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Circadian disruption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632163/melatonin-as-a-novel-interventional-candidate-for-fragile-x-syndrome-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-humans
#1
REVIEW
Jinyoung Won, Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Sookyoung Park, Tae Ho Lee, Sang-Rae Lee, Kyu-Tae Chang, Yonggeun Hong
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). FXS with ASD results from the loss of fragile X mental retardation (fmr) gene products, including fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral abnormalities. This disorder is also correlated with clock components underlying behavioral circadian rhythms and, thus, a mutation of the fmr gene can result in disturbed sleep patterns and altered circadian rhythms. As a result, FXS with ASD individuals may experience dysregulation of melatonin synthesis and alterations in melatonin-dependent signaling pathways that can impair vigilance, learning, and memory abilities, and may be linked to autistic behaviors such as abnormal anxiety responses...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627309/measuring-light-at-night-and-melatonin-levels-in-shift-workers-a-review-of-the-literature
#2
Claudia M Hunter, Mariana G Figueiro
Shift work, especially that involving rotating and night shifts, is associated with an increased risk of diseases, including cancer. Attempts to explain the association between shift work and cancer in particular have focused on the processes of melatonin production and suppression. One hypothesis postulates that exposure to light at night (LAN) suppresses melatonin, whose production is known to slow the development of cancerous cells, while another proposes that circadian disruption associated with shift work, and not just LAN, increases health risks...
July 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625430/sensorimotor-and-executive-function-slowing-in-anesthesiology-residents-after-overnight-shifts
#3
George W Williams, Bairavi Shankar, Eliana M Klier, Alice Z Chuang, Salma El Marjiya-Villarreal, Omonele O Nwokolo, Aanchal Sharma, Anne B Sereno
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Medical residents working overnight call shifts experience sleep deprivation and circadian clock disruption. This leads to deficits in sensorimotor function and increases in workplace accidents. Using quick tablet-based tasks, we investigate whether measureable executive function differences exist following a single overnight call versus routine shift, and whether factors like stress, rest and caffeine affect these measures. DESIGN: A prospective, observational, longitudinal, comparison study was conducted...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624541/the-high-prevalence-and-clinical-socio-demographic-correlates-of-miscarriages-among-flight-attendants
#4
Bettina Heidecker, Rachel Maureen Spencer, Victoria Hayes, Sarah Hall, Nisha Parikh, Eveline Oestreicher Stock, Rita Redberg
BACKGROUND: There are many occupational health hazards associated with long hours of air travel including cosmic radiation exposure, circadian rhythm disruptions and secondhand smoke exposure prior, for flight attendants who flew prior to smoking bans initiated in the 90s. Previous studies in flight attendants have found increased incidence of breast cancer and melanoma. However, there is little information on the relationship of airline travel and reproductive health in flight attendants...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617242/a-subset-of-iprgcs-regulates-both-maturation-of-the-circadian-clock-and-segregation-of-retinogeniculate-projections-in-mice
#5
Kylie S Chew, Jordan M Renna, David S McNeill, Diego Carlos Fernandez, William Thomas Keenan, Michael B Thomsen, Jennifer L Ecker, Gideon S Loevinsohn, Cassandra VanDunk, Daniel C Vicarel, Adele Tufford, Shijun Weng, Paul A Gray, Michel Cayouette, Erik D Herzog, Haiqing Zhao, David M Berson, Samer Hattar
The visual system consists of two major subsystems, image-forming circuits that drive conscious vision and non-image-forming circuits for behaviors such as circadian photoentrainment. While historically considered non-overlapping, recent evidence has uncovered crosstalk between these subsystems. Here we investigated shared developmental mechanisms. We revealed an unprecedented role for light in the maturation of the circadian clock and discovered that intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are critical for this refinement process...
June 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611660/neurodegeneration-and-the-circadian-clock
#6
REVIEW
Suzanne Hood, Shimon Amir
Despite varied etiologies and symptoms, several neurodegenerative diseases-specifically, Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HDs)-share the common feature of abnormal circadian rhythms, such as those in behavior (e.g., disrupted sleep/wake cycles), physiological processes (e.g., diminished hormone release) and biochemical activities (e.g., antioxidant production). Circadian disturbances are among the earliest symptoms of these diseases, and the molecular mechanisms of the circadian system are suspected to play a pivotal, and possibly causal, role in their natural histories...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608287/increased-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-in-depression
#7
Xueyan Wu, Rawien Balesar, Jing Lu, Sahar Farajnia, Qiongbin Zhu, Manli Huang, Ai-Min Bao
In depression, disrupted circadian rhythms reflect abnormalities in the central circadian pacemaker, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Although many SCN neurons are said to be GABAergic, it was not yet known whether and how SCN GABA changes occur in the SCN in depression. We, therefore, studied GABA in the SCN in relation to the changes in arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is one of the major SCN output systems. Postmortem hypothalamus specimens of 13 subjects suffering from depression and of 13 well-matched controls were collected...
June 12, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607386/maternal-and-early-life-circadian-disruption-have-long-lasting-negative-consequences-on-offspring-development-and-adult-behavior-in-mice
#8
Benjamin L Smarr, Azure D Grant, Luz Perez, Irving Zucker, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Modern life involves chronic circadian disruption through artificial light and these disruptions are associated with numerous mental and physical health maladies. Because the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to perturbation, we hypothesized that early-life circadian disruption would negatively impact offspring development and adult function. Pregnant mice were subjected to chronic circadian disruption from the time of uterine implantation through weaning. To dissociate in utero from postnatal effects, a subset of litters was cross-fostered at birth from disrupted dams to control dams and vice versa...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603481/effects-of-dim-light-at-night-on-food-intake-and-body-mass-in-developing-mice
#9
Yasmine M Cissé, Juan Peng, Randy J Nelson
Appropriately timed light is critical for circadian organization; exposure to dim light at night (dLAN) disrupts temporal organization of endogenous biological timing. Exposure to dLAN in adult mice is associated with elevated body mass and changes in metabolism putatively driven by voluntary changes in the time of food intake. We predicted that exposure of young mice to LAN could affect adult metabolic function. At 3 weeks (Experiment 1) or 5 weeks (Experiment 2) of age, mice were either maintained in standard light-dark (DARK) cycles or exposed to nightly dLAN (5 lux)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593182/the-circadian-clock-gene-bmal1-coordinates-intestinal%C3%A2-regeneration
#10
Kyle Stokes, Abrial Cooke, Hanna Chang, David R Weaver, David T Breault, Phillip Karpowicz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gastrointestinal syndrome is an illness of the intestine caused by high levels of radiation. It is characterized by extensive loss of epithelial tissue integrity, which initiates a regenerative response by intestinal stem and precursor cells. The intestine has 24-hour rhythms in many physiological functions that are believed to be outputs of the circadian clock: a molecular system that produces 24-hour rhythms in transcription/translation. Certain gastrointestinal illnesses are worsened when the circadian rhythms are disrupted, but the role of the circadian clock in gastrointestinal regeneration has not been studied...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585194/circadian-rhythms-in-diet-induced-obesity
#11
Atilla Engin
The biological clocks of the circadian timing system coordinate cellular and physiological processes and synchronizes these with daily cycles, feeding patterns also regulates circadian clocks. The clock genes and adipocytokines show circadian rhythmicity. Dysfunction of these genes are involved in the alteration of these adipokines during the development of obesity. Food availability promotes the stimuli associated with food intake which is a circadian oscillator outside of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583447/etiology-of-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-patients-with-type-2-inflammatory-diseases
#12
Robert P Schleimer, Sergejs Berdnikovs
Epithelial barriers of the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and airway serve common critical functions, such as maintaining a physical barrier against environmental insults and allergens and providing a tissue interface balancing the communication between the internal and external environments. We now understand that in patients with allergic disease, regardless of tissue location, the homeostatic balance of the epithelial barrier is skewed toward loss of differentiation, reduced junctional integrity, and impaired innate defense...
June 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580282/hepatic-gene-therapy-rescues-high-fat-diet-responses-in-circadian-clock-mutant-mice
#13
Judit Meyer-Kovac, Isa Kolbe, Lea Ehrhardt, Alexei Leliavski, Jana Husse, Gabriela Salinas, Thomas Lingner, Anthony H Tsang, Johanna L Barclay, Henrik Oster
OBJECTIVE: Circadian Clock gene mutant mice show dampened 24-h feeding rhythms and an increased sensitivity to high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Restricting HFD access to the dark phase counteracts its obesogenic effect in wild-type mice. The extent to which altered feeding rhythms are causative for the obesogenic phenotype of Clock mutant mice, however, remains unknown. METHODS: Metabolic parameters of wild-type (WT) and Clock(Δ19) mutant mice (MT) were investigated under ad libitum and nighttime restricted HFD feeding...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579842/short-and-long-term-health-consequences-of-sleep-disruption
#14
REVIEW
Goran Medic, Micheline Wille, Michiel Eh Hemels
Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567500/treatment-of-sleep-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Amy W Amara, Lana M Chahine, Aleksandar Videnovic
Impaired sleep and alertness affect the majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, negatively impacting safety and quality of life. The etiology of impaired sleep-wake cycle in PD is multifactorial and encompasses medication side effects, nocturnal PD motor symptoms, and presence of co-existent sleep and neuropsychiatric disorders. The primary neurodegenerative process of PD involves brain regions that regulate the sleep-wake cycle, such as brainstem and hypothalamic nuclei. Sleep disorders in PD include insomnia, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and circadian disruption...
July 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560263/dopamine-d2-receptors-and-the-circadian-clock-reciprocally-mediate-antipsychotic-drug-induced-metabolic-disturbances
#16
Zachary Freyberg, Michael J McCarthy
Antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed medications, used for numerous psychiatric illnesses. However, antipsychotic drugs cause serious metabolic side effects that can lead to substantial weight gain and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. While individual drugs differ, all antipsychotic drugs may cause these important side effects to varying degrees. Given that the single unifying property shared by these medications is blockade of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, these receptors likely play a role in antipsychotic drug-induced metabolic side effects...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556462/gsk3-activity-regulates-rhythms-in-hippocampal-clock-gene-expression-and-synaptic-plasticity
#17
Rachel C Besing, Courtney O Rogers, Jodi R Paul, Lauren M Hablitz, Russell L Johnson, Lori L McMahon, Karen L Gamble
Hippocampal rhythms in clock gene expression, enzymatic activity, and long-term potentiation (LTP) are thought to underlie day-night differences in memory acquisition and recall. Glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3β) is a known regulator of hippocampal function, and inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β exhibits region-specific differences over the light-dark cycle. Here, we sought to determine whether phosphorylation of both GSK3α and GSK3β isoforms has an endogenous circadian rhythm in specific areas of the hippocampus and whether chronic inhibition or activation alters the molecular clock and hippocampal plasticity (LTP)...
May 27, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553673/fractal-regulation-in-temporal-activity-fluctuations-a-biomarker-for-circadian-control-and-beyond
#18
Peng Li, Tommy To, Wei-Yin Chiang, Carolina Escobar, Ruud M Buijs, Kun Hu
Motor activity in humans and other animals possesses fractal temporal fluctuations that co-exists with circadian or daily activity rhythms. The perturbations in fractal activity patterns are often accompanied by altered circadian/daily rhythms. The goal of this study is to test whether fractal regulation in motor activity provides physiological information independent from 24-h/circadian rhythmicity. To achieve the goal, we studied locomotor activity recordings of rats with the lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that are known to have diminished circadian/daily activity rhythms and perturbed fractal regulation...
2017: JSM Biomark
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551698/glucose-metabolism-during-rotational-shift-work-in-healthcare-workers
#19
Anu Sharma, Marcello C Laurenti, Chiara Dalla Man, Ron T Varghese, Claudio Cobelli, Robert A Rizza, Aleksey Matveyenko, Adrian Vella
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Shift-work is associated with circadian rhythm disruption and an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We sought to determine the effect of rotational shift-work on glucose metabolism in humans. METHODS: We studied 12 otherwise healthy nurses performing rotational shift-work using a randomised crossover study design. On each occasion, participants underwent an isotope-labelled mixed meal test during a simulated day shift and a simulated night shift, enabling simultaneous measurement of glucose flux and beta cell function using the oral minimal model...
May 27, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550253/is-sleep-disruption-a-risk-factor-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Arthur Cassa Macedo, Sara Balouch, Naji Tabet
Sleep disturbances are routinely encountered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and affect about 25-40% of patients in the mild-to-moderate stages of the disease. In many, sleep pathology may represent a symptom of the underlying neurodegeneration. However, a history of sleep disruption occurring years prior to onset of cognitive symptoms could represent a potential risk factor for AD. The aim of the present narrative review was to evaluate current evidence linking sleep disturbances with AD development and to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to this...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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