydration and vascular ageing; however, some animals remain susceptible to these complications. Domestic and captive wild felids, for example, show susceptibility to chronic kidney disease (CKD), potentially linked to the high protein intake of these animals. By contrast, naked mole rats are a model of longevity and are protected from extreme environmental conditions through mechanisms that provide resistance to oxidative stress...
January 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Jun Wang, Jun Jin, Xiaofeng Xue, Yan Hao, Dongrong Li, Shan Xu, Fang Huang
RATIONALE: Bigu is a Taoist fasting technique interpreted as avoiding grains in the Encyclopedia of China. This technique has been used from ancient times to the present day in China and other parts of the world to achieve good health, weight loss, longevity, and even immortality. A variety of health problems have been identified in relation to the severe diet during Bigu. However, perforation of the alimentary canal has not been reported to be associated with Bigu. In the present study, we illustrated an unusual case of perforation of the alimentary canal in relation to Bigu...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Maya Tannoury, Zouhair Attieh
Emerging markets represent an exceptional opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry. Although a precise definition is not yet available, economists define emerging markets as developing prosperous countries in which investment is expected to result in higher income despite high risks. Qualifying a market as emerging is not merely based on the economic status of the country, but also on several criteria that render the definition applicable to each country. Jim O'Neil, retired chairman of asset management at Goldman Sachs, identified leading economies of emerging markets: Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) and later Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and then Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey (MIST), which followed years later as the second tier of nations...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
Liang Wang, Zhanzhong Liu, Shiyun Dai, Jiawei Yan, Michael J Wise
The intriguing sit-and-wait hypothesis predicts that bacterial durability in the external environment is positively correlated with their virulence. Since its first proposal in 1987, the hypothesis has been spurring debates in terms of its validity in the field of bacterial virulence. As a special case of the vector-borne transmission versus virulence tradeoff, where vector is now replaced by environmental longevity, there are only sporadic studies over the last three decades showing that environmental durability is possibly linked with virulence...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sadiya S Khan, Sanjiv J Shah, Ekaterina Klyachko, Abigail S Baldridge, Mesut Eren, Aaron T Place, Abraham Aviv, Eli Puterman, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Meadow Heiman, Toshio Miyata, Sweta Gupta, Amy D Shapiro, Douglas E Vaughan
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has been shown to be a key component of the senescence-related secretome and a direct mediator of cellular senescence. In murine models of accelerated aging, genetic deficiency and targeted inhibition of PAI-1 protect against aging-like pathology and prolong life span. However, the role of PAI-1 in human longevity remains unclear. We hypothesized that a rare loss-of-function mutation in SERPINE1 (c.699_700dupTA), which encodes PAI-1, could play a role in longevity and metabolism in humans...
November 2017: Science Advances
Heather J Weir, Pallas Yao, Frank K Huynh, Caroline C Escoubas, Renata L Goncalves, Kristopher Burkewitz, Raymond Laboy, Matthew D Hirschey, William B Mair
Mitochondrial network remodeling between fused and fragmented states facilitates mitophagy, interaction with other organelles, and metabolic flexibility. Aging is associated with a loss of mitochondrial network homeostasis, but cellular processes causally linking these changes to organismal senescence remain unclear. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and dietary restriction (DR) promote longevity in C. elegans via maintaining mitochondrial network homeostasis and functional coordination with peroxisomes to increase fatty acid oxidation (FAO)...
December 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
O Froy
Presently, about 12% of the population is 65 years or older and by the year 2030 that figure is expected to reach 21%. In order to promote the well-being of the elderly and to reduce the costs associated with health care demands, increased longevity should be accompanied by ageing attenuation. Energy restriction, which limits the amount of energy consumed to 60-70% of the daily intake, and intermittent fasting, which allows the food to be available ad libitum every other day, extend the life span of mammals and prevent or delay the onset of major age-related diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and cataracts...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Saeid Golbidi, Andreas Daiber, Bato Korac, Huige Li, M Faadiel Essop, Ismail Laher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity and obesity-related diseases, largely resulting from urbanization and behavioral changes, are now of global importance. Energy restriction, though, is associated with health improvements and increased longevity. We review some important mechanisms related to calorie limitation aimed at controlling of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Calorie restriction triggers a complex series of intricate events, including activation of cellular stress response elements, improved autophagy, modification of apoptosis, and alteration in hormonal balance...
October 23, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
Han-Lin Hsieh, Yan T Wong, Bijan Pesaran, Maryam M Shanechi
Recordings from invasive implants can degrade over time, resulting in a loss of spiking activity for some electrodes. For brain-machine interfaces (BMI), such a signal degradation lowers control performance. Achieving reliable performance over time is critical for BMI clinical viability. One approach to improve BMI longevity is to simultaneously use spikes and other recording modalities such as local field potentials (LFP), which are more robust to signal degradation over time. We have developed a multiscale decoder that can simultaneously model the different statistical profiles of multi-scale spike/LFP activity (discrete spikes vs...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Julia K Wolff, Ann-Kristin Beyer, Susanne Wurm, Sonja Nowossadeck, Maja Wiest
Background and Objectives: The importance of self-perceptions of aging (SPA) for health and longevity is well documented. Comparably little is known about factors that contribute to SPA. Besides individual factors, the context a person lives in may shape SPA. Research has so far focused on country-level differences in age stereotypes, indicating that rapid population aging accompanies more negative age stereotypes. The present study expands previous research by investigating the impact of district-specific population aging within one country on different facets of SPA...
September 4, 2017: Gerontologist
Michiko Niwa-Kawakita, Omar Ferhi, Hassane Soilihi, Morgane Le Bras, Valérie Lallemand-Breitenbach, Hugues de Thé
Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies (NBs) recruit partner proteins, including p53 and its regulators, thereby controlling their abundance or function. Investigating arsenic sensitivity of acute promyelocytic leukemia, we proposed that PML oxidation promotes NB biogenesis. However, physiological links between PML and oxidative stress response in vivo remain unexplored. Here, we identify PML as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) sensor. Pml-/- cells accumulate ROS, whereas PML expression decreases ROS levels...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Faezeh Dorri, Hamid Pezeshk, Mehdi Sadeghi
OBJECTIVE: Cellular decision-making is a key process in which cells with similar geneticand environmental background make dissimilar decisions. This stochastic process, which happens in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells including stem cells, causes cellular diversity and phenotypic variation. In addition, fitness predicts and describes changes in the genetic composition of populations throughout the evolutionary history. Fitness may thus be defined as the ability to adapt and produce surviving offspring...
October 2017: Cell Journal
Nick Vallespir Lowery, Luke McNally, William C Ratcliff, Sam P Brown
Bacterial cells, like many other organisms, face a tradeoff between longevity and fecundity. Planktonic cells are fast growing and fragile, while biofilm cells are often slower growing but stress resistant. Here we ask why bacterial lineages invest simultaneously in both fast- and slow-growing types. We develop a population dynamic model of lineage expansion across a patchy environment and find that mixed investment is favored across a broad range of environmental conditions, even when transmission is entirely via biofilm cells...
August 8, 2017: MBio
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