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Sharon E Cox, Elizabeth A Ellins, Alphonce I Marealle, Charles R Newton, Deogratias Soka, Philip Sasi, Gian Luca Di Tanna, William Johnson, Julie Makani, Andrew M Prentice, Julian P Halcox, Fenella J Kirkham
BACKGROUND: Sickle-cell disease increases the risk of malnutrition. Low arginine and nitric oxide bioavailability are implicated in morbidity related to sickle-cell disease. Simple interventions are required, especially in low-income settings. We aimed to test the hypotheses that: (1) supplementary arginine, citrulline, and daily chloroquine increase bioavailable arginine and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD; maximal diameter change; FMDmax %), a measure of nitric oxide-dependent endothelial function; and (2) protein energy supplementation in the form of ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF) improves the height-for-age and body-mass index-for-age Z-scores in children with sickle-cell disease...
March 13, 2018: Lancet Haematology
Rajib Podder, Diane M DellaValle, Robert T Tyler, Raymond P Glahn, Elad Tako, Albert Vandenberg
Due to low Fe bioavailability and low consumption per meal, lentil must be fortified to contribute significant bioavailable Fe in the Bangladeshi diet. Moreover, since red lentil is dehulled prior to consumption, an opportunity exists at this point to fortify lentil with Fe. Thus, in the present study, lentil was Fe-fortified (using a fortificant Fe concentration of 2800 µg g-1 ) and used in 30 traditional Bangladeshi meals with broad differences in concentrations of iron, phytic acid (PA), and relative Fe bioavailability (RFeB%)...
March 15, 2018: Nutrients
Fernando A Poletta, Monica Rittler, Cesar Saleme, Hebe Campaña, Juan A Gili, Mariela S Pawluk, Lucas G Gimenez, Viviana R Cosentino, Eduardo E Castilla, Jorge S López-Camelo
BACKGROUND: Historically, neural tube defects (NTDs) have predominated in female infants but the reasons remain unclear. In South America, the pre- folic acid fortification (FAF) rates of NTDs were around 18/10,000 births for females and 12/10,000 births for males, with an estimated sex ratio (male/female) of 0.67. During the post- FAF period, unpublished routine reports have indicated changes in the sex ratio for these defects while some descriptive reports are controversial. To date and to our knowledge, however, no studies specifically focusing on these changes to test this hypothesis directly have been undertaken...
2018: PloS One
Sara Nejatinamini, Catherine Kubrak, Mirey Álvarez-Camacho, Vickie E Baracos, Sunita Ghosh, Wendy V Wismer, Vera C Mazurak
This study assessed dietary and micronutrient intakes of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients at key points in the disease trajectory and evaluated the contribution of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) to micronutrient intake. HNC patients (n = 114) completed a three-day dietary record and a tool to assess Nutrition Impact Scores (NIS) at baseline, post-treatment, and follow-up. Foods were classified into food categories. Micronutrient, protein, and energy intakes were compared to European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines for cancer patients...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Vijaya Kancherla, Sarah Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: Mandatory fortification of flour with folic acid has been proven to be a highly effective way to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly. Yet, over 100 countries worldwide do not implement this intervention. Our objectives were to identify countries with an immediate potential for mandatory fortification of wheat flour with folic acid and to estimate the number of preventable cases of spina bifida and anencephaly that would be averted each year through the intervention. METHODS: We examined folic acid fortification characteristics in countries as of September 2017...
March 13, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Lorenzo D Botto, Pierpaolo Mastroiacovo
Preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) easily qualifies as a high-value opportunity to improve childhood survival and health: the unmet need is significant (major preventable burden), the intervention is transformative (providing sufficient folic acid), and delivery strategies (e.g., fortification) are effective in low-resource countries. Yet, NTD prevention is lagging. Can public health surveillance help fix this problem? Critics contend that surveillance is largely unnecessary, that limited resources are best spent on interventions, and that surveillance is unrealistic in developing countries...
February 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Israel Macedo, Luis Pereira-da-Silva, Manuela Cardoso
OBJECTIVE:  To determine the associations of measured protein, energy, and protein-to-energy (PER) intakes with body composition in human milk (HM)-fed preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN:  Neonates born at < 33 gestational weeks were eligible. Standard fortification method with modular supplements was used and the HM composition was measured. The weight gain velocity was calculated, and body composition was assessed by air displacement plethysmography at 40 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA)...
February 2, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Huakang Tu, Colin P Dinney, Yuanqing Ye, H Barton Grossman, Seth P Lerner, Xifeng Wu
Background: Patients with cancer are highly concerned about food choices and dietary supplements that may affect their treatment outcomes. Excess folic acid (synthetic folate) from supplements or fortification can lead to accumulation of unmetabolized folic acid in the systemic circulation and urine and may promote cancer growth, especially among those with neoplastic alterations. Objective: We investigated the prospective association between synthetic compared with natural folate intake and clinical outcomes in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), which is a highly recurrent disease...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Aline Maire du Poset, Adrien Lerbret, Andrea Zitolo, Fabrice Cousin, Ali Assifaoui
We designed stable and highly reproducible hydrogels by external unidirectional diffusion of Fe2+ ions into aqueous solutions of polygalacturonate (polyGal) chains. The Fe2+ ions act as cross-linkers between the Gal units in such a way that both the molar ratio R ([Fe2+ ]/[Gal units] = 0.25) and the mesh size of the polyGal network at the local scale (ξ = 75 ± 5 Å) have constant values within the whole gel, as respectively determined by titration and Small Angle Neutron Scattering. From macroscopic point of view, there is a progressive decrease of polyGal concentration from the part of the gel formed in the early stages of the gelation process, which is homogeneous, transparent and whose Young modulus has a high value of ∼105  Pa, up to the part of the gel formed in the late stages, which is heterogeneous, highly turbid and has a much lower Young modulus of ∼103  Pa...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Safinaze El-Shibiny, Mona Abd El-Kader Mohamed Abd El-Gawad, Fayza Mohamed Assem, Samah Mosbah El-Sayed
BACKGROUND: Calcium is an essential element for the growth, activity, and maintenance of the human body. Eggshells are a waste product which has received growing interest as a cheap and effective source of dietary calcium. Yogurt is a food which can be fortified with functional additives, including calcium. The aim of this study was to produce yogurt with a high calcium content by fortification with nano-sized eggshell powder (nano-ESP). METHODS: Nano-sized ESP was prepared from pre-boiled and dried eggshell, using a ball mill...
January 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Steven W Bailey, June E Ayling
Despite efforts to increase folic acid (FA) intake, even within countries mandating FA fortification, there remain pregnant women with folate levels inadequate to minimize congenital disorders (e.g., of the neural tube, heart, and lip/palate). The pharmacokinetics of FA and [6S]-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) were examined to find a reliable and minimal dose for rapidly rescuing folate status prior to critical periods of embryonic development. Serum total folate increased much more rapidly over the first four days in insufficient women given 7...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Padmanabha Nandan, Arun Kumar Nayanatara, Roopesh Poojary, K Bhagyalakshmi, M Nirupama, Rekha D Kini
PURPOSE: Obesity in females is an emerging health problem. The consumption of MSG has been considered as a risk factor for obesity. The tastemakers in Chinese and fast foods, such as fish sauce and soy sauce, contain very high levels of glutamate. The deficiency of Vitamin D is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of co-administration of Vitamin D on body weight control in MSG-induced obese rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups equally...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Tahir Mehmood, Anwaar Ahmed, Asif Ahmad, Muhammad Sheeraz Ahmad, Mansur Abdullah Sandhu
In the present study, food grade mixed surfactant-based β-carotene nanoemulsions were prepared without using any co-surfactant. Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was used to investigate the effect of independent variables (surfactant concentration, ultrasonic homogenization time and oil content) on response variables. RSM analysis results revealed that experimental results were best fitted into a quadratic polynomial model with regression coefficient values of more than 0...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
James L Mills, Anne M Molloy, Edward H Reynolds
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Bouchra Sayed Ahmad, Thierry Talou, Evita Straumite, Martins Sabovics, Zanda Kruma, Zeinab Saad, Akram Hijazi, Othmane Merah
Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people's access to food. Cumin ( Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway ( Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations...
February 25, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Shirin Pourafshar, Kurt A Rosentrater, Padmanaban G Krishnan
Bread is one of the oldest foods known throughout history and even though it is one of the principal types of staple around the world, it usually lacks enough nutrients, including protein and fiber. As such, fortification is one of the best solutions to overcome this problem. Thus, the objective this study was to examine the effect of three levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) (0%, 10% and 20%) in conjunction with three levels of SSL (sodium stearoyl lactate) (0%, 2% and 5%) on physical and chemical properties of Barbari bread (traditional Iranian bread)...
March 1, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Surajit Debnath
Background: Coliforms colonize in dental plaques via oral route and may lead to systemic complications. Escherichia coli and its lipopolysaccharide-induced periodontitis is an emerging threat. Clinical management necessitates antibiotic regimens with risk of resistance and upsetting the gut. There is urgent need for better, sustainable, and economical alternative. Aim: To investigate the inhibition of coliforms, a potential periodontopathogen directly by Indian domestic curd (IDC) " in situ "...
September 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
Imran Taj Khan, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Ajmal, Sadaqat Ali
Effect of mango kernel fat (MKF) on antioxidant characteristics and lipolysis of Gouda cheese was investigated. Milk fat (3.5%) was partially replaced with MKF i.e. 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T1 , T2 , T3 and T4 ). Cheese prepared from 100% milk fat served as control. Cheese samples were ripened for 90 days at 6 ± 1 °C and analysed at 0, 45 and 90 days of ripening. Total phenolic contents of control, T1 , T2 , T3 and T4 were 14 ± 0.35, 129 ± 0.75, 188 ± 2.52, 267 ± 10.61 and 391 ± 8...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Jin-A Park, A M Abd El-Aty, Weijia Zheng, Seong-Kwan Kim, Sang-Hyun Cho, Jeong-Min Choi, Ahmet Hacımüftüo, Ji Hoon Jeong, Jing Wang, Jae-Han Shim, Ho-Chul Shin
A chromatographic method involving a single run was validated for the quantification of clanobutin, dichlorvos, and naftazone in products of animal origin. Pork, beef, chicken, milk, and egg samples were extracted with a solution of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile, defatted with n-hexane, centrifuged, and filtered prior to analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-/MS/MS). The analytes were separated on a C18 column using a solution of 0.1% formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate (A) and acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phase...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Kyoung Mi Moon, Bonggi Lee, Won-Kyung Cho, Bong-Seon Lee, Choon Young Kim, Jin Yeul Ma
Enzymatic browning is a major issue that needs to be solved in the food industry. Although swertiajaponin is a flavonoid rich in the whole herb of Swertia japonica that has been clinically used, its biological functions and applicat​ion in the foods have not been fully elucidated. Here, we showed that swertiajaponin efficiently blocked enzymatic browning in potatoes possibly by direct binding to and inactivating polyphenol oxidase. Furthermore, swertiajaponin showed potent antioxidant activity proven by markedly suppressed reactive oxygen species...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
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