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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864957/applications-of-the-fast-slow-continuum-and-reproductive-strategy-framework-of-plant-life-histories
#1
REVIEW
Roberto Salguero-Gómez
I. II. III. IV. References SUMMARY: Understanding the forces that shape the great amount of variation in plant longevity, reproductive output and growth rate is fundamental to effective predictions of viability, invasions and evolutionary pressures. Here, I extend the recently introduced 'fast-slow continuum and reproductive strategy' framework to quantify the variation in plant life history strategies world-wide. I use high-resolution demographic information from 625 plant species and show that this framework predicts not only key demographic properties, such as population growth rate and demographic resilience, but also has important connections to the leaf economics spectrum, biogeographical characteristics, evolutionary biology and conservation biology...
November 16, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843312/formulation-characterization-and-tissue-distribution-of-a-novel-ph-sensitive-long-circulating-liposome-based-theranostic-suitable-for-molecular-imaging-and-drug-delivery
#2
Yin Duan, Lihui Wei, Julia Petryk, Terrence D Ruddy
PURPOSE: When designing liposome formulas for treatment and diagnostic purposes, two of the most common challenges are 1) the lack of a specific release mechanism for the encapsulated contents and 2) a short circulation time due to poor resistance to biological fluids. This study aimed to create a liposome formula with prolonged in vivo longevity and pH-sensitivity for cytoplasmic drug delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liposomal particles were generated using hydrogenated soy (HS) phosphatidylcholine, cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEM), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-modified phosphatidylethanolamine with film hydration and extrusion methods...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820656/insulinlike-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-and-ghrelin-predict-health-outcomes-among-older-adults-chs-cohort
#3
Robert C Kaplan, Garrett Strizich, Chino Aneke-Nash, Clara Dominguez-Islas, Petra Bůžková, Howard Strickler, Thomas Rohan, Michael Pollak, Lewis Kuller, Jorge R Kizer, Anne Cappola, Christopher I Li, Bruce M Psaty, Anne Newman
CONTEXT: Multiple diseases may explain the association of the growth hormone / insulinlike growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis with longevity. OBJECTIVE: To relate circulating GH/IGF-I system protein levels with major health events. DESIGN: Cohort study Setting: Four US communities Participants: Adults (n=2268) 65 years and older free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. MEASUREMENTS: We assessed insulinlike growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and ghrelin in fasting and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) blood samples, as well as fasting IGF-I and IGFBP-3...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806550/an-overview-on-cardiovascular-risks-definitions-by-using-survival-analysis-techniques-tehran-lipid-and-glucose-study-13-year-follow-up-outcomes
#4
Nezhat Shakeri, Farhad Hajsheikholeslami, Amir Abbas Momenan, Fereidoun Azizi
Risk assessment is an important issue for starting medication for patients. Literature reveals that diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and Body Mass Index (BMI) are among major risk factors for longevity. Since the cut-off points proposed in various sources are generally irrespective of age, sex and race, it has been attempted to validate current definitions for Tehran's elderly population by using a prospective cohort study. For this purpose, one thousand seven hundred and ninety eight (1,798) individuals above 60 years old were recruited in the primary phase of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) during 1998-2001, and were tested for their systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), 2-h plasma glucose (2HPG) and some other factors at the time of entry to the study...
August 26, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765118/-association-between-serum-albumin-and-cognitive-performance-in-elderly-chinese
#5
Z X Yin, J L Wang, Y B Lyu, J S Luo, Y Zeng, X M Shi
Objective: To explore association between serum albumin level and cognitive performance in elderly Chinese. Methods: All the subjects aged ≥65 years in the 8 longevity areas in Chinese longitudinal health longevity survey (CLHLS) were invited to participate the biomedical indepth CLHLS study, information about subjects' demographic characteristics, lifestyle, prevalence of diseases and health status was collected through household-interview. The cognitive performance was assessed with Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) scale...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711219/assessing-basal-and-acute-autophagic-responses-in-the-adult-drosophila-nervous-system-the-impact-of-gender-genetics-and-diet-on-endogenous-pathway-profiles
#6
Eric P Ratliff, Roxanne W Kotzebue, Brandon Molina, Ruth E Mauntz, Arysa Gonzalez, Ayeh Barekat, Nadja El-Mecharrafie, Shannon Garza, Michael A Gurney, Madhulika Achal, Phyllis-Jean Linton, Greg L Harris, Kim D Finley
The autophagy pathway is critical for the long-term homeostasis of cells and adult organisms and is often activated during periods of stress. Reduced pathway efficacy plays a central role in several progressive neurological disorders that are associated with the accumulation of cytotoxic peptides and protein aggregates. Previous studies have shown that genetic and transgenic alterations to the autophagy pathway impacts longevity and neural aggregate profiles of adult Drosophila. In this study, we have identified methods to measure the acute in vivo induction of the autophagy pathway in the adult fly CNS...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669894/caloric-restriction-promotes-cell-survival-in-a-mouse-model-of-normal-tension-glaucoma
#7
Xiaoli Guo, Atsuko Kimura, Yuriko Azuchi, Goichi Akiyama, Takahiko Noro, Chikako Harada, Kazuhiko Namekata, Takayuki Harada
Glaucoma is characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. We previously reported that loss of glutamate transporters (EAAC1 or GLAST) in mice leads to RGC degeneration that is similar to normal tension glaucoma and these animal models are useful in examining potential therapeutic strategies. Caloric restriction has been reported to increase longevity and has potential benefits in injury and disease. Here we investigated the effects of every-other-day fasting (EODF), a form of caloric restriction, on glaucomatous pathology in EAAC1(-/-) mice...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662635/interactions-between-parental-traits-environmental-harshness-and-growth-rate-in-determining-telomere-length-in-wild-juvenile-salmon
#8
D McLennan, J D Armstrong, D C Stewart, S Mckelvey, W Boner, P Monaghan, N B Metcalfe
A larger body size confers many benefits, such as increased reproductive success, ability to evade predators and increased competitive ability and social status. However, individuals rarely maximize their growth rates, suggesting that this carries costs. One such cost could be faster attrition of the telomeres that cap the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and play an important role in chromosome protection. A relatively short telomere length is indicative of poor biological state, including poorer tissue and organ performance, reduced potential longevity and increased disease susceptibility...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626671/proteome-wide-changes-in-protein-turnover-rates-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans-models-of-longevity-and-age-related-disease
#9
Marieke Visscher, Sasha De Henau, Mattheus H E Wildschut, Robert M van Es, Ineke Dhondt, Helen Michels, Patrick Kemmeren, Ellen A Nollen, Bart P Braeckman, Boudewijn M T Burgering, Harmjan R Vos, Tobias B Dansen
The balance between protein synthesis and protein breakdown is a major determinant of protein homeostasis, and loss of protein homeostasis is one of the hallmarks of aging. Here we describe pulsed SILAC-based experiments to estimate proteome-wide turnover rates of individual proteins. We applied this method to determine protein turnover rates in Caenorhabditis elegans models of longevity and Parkinson's disease, using both developing and adult animals. Whereas protein turnover in developing, long-lived daf-2(e1370) worms is about 30% slower than in controls, the opposite was observed in day 5 adult worms, in which protein turnover in the daf-2(e1370) mutant is twice as fast as in controls...
September 13, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583293/responses-of-large-mammals-to-climate-change
#10
REVIEW
Robyn S Hetem, Andrea Fuller, Shane K Maloney, Duncan Mitchell
Most large terrestrial mammals, including the charismatic species so important for ecotourism, do not have the luxury of rapid micro-evolution or sufficient range shifts as strategies for adjusting to climate change. The rate of climate change is too fast for genetic adaptation to occur in mammals with longevities of decades, typical of large mammals, and landscape fragmentation and population by humans too widespread to allow spontaneous range shifts of large mammals, leaving only the expression of latent phenotypic plasticity to counter effects of climate change...
July 2014: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473404/c-elegans-screening-strategies-to-identify-pro-longevity-interventions
#11
REVIEW
Silvia Maglioni, Nayna Arsalan, Natascia Ventura
Drugs screenings in search of enhancers or suppressors of selected readout(s) are nowadays mainly carried out in single cells systems. These approaches are however limited when searching for compounds with effects at the organismal level. To overcome this drawback the use of different model organisms to carry out modifier screenings has exponentially grown in the past decade. Unique characteristics such as easy manageability, low cost, fast reproductive cycle, short lifespan, simple anatomy and genetic amenability, make the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans especially suitable for this purpose...
July 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443744/live-fast-die-young
#12
Amber Dance
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27397421/-the-future-of-hospitals-and-the-hospitals-in-the-future
#13
S Tamás Illés
By the end of the 20th century the vertically organized hospitals formed into a closed hierarchical system, in which the healthcare supply significantly fragmented. The existing hospitals in the current organization are not prepared for the increase in longevity, nor for the high growth in the number of chronic and long-term illnesses and the multi-morbidity since they were not designed for extended carry treatments. The fast incorporation of high-tech and very expensive technologies into healthcare generates an economic crisis...
July 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265150/degradation-and-hemostatic-properties-of-polyphosphate-coacervates
#14
Arash Momeni, Mark Joseph Filiaggi
UNLABELLED: Sodium polyphosphate is a linear polymer formed from phosphate units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms. Addition of calcium to a solution of sodium polyphosphate results in phase separation and formation of a polyphosphate coacervate best described as a polymeric rich viscoelastic material. Polyphosphate coacervate is an interesting candidate as a biomaterial based on its ability to bind with different cations and to be loaded with drugs. Here, in vitro degradation and hemostatic properties of polyphosphate coacervates are comprehensively evaluated...
September 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27223996/feast-and-famine-adipose-tissue-adaptations-for-healthy-aging
#15
REVIEW
Daniele Lettieri Barbato, Katia Aquilano
Proper adipose tissue function controls energy balance with favourable effects on metabolic health and longevity. The molecular and metabolic asset of adipose tissue quickly and dynamically readapts in response to nutrient fluctuations. Once delivered into cells, nutrients are managed by mitochondria that represent a key bioenergetics node. A persistent nutrient overload generates mitochondrial exhaustion and uncontrolled reactive oxygen species ((mt)ROS) production. In adipocytes, metabolic/molecular reorganization is triggered culminating in the acquirement of a hypertrophic and hypersecretory phenotype that accelerates aging...
July 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27191548/methionine-restricted-diet-increases-mirnas-that-can-target-runx2-expression-and-alters-bone-structure-in-young-mice
#16
Jason Plummer, Miri Park, Frantz Perodin, Mark C Horowitz, Julie R Hens
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) increases longevity and improves healthspan in rodent models. Young male C57BL/6J mice were placed on MR to assess effects on bone structure and formation. Mice were fed diets containing 0.86% or 0.12% methionine for 5 weeks. Fasting blood plasma was analyzed for metabolic and bone-related biomarkers. Tibiae were analyzed by histomorphometry, while femurs were analyzed by micro-CT and biomechanically using 4-point bending. MR mice had reduced plasma glucose and insulin, while FGF21 and FGF23 increased...
January 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27173864/percutaneous-pulmonary-valve-replacement-using-completely-tissue-engineered-off-the-shelf-heart-valves-six-month-in-vivo-functionality-and-matrix-remodelling-in-sheep
#17
Boris Schmitt, Hendrik Spriestersbach, Darach O H-Icí, Torben Radtke, Marco Bartosch, Heiner Peters, Matthias Sigler, Laura Frese, Petra E Dijkman, Frank P T Baaijens, Simon P Hoerstrup, Felix Berger
AIMS: The objective was to implant a stented decellularised tissue-engineered heart valve (sdTEHV) percutaneously in an animal model, to assess its in vivo functionality and to examine the repopulation and remodelling of the valvular matrix by the recipient's autologous cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prototypes of sdTEHV were cultured in vitro, decellularised and percutaneously implanted into the pulmonary position in 15 sheep. Functionality was assessed monthly by intracardiac echocardiography (ICE)...
May 17, 2016: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170536/calorie-restriction-regulates-circadian-clock-gene-expression-through-bmal1-dependent-and-independent-mechanisms
#18
Sonal A Patel, Nikkhil Velingkaar, Kuldeep Makwana, Amol Chaudhari, Roman Kondratov
Feeding behavior, metabolism and circadian clocks are interlinked. Calorie restriction (CR) is a feeding paradigm known to extend longevity. We found that CR significantly affected the rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes in mice on the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that CR reprograms the clocks both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. The effect of CR on gene expression was distinct from the effects of time-restricted feeding or fasting. Furthermore, CR affected the circadian output through up- or down-regulation of the expression of several clock-controlled transcriptional factors and the longevity candidate genes...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161277/sublethal-effects-of-imidacloprid-on-the-fecundity-longevity-and-enzyme-activity-of-sitobion-avenae-fabricius-and-rhopalosiphum-padi-linnaeus
#19
Y-H Lu, X-S Zheng, X-W Gao
The aphid species Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi are the most important pests in wheat growing regions of many countries. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity in both aphid species by comparing 3-h exposure for one or three generations. Our results indicated that 3-h exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid for one generation had no discernible effect on the survival, fecundity, longevity, or enzyme activity levels of aphids...
August 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27137487/fasting-induced-liver-gadd45%C3%AE-restrains-hepatic-fatty-acid-uptake-and-improves-metabolic-health
#20
Jessica Fuhrmeister, Annika Zota, Tjeerd P Sijmonsma, Oksana Seibert, Şahika Cıngır, Kathrin Schmidt, Nicola Vallon, Roldan M de Guia, Katharina Niopek, Mauricio Berriel Diaz, Adriano Maida, Matthias Blüher, Jürgen G Okun, Stephan Herzig, Adam J Rose
Recent studies have demonstrated that repeated short-term nutrient withdrawal (i.e. fasting) has pleiotropic actions to promote organismal health and longevity. Despite this, the molecular physiological mechanisms by which fasting is protective against metabolic disease are largely unknown. Here, we show that, metabolic control, particularly systemic and liver lipid metabolism, is aberrantly regulated in the fasted state in mouse models of metabolic dysfunction. Liver transcript assays between lean/healthy and obese/diabetic mice in fasted and fed states uncovered "growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible" GADD45β as a dysregulated gene transcript during fasting in several models of metabolic dysfunction including ageing, obesity/pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes, in both mice and humans...
2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
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