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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713397/fitness-outcomes-related-to-glyphosate-resistance-in-kochia-kochia-scoparia-what-life-history-stage-to-examine
#1
Omobolanle Adewale Osipitan, Johanna Anita Dille
A fast-spreading weed, kochia (Kochia scoparia), has developed resistance to the widely-used herbicide, glyphosate. Understanding the relationship between the occurrence of glyphosate resistance caused by multiple EPSPS gene copies and kochia fitness may suggest a more effective way of controlling kochia. A study was conducted to assess fitness cost of glyphosate resistance compared to susceptibility in kochia populations at different life history stages, that is rate of seed germination, increase in plant height, days to flowering, biomass accumulation at maturity, and fecundity...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704966/the-role-of-ghrelin-and-ghrelin-signaling-in-aging
#2
REVIEW
Marie Amitani, Haruka Amitani, Kai-Chun Cheng, Timothy Sean Kairupan, Nanami Sameshima, Ippei Shimoshikiryo, Kimiko Mizuma, Natasya Trivena Rokot, Yasuhito Nerome, Tetsuhiro Owaki, Akihiro Asakawa, Akio Inui
With our aging society, more people hope for a long and healthy life. In recent years, researchers have focused on healthy longevity factors. In particular, calorie restriction delays aging, reduces mortality, and extends life. Ghrelin, which is secreted during fasting, is well known as an orexigenic peptide. Because ghrelin is increased by caloric restriction, ghrelin may play an important role in the mechanism of longevity mediated by calorie restriction. In this review, we will discuss the role of orexigenic peptides with a particular focus on ghrelin...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700945/reduced-circulating-insulin-enhances-insulin-sensitivity-in-old-mice-and-extends-lifespan
#3
Nicole M Templeman, Stephane Flibotte, Jenny H L Chik, Sunita Sinha, Gareth E Lim, Leonard J Foster, Corey Nislow, James D Johnson
The causal relationships between insulin levels, insulin resistance, and longevity are not fully elucidated. Genetic downregulation of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) signaling components can extend invertebrate and mammalian lifespan, but insulin resistance, a natural form of decreased insulin signaling, is associated with greater risk of age-related disease in mammals. We compared Ins2(+/-) mice to Ins2(+/+) littermate controls, on a genetically stable Ins1 null background. Proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of livers from 25-week-old mice suggested potential for healthier aging and altered insulin sensitivity in Ins2(+/-) mice...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683292/mice-under-caloric-restriction-self-impose-a-temporal-restriction-of-food-intake-as-revealed-by-an-automated-feeder-system
#4
Victoria A Acosta-Rodríguez, Marleen H M de Groot, Filipa Rijo-Ferreira, Carla B Green, Joseph S Takahashi
Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in mammals, yet the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain unknown. The manner in which CR has been implemented in longevity experiments is variable, with both timing and frequency of meals constrained by work schedules. It is commonplace to find that nocturnal rodents are fed during the daytime and meals are spaced out, introducing prolonged fasting intervals. Since implementation of feeding paradigms over the lifetime is logistically difficult, automation is critical, but existing systems are expensive and not amenable to scale...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646299/effective-combined-water-and-sideband-suppression-for-low-speed-tissue-and-in-vivo-mas-nmr
#5
Yalda Liaghati Mobarhan, Jochem Struppe, Blythe Fortier-McGill, André J Simpson
High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR is a powerful technique that can provide metabolic profiles and structural constraints on intact biological and environmental samples such as cells, tissues and living organisms. However, centripetal force from fast spinning can lead to a loss of sample integrity. In analyses focusing on structural organization, metabolite compartmentalization or in vivo studies, it is critical to keep the sample intact. As such, there is growing interest in slow spinning studies that preserve sample longevity...
June 23, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603590/antitachycardia-pacing-programming-in-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Elia De Maria, Daniele Giacopelli, Ambra Borghi, Letizia Modonesi, Stefano Cappelli
Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) programming involves several parameters. In recent years antitachycardia pacing (ATP) has gained an increasing importance in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, whether slow or fast. It reduces the number of unnecessary and inappropriate shocks and improves both patient's quality of life and device longevity. There is no clear indication regarding the type of ATP to be used, except for the treatment of fast ventricular tachycardias (188 bpm-250 bpm) where it has been shown a greater efficacy and safety of burst compared to ramp; 8 impulses in each sequence of ATP appears to be the best programming option in this setting...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526131/metabolic-alterations-at-the-crossroad-of-aging-and-oncogenesis
#7
L Raffaghello, V Longo
Aging represents the major risk factor for cancer. Cancer and aging are characterized by a similar dysregulated metabolism consisting in upregulation of glycolysis and downmodulation of oxidative phosphorylation. In this respect, metabolic interventions can be viewed as promising strategies to promote longevity and to prevent or delay age-related disorders including cancer. In this review, we discuss the most promising metabolic approaches including chronic calorie restriction, periodic fasting/fasting-mimicking diets, and pharmacological interventions mimicking calorie restriction...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507100/the-microrna-machinery-regulates-fasting-induced-changes-in-gene-expression-and-longevity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#8
Akiko Kogure, Masaharu Uno, Takako Ikeda, Eisuke Nishida
Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary restriction regimen that extends the lifespans of Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals by inducing changes in gene expression. However, how IF induces these changes and promotes longevity remains unclear. One proposed mechanism involves gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs (∼22 nucleotides) that repress gene expression and whose expression can be altered by fasting. To test this proposition, we examined the role of the miRNA machinery in fasting-induced transcriptional changes and longevity in C...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408970/differential-regulation-of-cardiac-function-and-intracardiac-cytokines-by-rapamycin-in-healthy-and-diabetic-rats
#9
Christian Luck, Vincent G DeMarco, Abuzar Mahmood, Madhavi P Gavini, Lakshmi Pulakat
Diabetes is comorbid with cardiovascular disease and impaired immunity. Rapamycin improves cardiac functions and extends lifespan by inhibiting the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). However, in diabetic murine models, Rapamycin elevates hyperglycemia and reduces longevity. Since Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant, we examined whether Rapamycin (750 μg/kg/day) modulates intracardiac cytokines, which affect the cardiac immune response, and cardiac function in male lean (ZL) and diabetic obese Zucker (ZO) rats...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405282/ecological-application-of-biotic-resistance-to-control-the-invasion-of-an-invasive-plant-ageratina-altissima
#10
Chaeho Byun, Eun Ju Lee
Biotic resistance is the ability of species in a community to limit the invasion of other species. However, biotic resistance is not widely used to control invasive plants. Experimental, functional, and modeling approaches were combined to investigate the processes of invasion by Ageratina altissima (white snakeroot), a model invasive species in South Korea. We hypothesized that (1) functional group identity would be a good predictor of biotic resistance to A. altissima, whereas a species identity effect would be redundant within a functional group, and (2) mixtures of species would be more resistant to invasion than monocultures...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357080/association-of-renal-function-with-clinical-parameters-and-conditions-in-a-longitudinal-population-based-epidemiological-study
#11
Takuya Sumi, Mitsutoshi Oguri, Tetsuo Fujimaki, Hideki Horibe, Kimihiko Kato, Kota Matsui, Ichiro Takeuchi, Toyoaki Murohara, Yoshiji Yamada
The aim of the present study was to examine the association of renal function with clinical parameters and conditions in the general population. Study subjects comprised 6,027 community-dwelling individuals who were recruited to the Inabe Health and Longevity Study: A longitudinal genetic epidemiological study of atherosclerotic, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The cutoff value, which was used to divide the subjects into those with normal and those with low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), was 60 ml/min/1...
February 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337213/root-branching-is-a-leading-root-trait-of-the-plant-economics-spectrum-in-temperate-trees
#12
Rebecca Liese, Katrin Alings, Ina C Meier
Global vegetation models use conceived relationships between functional traits to simulate ecosystem responses to environmental change. In this context, the concept of the leaf economics spectrum (LES) suggests coordinated leaf trait variation, and separates species which invest resources into short-lived leaves with a high expected energy return rate from species with longer-lived leaves and slower energy return. While it has been assumed that being fast (acquisitive) or slow (conservative) is a general feature for all organ systems, the translation of the LES into a root economics spectrum (RES) for tree species has been hitherto inconclusive...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316346/invasion-trajectory-of-pacific-oysters-in-the-northern-wadden-sea
#13
Karsten Reise, Christian Buschbaum, Heike Büttger, Johannes Rick, K Mathias Wegner
Invasion trajectories of introduced alien species usually begin with a long establishment phase of low abundance, often followed by exponential expansion and subsequent adjustment phases. We review the first 26 years of feral Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas around the island of Sylt in the Wadden Sea (North Sea, NE Atlantic), and reveal causal conditions for the invasion phases. Sea-based oyster farming with repeated introductions made establishment of feral oysters almost inevitable. Beds of mussels Mytilus edulis on mud flats offered firm substrate for attachment and ideal growth conditions around low tide level...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299152/ebola-viral-disease-in-west-africa-a-threat-to-global-health-economy-and-political-stability
#14
Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Ibrahim Mohammed, Yauba Saidu
The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254611/practical-economical-and-eco-friendly-starch-supported-palladium-catalyst-for-suzuki-coupling-reactions
#15
Talat Baran
In catalytic systems, the support materials need to be both eco friendly and low cost as well as having high thermal and chemical stability. In this paper, a novel starch supported palladium catalyst, which had these outstanding properties, was designed and its catalytic activity was evaluated in a Suzuki coupling reaction under microwave heating with solvent-free and mild reaction conditions. The starch supported catalyst gave remarkable reaction yields after only 5min as a result of the coupling reaction of the phenyl boronic acid with 23 different substrates, which are bearing aril bromide, iodide, and chloride...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216454/protective-effects-of-short-term-dietary-restriction-in-surgical-stress-and-chemotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Sebastian Brandhorst, Eylul Harputlugil, James R Mitchell, Valter D Longo
Reduced caloric intake including fasting, as well as the dietary composition or the timing of food intake, impact longevity, likely through a modification in the onset or the severity of chronic aging-related diseases such as cancer. As with pre- and post-operative dietary recommendations, evidence-based nutritional advice from healthcare professionals during and after cancer treatment is often vague or conflicting. We hypothesize that preventive dietary recommendations can help in the context of both chronic cancer treatment efficacy and the avoidance of development of secondary malignancies, as well as in the context of protection from the acute stress of surgery...
February 20, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118644/the-gender-association-of-the-sirt1-rs7895833-polymorphism-with-pediatric-obesity-a-3-year-panel-study
#17
Myoungsook Lee, Serim Choi, Yunkyoung Lee, Hyun-Hee Oh
OBJECTIVES: Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a longevity-associated gene, has pleiotropic functions. We investigated whether SIRT1 variation is associated with pediatric obesity. METHODS: During 3 years of follow-up of 219 children (101 boys, 118 girls) aged 8 or 9 years at baseline, obesity parameters such as anthropometrics, plasma lipid and insulin resistance profiles, and nutrient intakes were analyzed with regard to 3 genotypes of SIRT1 rs7895833 (GG, GA, and AA). RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity including overweight had increased from 18...
2016: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057705/translational-control-of-lipogenic-enzymes-in-the-cell-cycle-of-synchronous-growing-yeast-cells
#18
Heidi M Blank, Ricardo Perez, Chong He, Nairita Maitra, Richard Metz, Joshua Hill, Yuhong Lin, Charles D Johnson, Vytas A Bankaitis, Brian K Kennedy, Rodolfo Aramayo, Michael Polymenis
Translational control during cell division determines when cells start a new cell cycle, how fast they complete it, the number of successive divisions, and how cells coordinate proliferation with available nutrients. The translational efficiencies of mRNAs in cells progressing synchronously through the mitotic cell cycle, while preserving the coupling of cell division with cell growth, remain uninvestigated. We now report comprehensive ribosome profiling of a yeast cell size series from the time of cell birth, to identify mRNAs under periodic translational control...
February 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056856/potential-unfavorable-impacts-of-bdnf-val66met-polymorphisms-on-metabolic-risks-in-average-population-in-a-longevous-area
#19
Jun-Hua Peng, Cheng-Wu Liu, Shang-Ling Pan, Hua-Yu Wu, Qing-Hua Liang, Rui-Jing Gan, Ling Huang, Yi Ding, Zhang-Ya Bian, Hao Huang, Ze-Ping Lv, Xiao-Ling Zhou, Rui-Xing Yin
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in cognitive performance and the modulation of several metabolic parameters in some disease models, but its potential roles in successful aging remain unclear. We herein sought to define the putative correlation between BDNF Val66Met and several metabolic risk factors including BMI, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and lipid levels in a long-lived population inhabiting Hongshui River Basin in Guangxi...
January 5, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052287/is-overnight-fasting-before-surgery-too-much-or-not-enough-how-basic-aging-research-can-guide-preoperative-nutritional-recommendations-to-improve-surgical-outcomes-a-mini-review
#20
Alban Longchamp, Eylul Harputlugil, Jean-Marc Corpataux, C Keith Ozaki, James R Mitchell
Dietary restriction (DR) is best known for extending lifespan in experimental model organisms, but also increases resistance to a variety of clinically relevant stressors, including those associated with surgery. Extended periods of DR, lasting months to years, are required for optimal longevity benefits in rodents, but short-term dietary preconditioning (less than 1 week) remarkably protects from acute injury. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the mechanistic basis of short-term DR and fasting in the context of surgical stress resistance, including upstream amino acid sensing by the GCN2 and mTORC1 pathways, and downstream effector mechanisms including increased insulin-dependent prosurvival signaling and elevated endogenous hydrogen sulfide production...
2017: Gerontology
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