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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927238/factor-v-leiden-is-associated-with-increased-sperm-count
#1
T E van Mens, U N Joensen, Z Bochdanovits, A Takizawa, J Peter, N Jørgensen, P B Szecsi, J C M Meijers, H Weiler, E Rajpert-De Meyts, S Repping, S Middeldorp
STUDY QUESTION: Is the thrombophilia mutation factor V Leiden (FVL) associated with an increased total sperm count? SUMMARY ANSWER: Carriers of FVL have a higher total sperm count than non-FVL-carriers, which could not be explained by genetic linkage or by observations in a FVL-mouse model. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: FVL has a high prevalence in Caucasians despite detrimental health effects. Carriers have been shown to have higher fecundity, which might partly explain this evolutionary paradox...
September 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926194/inverse-response-of-osteoblasts-and-fibroblasts-to-growth-on-carbon-deposited-titanium-surfaces
#2
Chie Yoshihara, Takeshi Ueno, Peng Chen, Yusuke Tsutsumi, Takao Hanawa, Noriyuki Wakabayashi
Titanium implant surfaces may serve as attachment substrates for various cell types. Since carbon adsorption on titanium is inevitable, this study examined the negative/positive biological reaction of osteoblasts and fibroblasts on carbon-deposited titanium surfaces. Osteogenic MC3T3-E1 and fibrogenic NIH/3T3 cells were separately cultured on titanium disks on which carbon deposition was experimentally regulated to achieve titanium/carbon ratios of 6.5, 0.02, 0.005, and 0. The initial attachment of cells demonstrated that the quantity of attached osteoblasts on Ti/C (0...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925962/strengthening-of-existing-bridge-structures-for-shear-and-bending-with-carbon-textile-reinforced-mortar
#3
Martin Herbrand, Viviane Adam, Martin Classen, Dominik Kueres, Josef Hegger
Increasing traffic loads and changes in code provisions lead to deficits in shear and flexural capacity of many existing highway bridges. Therefore, a large number of structures are expected to require refurbishment and strengthening in the future. This projection is based on the current condition of many older road bridges. Different strengthening methods for bridges exist to extend their service life, all having specific advantages and disadvantages. By applying a thin layer of carbon textile-reinforced mortar (CTRM) to bridge deck slabs and the webs of pre-stressed concrete bridges, the fatigue and ultimate strength of these members can be increased significantly...
September 19, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925940/zebrafish-as-a-model-for-the-study-of-microvascular-complications-of-diabetes-and-their-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Karl Heckler, Jens Kroll
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a crucial metabolic disease that leads to severe disorders. These include macrovascular complications such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery disease and microvascular complications including diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. Diabetes mellitus, along with its associated organ pathologies, is one of the key problems in today's medicine. Zebrafish is an upcoming disease model organism in diabetes research. Its glucose metabolism and the pathways of reactive metabolite formation are very similar to those of humans...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925590/analytic-methods-for-evaluating-patterns-of-multiple-congenital-anomalies-in-birth-defect-registries
#5
REVIEW
A J Agopian, Jane A Evans, Philip J Lupo
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 20 to 30% of infants with birth defects have two or more birth defects. Among these infants with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), co-occurring anomalies may represent either chance (i.e., unrelated etiologies) or pathogenically associated patterns of anomalies. While some MCA patterns have been recognized and described (e.g., known syndromes), others have not been identified or characterized. Elucidating these patterns may result in a better understanding of the etiologies of these MCAs...
September 19, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924728/a-review-on-the-mechanism-risk-evaluation-and-prevention-of-coal-spontaneous-combustion-in-china
#6
Biao Kong, Zenghua Li, Yongliang Yang, Zhen Liu, Daocheng Yan
In recent years, the ecology, security, and sustainable development of modern mines have become the theme of coal mine development worldwide. However, spontaneous combustion of coal under conditions of oxygen supply and automatic exothermic heating during coal mining lead to coalfield fires. Coal spontaneous combustion (CSC) causes huge economic losses and casualties, with the toxic and harmful gases produced during coal combustion not only polluting the working environment, but also causing great damage to the ecological environment...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924622/the-effect-of-socioeconomic-disadvantage-on-strategies-to-end-the-aids-epidemic
#7
Robert S Hogg, Cathy Puskas, Surita Parashar, Julio S G Montaner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923388/synthesis-of-cytotoxically-active-derivatives-based-on-alkylated-2-3-seco-triterpenoids
#8
Anastasia V Konysheva, Vladimir O Nebogatikov, Irina A Tolmacheva, Maxim V Dmitriev, Victoria V Grishko
Extremely low content of biologically active triterpenoids with the fragmented or contracted ring A extractable from plants is the main disadvantage of their use in drug discovery and practical pharmacology. Development of new methods for synthesis of these compounds and their structural analogs from bioavailable triterpene precursors gives an opportunity to obtain promising agents for pharmacology with excellent yields. A new approach to synthesis of alkylated A-seco-triterpenoids, including the Beckmann fragmentation of 3-methyl-substituted allobetulin or betulinic acid methyl ester with 2-hydroxyimino group in the ring A was proposed...
September 6, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923201/determinants-of-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-disordered-sleep-and-obesity
#9
Chandra L Jackson
Racial/ethnic minorities experience a disproportionate risk of both suboptimal sleep and obesity, and the relationship between sleep and obesity may differ by race/ethnicity for modifiable and non-modifiable reasons. Because many people of color have historically lived and continue to largely live in disadvantaged, obesogenic physical and social environments, these greater adverse exposures likely negatively affect sleep, resulting in physiological dysregulation. Physiological dysregulation may, in turn, lead to increased obesity risk and subsequent health consequences, which are likely more influential than potential genetic differences in race, a social construct...
October 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923175/frailty-and-usage-of-health-care-systems-results-from-the-south-australian-monitoring-and-surveillance-system-samss
#10
Elsa Dent, Eleonora Dal Grande, Kay Price, Anne W Taylor
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about frailty and its impact on health-care systems. Using large-scale population health surveillance data, this study determined the prevalence of frailty, its associated factors, and the impact it places on health care services. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional snapshot of the 2013-2015 South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS) database was used, focusing on individuals aged ≥65years. Frailty was assessed by the Frailty Index (FI), and classified as robust (scores≤0...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923165/cross-sectional-study-of-area-level-disadvantage-and-glycaemic-related-risk-in-community-health-service-users-in-the-southern-iml-research-simlr-cohort
#11
Roger Cross, Andrew Bonney, Darren J Mayne, Kathryn M Weston
Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the association between area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and glycaemic-related risk in health service users in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia.Methods HbA1c values recorded between 2010 and 2012 for non-pregnant individuals aged ≥18 years were extracted from the Southern.IML Research (SIMLR) database. Individuals were assigned quintiles of the Socioeconomic Indices for Australia (SEIFA) Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) according to their Statistical Area 1 of residence...
September 19, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923068/using-blood-cytokine-measures-to-define-high-inflammatory-biotype-of-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder
#12
Danny Boerrigter, Thomas W Weickert, Rhoshel Lenroot, Maryanne O'Donnell, Cherrie Galletly, Dennis Liu, Martin Burgess, Roxanne Cadiz, Isabella Jacomb, Vibeke S Catts, Stu G Fillman, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
BACKGROUND: Increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines are found in the brain and blood of people with schizophrenia. However, increased cytokines are not evident in all people with schizophrenia, but are found in a subset. The cytokine changes that best define this subset, termed the "elevated inflammatory biotype", are still being identified. METHODS: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we measured five cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-2 IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18) from peripheral blood of healthy controls and of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n = 165)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922902/from-directed-donation-to-kidney-sale-does-the-argument-hold-up
#13
James Stacey Taylor
The UCLA Medical Center has initiated a "voucher program" under which a person who donated a kidney would receive a voucher that she could provide to someone of her choosing who could then use it to move to the top of the renal transplantation waiting list. If the use of such vouchers as incentives for donors is morally permissible, then cash payments for kidneys are also morally permissible. But, that argument faces five objections. First, there are some goods whose nature allows them to be exchanged for similar goods but renders them monetarily inalienable...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922538/women-s-experiences-of-more-than-one-termination-of-pregnancy-within-two-years-a-mixed-methods-study
#14
Carrie Purcell, Julie Riddell, Audrey Brown, Sharon Cameron, Catriona Melville, Gillian Flett, Yeshi Bhushan, Lisa McDaid
OBJECTIVE: To examine the experiences of women seeking more than one termination of pregnancy (TOP) within two years. DESIGN: Mixed methods study. SETTING: Six TOP services across Scotland. SAMPLE: Women presenting for TOP between July and December 2015. METHODS: Descriptive and inferential analysis of quantitative survey data, thematic analysis of qualitative interview data and integrative analysis...
September 18, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922457/how-negative-contact-and-positive-contact-with-whites-predict-collective-action-among-racial-and-ethnic-minorities
#15
Lydia E Hayward, Linda R Tropp, Matthew J Hornsey, Fiona Kate Barlow
Positive contact with advantaged group members can improve disadvantaged group members' attitudes towards them, yet it may also lower perceptions of group discrimination and consequent collective action. Little is known, however, about how negative contact with the advantaged predicts collective action among members of disadvantaged groups. With samples of Black and Hispanic Americans, we tested positive and negative contact with White Americans as predictors of self-reported collective action behaviour and future intentions...
September 18, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922158/tailored-and-adaptive-computerized-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-at-risk-for-dementia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Alex Bahar-Fuchs, Shannon Webb, Lauren Bartsch, Linda Clare, George Rebok, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Computerized Cognitive Training (CCT) has been shown to improve cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mood-related neuropsychiatric symptoms (MrNPS), but many questions remain unresolved. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent to which CCT benefits older adults with both MCI and MrNPS, and its effects on meta-cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes, as well as establish whether adapting difficulty levels and tailoring to individuals' profile is superior to generic training...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921882/recommendations-for-obesity-prevention-among-adolescents-from-disadvantaged-backgrounds-a-concept-mapping-study-among-scientific-and-professional-experts
#17
D A Kornet-van der Aa, C H van Randeraad-van der Zee, J Mayer, J M Borys, M J M Chinapaw
The present study aimed to enrich the scientific evidence on obesity prevention programmes for adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds with practice-based experiences from both scientific and professional experts in the field of youth obesity prevention. We used the participatory method of concept mapping. Two concept mapping sessions were conducted: one with programme coordinators of national/regional obesity prevention programmes across Europe (n = 8) and one with scientists participating in European obesity prevention projects (n = 5)...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921544/commentary-so-was-it-worth-it-a-commentary-on-fricke-et%C3%A2-al-and-hagen-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#18
Elspeth McCartney
Fricke et al. and Hagen et al. (2017) each report on large-scale pragmatic randomised controlled trials delivered in schools or nurseries, investigating language interventions for vulnerable children and showing moderate positive effect sizes. Such research is part of a recent development of 'what works' research in England, and the number of 'what works' trials continues to increase, largely through funding from the Sutton Trust, who are concerned with disadvantaged children, to the Educational Endowment Foundation (EEF)...
October 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921543/language-growth-in-children-with-heterogeneous-language-disorders-a-population-study
#19
Courtenay Frazier Norbury, George Vamvakas, Debbie Gooch, Gillian Baird, Tony Charman, Emily Simonoff, Andrew Pickles
BACKGROUND: Language development has been characterised by significant individual stability from school entry. However, the extent to which trajectories of language growth vary in children with language disorder as a function of co-occurring developmental challenges is a question of theoretical import, with implications for service provision. METHODS: SCALES employed a population-based survey design with sample weighting procedures to estimate growth in core language skills over the first three years of school...
October 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920898/hybrid-pre-log-and-post-log-image-reconstruction-for-computed-tomography
#20
Guobao Wang, Jian Zhou, Zhou Yu, Wenli Wang, Jinyi Qi
Tomographic image reconstruction for low-dose CT is increasingly challenging as dose continues to reduce in clinical applications. Pre-log domain methods and post-log domain methods have been proposed individually and each method has its own disadvantage. While having the potential to improve image quality for low-dose data by using an accurate imaging model, pre-log domain methods suffer slow convergence in practice due to the nonlinear transformation from the image to measurements. In contrast, post-log domain methods have fast convergence speed but the resulting image quality is suboptimal for low-count CT data because the log transformation is extremely unreliable for low-count measurements and undefined for negative values...
September 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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