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Circadian disruption

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109907/circadian-gene-variants-and-breast-cancer
#1
Edyta Reszka, Monika Przybek, Olav Muurlink, Beata Peplonska
The endogenous and self-sustained circadian rhythm generated and maintained in suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues can coordinate various molecular, biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms resulting in the adaptation to environmental cues, e.g. light. Multifactorial breast cancer etiology also involves circadian gene alterations, especially among individuals exposed to light at night. Indeed, shift work that causes circadian disruption has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A...
January 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102700/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-deficient-mice-are-protected-from-high-fat-diet-induced-changes-in-metabolic-rhythms
#2
Cassie Jaeger, Canxin Xu, Mingwei Sun, Stacey Krager, Shelley A Tischkau
High fat diet (HFD) consumption alters the synchronized circadian timing system resulting in harmful loss, gain or shift of transcriptional oscillations. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) shares structural homology to clock genes, containing both PAS domains and basic helix-loop helix structural motifs, allowing for interaction with components of the primary circadian feedback loop. Activation of AhR alters circadian rhythmicity, primarily through inhibition of Clock/Bmal1-mediated regulation of Per1. AhR-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced metabolic dysfunction, exhibiting enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance...
January 19, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101904/functional-analysis-of-the-circadian-clock-gene-timeless-in-tribolium-castaneum
#3
Chengjun Li, Xiaopei Yun, Xiaojuan Yu, Bin Li
Circadian rhythms are endogenous oscillations with a period of about 24 h driven by a circadian clock. So far, the variable oscillators were designed in insects. To explore the circadian clock of Tribolium castaneum, we have cloned the clock gene timeless (Tctimeless). Its open reading frame is 3240 bp in length and consists of 10 exons. Tctimeless is highly expressed in the late pupal stage. Tissue-specific expression analysis in late adult stages revealed high expression of Tctimeless in the head, epidermis, fat body and accessory glands...
January 19, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100634/cryptochromes-regulate-igf-1-production-and-signaling-through-control-jak2-dependent-stat5b-phosphorylation
#4
Amol Chaudhari, Richa Gupta, Sonal Patel, Nikkhil Velingkaar, Roman Kondratov
Insulin like growth factor (IGF) signaling plays an important role in cell growth and proliferation and implicated in regulation of cancer, metabolism and aging. Here we report that IGF-1 level in blood and IGF-1 signaling demonstrates circadian rhythms. Circadian control occurs through Cryptochromes (CRYs), transcriptional repressors and components of the circadian clock. IGF-1 rhythms are disrupted in Cry deficient mice and IGF-1 level is reduced by 80% in these mice, which leads to reduced IGF signaling...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096235/role-of-cardiotrophin-1-in-the-regulation-of-metabolic-circadian-rhythms-and-adipose-core-clock-genes-in-mice-and-characterization-of-24-h-circulating-ct-1-profiles-in-normal-weight-and-overweight-obese-subjects
#5
Miguel López-Yoldi, Kimber L Stanhope, Marta Garaulet, X Guoxia Chen, Beatriz Marcos-Gómez, María Paz Carrasco-Benso, Eva M Santa Maria, Xavier Escoté, Vivien Lee, Marinelle V Nunez, Valentina Medici, Eduardo Martínez-Ansó, Neira Sáinz, Ana E Huerta, Laura M Laiglesia, Jesús Prieto, J Alfredo Martínez, Matilde Bustos, Peter J Havel, Maria J Moreno-Aliaga
Cardiotrophin (CT)-1 is a regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. In the present study, we analyzed whether CT-1 also acts to peripherally regulate metabolic rhythms and adipose tissue core clock genes in mice. Moreover, the circadian pattern of plasma CT-1 levels was evaluated in normal-weight and overweight subjects. The circadian rhythmicity of oxygen consumption rate (Vo2) was disrupted in aged-obese CT-1-deficient (CT-1(-/-)) mice (12 mo). Although circadian rhythms of Vo2 were conserved in young-lean CT-1(-/-) mice (2 mo), CT-1 deficiency caused a phase shift of the acrophase...
January 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090585/circadian-forced-desynchrony-of-the-master-clock-leads-to-phenotypic-manifestation-of-depression-in-rats
#6
Miriam Ben-Hamo, Tracy A Larson, Leanne S Duge, Carl Sikkema, Charles W Wilkinson, Horacio O de la Iglesia, Mónica M C González
In mammals, a master circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus maintains the phase coherence among a wide array of behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms. Affective disorders are typically associated with disruption of this fine-tuned "internal synchronization," but whether this internal misalignment is part of the physiopathology of mood disorders is not clear. To date, depressive-like behavior in animal models has been induced by methods that fail to specifically target the SCN regulation of internal synchronization as the mode to generate depression...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087238/lymphocyte-circadian-clocks-control-lymph-node-trafficking-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#7
David Druzd, Olga Matveeva, Louise Ince, Ute Harrison, Wenyan He, Christoph Schmal, Hanspeter Herzel, Anthony H Tsang, Naoto Kawakami, Alexei Leliavski, Olaf Uhl, Ling Yao, Leif Erik Sander, Chien-Sin Chen, Kerstin Kraus, Alba de Juan, Sophia Martina Hergenhan, Marc Ehlers, Berthold Koletzko, Rainer Haas, Werner Solbach, Henrik Oster, Christoph Scheiermann
Lymphocytes circulate through lymph nodes (LN) in search for antigen in what is believed to be a continuous process. Here, we show that lymphocyte migration through lymph nodes and lymph occurred in a non-continuous, circadian manner. Lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes peaked at night onset, with cells leaving the tissue during the day. This resulted in strong oscillations in lymphocyte cellularity in lymph nodes and efferent lymphatic fluid. Using lineage-specific genetic ablation of circadian clock function, we demonstrated this to be dependent on rhythmic expression of promigratory factors on lymphocytes...
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079162/glucose-tolerance-in-mice-exposed-to-light-dark-stimulus-patterns-mirroring-dayshift-and-rotating-shift-schedules
#8
Mariana G Figueiro, Leora Radetsky, Barbara Plitnick, Mark S Rea
Glucose tolerance was measured in (nocturnal) mice exposed to light-dark stimulus patterns simulating those that (diurnal) humans would experience while working dayshift (DSS) and 2 rotating night shift patterns (1 rotating night shift per week [RSS1] and 3 rotating night shifts per week [RSS3]). Oral glucose tolerance tests were administered at the same time and light phase during the third week of each experimental session. In contrast to the RSS1 and RSS3 conditions, glucose levels reduced more quickly for the DSS condition...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076761/timing-is-everything
#9
Anna Mae Diehl
In a recent issue of Cancer Cell, Kettner and colleagues (2016) link disruption of normal circadian rhythms to NASH and associated liver cancer, suggesting that molecular clocks, as well as their regulators and target genes, might provide novel therapeutic targets in these diseases.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072817/drosophila-clock-is-required-in-brain-pacemaker-neurons-to-prevent-premature-locomotor-aging-independently-of-its-circadian-function
#10
Alexandra Vaccaro, Abdul-Raouf Issa, Laurent Seugnet, Serge Birman, André Klarsfeld
Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0) and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064405/a-systematic-review-of-circadian-function-chronotype-and-chronotherapy-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Andrew N Coogan, Niall M McGowan
Reports of sleep disturbances in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common in both children and adults; however, the aetiology of such disturbances is poorly understood. One potentially important mechanism which may be implicated in disrupted sleep in ADHD is the circadian CLOCK, a known key regulator of the sleep/wake cycle. In this systematic review, we analyse the evidence for circadian rhythm changes associated with ADHD, as well as assessing evidence for therapeutic approaches involving the circadian CLOCK in ADHD...
January 7, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063156/effect-of-a-selective-sglt2-inhibitor-luseogliflozin-on-circadian-rhythm-of-sympathetic-nervous-function-and-locomotor-activities-in-metabolic-syndrome-rats
#12
Asadur Rahman, Yoshihide Fujisawa, Daisuke Nakano, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akira Nishiyama
Metabolic syndrome is often associated with disruption of circadian rhythm of systemic hemodynamics and cardiovascular disease. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of luseogliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, on circadian rhythm of sympathetic nervous function and locomotor activity (LA) in metabolic syndrome rats. The difference in the low frequency component of systolic blood pressure between the dark and light period significantly increased in the luseogliflozin-treated SHRcp. LA also increased in the dark period compared with the light period following luseogliflozin treatment...
January 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062690/cryptochrome-mediates-behavioral-executive-choice-in-response-to-uv-light
#13
Lisa S Baik, Keri J Fogle, Logan Roberts, Alexis M Galschiodt, Joshua A Chevez, Yocelyn Recinos, Vinh Nguy, Todd C Holmes
Drosophila melanogaster CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) mediates behavioral and electrophysiological responses to blue light coded by circadian and arousal neurons. However, spectroscopic and biochemical assays of heterologously expressed CRY suggest that CRY may mediate functional responses to UV-A (ultraviolet A) light as well. To determine the relative contributions of distinct phototransduction systems, we tested mutants lacking CRY and mutants with disrupted opsin-based phototransduction for behavioral and electrophysiological responses to UV light...
January 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060940/clock-genes-regulate-the-circadian-expression-of-piezo1-trpv4-connexin26-and-vnut-in-an-ex-vivo-mouse-bladder-mucosa
#14
Tatsuya Ihara, Takahiko Mitsui, Yuki Nakamura, Satoru Kira, Hiroshi Nakagomi, Norifumi Sawada, Yuri Hirayama, Keisuke Shibata, Eiji Shigetomi, Yoichi Shinozaki, Mitsuharu Yoshiyama, Karl-Erik Andersson, Atsuhito Nakao, Masayuki Takeda, Schuichi Koizumi
OBJECTIVES: ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice is an experimental model mouse for nocturia (NOC). Using the bladder mucosa obtained from ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice, we investigated the gene expression rhythms of mechanosensory cation channels such as transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) and Piezo1, and main ATP release pathways including vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) and Connexin26(Cx26), in addition to clock genes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight- to twelve-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (WT) and age- and sex-matched C57BL/6 ClockΔ19/Δ19 mice, which were bred under 12-h light/dark conditions for 2 weeks, were used...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060565/paraspeckles-as-rhythmic-nuclear-mrna-anchorages-responsible-for-circadian-gene-expression
#15
Manon Torres, Denis Becquet, Marie-Pierre Blanchard, Séverine Guillen, Bénédicte Boyer, Mathias Moreno, Jean-Louis Franc, Anne-Marie François-Bellan
Circadian clocks regulate rhythmic gene expression levels by means of mRNA oscillations that are mainly driven by post-transcriptional regulation. We identified a new post-transcriptional mechanism, which involves nuclear bodies called paraspeckles. Major components of paraspeckles including the long noncoding RNA Neat1, which is the structural component, and its major protein partners, as well as the number of paraspeckles, follow a circadian pattern in pituitary cells. Paraspeckles are known to retain within the nucleus RNAs containing inverted repeats of Alu sequences...
January 6, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052921/the-circadian-oscillator-of-the-cerebral-cortex-molecular-biochemical-and-behavioral-effects-of-deleting-the-arntl-clock-gene-in-cortical-neurons
#16
Tenna Bering, Mikkel Bloss Carstensen, Gitta Wörtwein, Pia Weikop, Martin Fredensborg Rath
A molecular circadian oscillator resides in neurons of the cerebral cortex, but its role is unknown. Using the Cre-LoxP method, we have here abolished the core clock gene Arntl in those neurons. This mouse represents the first model carrying a deletion of a circadian clock component specifically in an extrahypothalamic cell type of the brain. Molecular analyses of clock gene expression in the cerebral cortex of the Arntl conditional knockout mouse revealed disrupted circadian expression profiles, whereas clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus was still rhythmic, thus showing that Arntl is required for normal function of the cortical circadian oscillator...
January 3, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041661/constant-light-exposure-impairs-immune-tolerance-development-in-mice
#17
Hiromi Mizutani, Risa Tamagawa-Mineoka, Yoichi Minami, Kazuhiro Yagita, Norito Katoh
BACKGROUND: An intrinsic daily physiological rhythm called circadian rhythm has been indicated to affect the immune system and its related diseases. Immune tolerance development is closely associated with the onset of immunological disorders. However, the effect of circadian rhythm in the mechanisms of immune tolerance development has not yet been fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of circadian rhythm disruption on the development of immune tolerance by the perturbation of light environment, using a mouse model of neonatally induced cutaneous tolerance...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035185/mildly-increased-mechanical-nociceptive-sensitivity-in-rev-erb%C3%AE-knock-out-mice
#18
Jaehyun Lee, Hyoung-Gon Ko, Kyungjin Kim, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Nociception is one of the most complex senses that is affected not only by external stimulation but also internal conditions. Previous studies have suggested that circadian rhythm is important in modulating nociception. REV-ERBα knock-out (KO) mice have disrupted circadian rhythm and altered mood-related phenotypes. In this study, we examined the role of REV-ERBα in inflammatory nociception. We found that the nociceptive sensitivity of KO mice was partially enhanced in mechanical nociception. However, this partial alteration was independent of the circadian rhythm...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031289/attenuated-pupillary-light-responses-and-downregulation-of-opsin-expression-parallel-decline-in-circadian-disruption-in-two-different-mouse-models-of-huntington-s-disease
#19
Koliane Ouk, Steven Hughes, Carina A Pothecary, Stuart N Peirson, A Jennifer Morton
Circadian deficits in Huntington's disease (HD) are recapitulated in both fragment (R6/2) and full-length (Q175) mouse models of HD. Circadian rhythms are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the hypothalamus, which are primarily entrained by light detected by the retina. The SCN receives input from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that express the photopigment melanopsin, but also receive input from rods and cones. In turn, ipRGCs mediate a range of non-image forming responses to light including circadian entrainment and the pupillary light response (PLR)...
December 27, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017879/circadian-rhythms-time-restricted-feeding-and-healthy-aging
#20
REVIEW
Emily N C Manoogian, Satchidananda Panda
Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse these chronic diseases in experimental models...
December 23, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
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