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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777755/folic-acid-and-primary-prevention-of-neural-tube-defects-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Jan D van Gool, Herbert Hirche, Hildegard Lax, Luc De Schaepdrijver
With 4 mg folic acid daily, it may take 20 weeks to reach red-blood-cell folate levels between 1,050 and 1,340 nmol/L, optimal for reduction of the neural tube defect risk. Therefore, folic acid supplementation should be started 5-6 months before conception. The residual risk with optimal red-blood-cell folate levels is reportedly 4.5 per 10,000 total births. The residual risk in pooled data from countries with mandatory folic acid fortification is 7.5 per 10,000 pregnancies, regardless of pre-fortification rates...
May 16, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769085/contemporary-enteral-and-parenteral-nutrition-before-surgery-for-gastrointestinal-cancers-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Michal Jankowski, Manuela Las-Jankowska, Massaoud Sousak, Wojciech Zegarski
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal cancers are among the most recognised oncological diseases in well-developed countries. Tumours located in the digestive tract may cause the fast occurrence of malnutrition. MAIN TEXT: The perioperative period is a special time for systemic metabolism. Thanks to published guidelines, early universal control nutritional status before treatment, patients may have a chance to get suitable nutritional intervention. Although the first line of the intervention-nutritional consultation as well as the fortification of a diet and oral nutritional support (ONS)-is not debatable, in a case of inability of undergoing an oral feeding, the choice of the way of administration in patients before a surgery may represent a serious clinical obstacle...
May 16, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767700/effects-of-iodized-salt-and-iodine-supplements-on-prenatal-and-postnatal-growth-a-systematic-review
#3
Jessica Farebrother, Celeste E Naude, Liesl Nicol, Zhongna Sang, Zhenyu Yang, Pieter L Jooste, Maria Andersson, Michael B Zimmermann
Hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency can impair physical development, most visibly in the marked stunting of myxedematous cretinism caused by severe in utero iodine deficiency. Whether iodine repletion improves growth in noncretinous children is uncertain. Therefore, the aim of our systematic review was to assess the effects of iodine fortification or supplementation on prenatal and postnatal growth outcomes in noncretinous children. Following Cochrane methods and PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) reporting guidelines, we searched 10 databases including 2 Chinese databases (latest search February 2017)...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767699/impact-of-double-fortified-salt-with-iron-and-iodine-on-hemoglobin-anemia-and-iron-deficiency-anemia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
María J Ramírez-Luzuriaga, Leila M Larson, Venkatesh Mannar, Reynaldo Martorell
Double-fortified salt (DFS) containing iron and iodine has been proposed as a feasible and cost-effective alternative for iron fortification in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis from randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials to 1) assess the effect of DFS on biomarkers of iron status and the risk of anemia and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 2) evaluate differential effects of DFS by study type (efficacy or effectiveness), population subgroups, iron formulation (ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, and ferric pyrophosphate), iron concentration, duration of intervention, and study quality...
May 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767673/modeling-the-impact-of-folic-acid-fortification-and-supplementation-on-red-blood-cell-folate-concentrations-and-predicted-neural-tube-defect-risk-in-the-united-states-have-we-reached-optimal-prevention
#5
Krista S Crider, Yan Ping Qi, Owen Devine, Sarah C Tinker, Robert J Berry
Background: The US CDC and the Institute of Medicine recommend that women capable of becoming pregnant consume ≥400 µg synthetic folic acid/d to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). The United States has 3 sources of folic acid: fortified enriched cereal grain products (ECGPs), fortified ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals, and dietary supplements. Objective: Our objectives were as follows: 1) to estimate the usual daily folic acid intake and distributions of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations among women consuming folic acid from different sources; 2) to assess the usual daily total folic acid intake associated with optimal RBC folate concentrations for NTD prevention; 3) to predict NTD prevalence; and 4) to estimate the number of preventable folate-sensitive NTDs...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751504/emerging-evidence-of-thresholds-for-beneficial-effects-from-vitamin-d-supplementation
#6
REVIEW
Robert Scragg
Publications from clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation have increased substantially over the last 15 years. Yet, despite the growing number of randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses of these studies have drawn inconsistent conclusions. Many meta-analyses assume that vitamin D is a pharmacological agent, and give scant consideration of it being a nutrient. This limits their potential to detect beneficial effects in participants with vitamin D deficiency. An increasing body of evidence from both observational studies and clinical trials supports the presence of thresholds in vitamin D status below which disease risk increases and vitamin supplementation has beneficial effects...
May 3, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750126/vitamin-d-intake-among-premenopausal-women-living-in-jeddah-food-sources-and-relationship-to-demographic-factors-and-bone-health
#7
Tahani A Zareef, Robert T Jackson, Abdulkareem A Alkahtani
Background: Saudi women depend on food sources to maintain their serum 25(OH) D concentrations because covering by traditional clothing and time spent indoors limit their sun exposure. Little is known about vitamin D intake and its main food sources in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the association between vitamin D and calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in young women is not well researched. Objectives: To assess the adequacy of vitamin D intake among Saudi women as compared to the estimated average requirements (EARs), to identify dietary vitamin D sources, to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake, and to assess bone health and the association of calcium and vitamin D intake with BMD...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741697/metabolic-availability-of-the-limiting-amino-acids-lysine-and-tryptophan-in-cooked-white-african-cornmeal-assessed-in-healthy-young-men-using-the-indicator-amino-acid-oxidation-technique
#8
Mahroukh Rafii, Rajavel Elango, Ronald O Ball, Paul B Pencharz, Glenda Courtney-Martin
Background: Maize is a staple food in many regions of the world, particularly in Africa and Latin America. However, maize protein is limiting in the indispensable amino acids lysine and tryptophan, making its protein of poor quality. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the protein quality of white African cornmeal by determining the metabolic availability (MA) of lysine and tryptophan. Methods: To determine the MA of lysine, 4 amounts of l-lysine (10, 13, 16, and 18 mg ...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737370/method-development-and-validation-for-total-haloxyfop-analysis-in-infant-formulas-and-related-ingredient-matrices-using-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#9
Urairat Koesukwiwat, Lukas Vaclavik, Katerina Mastovska
According to the European Commission directive 2006/141/EC, haloxyfop residue levels should not exceed 0.003 mg/kg in ready-to-feed infant formula, and the residue definition includes sum of haloxyfop, its esters, salts, and conjugates expressed as haloxyfop. A simple method for total haloxyfop analysis in infant formula and related ingredient matrices was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The sample preparation consisted of an alkaline hydrolysis with methanolic sodium hydroxide to release haloxyfop (parent acid) from its bound forms prior to the extraction with acetonitrile...
May 8, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735102/effect-of-enzymatic-treatment-on-phytate-content-and-mineral-bioacessability-in-soy-drink
#10
Viviane Cristina Toreti Theodoropoulos, Mariana Amarante Turatti, Ralf Greiner, Gabriela Alves Macedo, Juliana Azevedo Lima Pallone
The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in soy drink after phytase treatment and correlate it with the content of myo-inositol phosphates. Samples of commercial soy drink products and one sample produced in the laboratory by maceration were evaluated. Phytase was applied using 300 U per liter in 60 min considering the phosphate release. The content of myo-inositol tris-, tetrakis-, pentakis and hexakisphosphate was not observed after phytase treatment...
June 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729915/effect-of-microencapsulated-ferrous-sulfate-particle-size-on-cheddar-cheese-composition-and-quality
#11
A Arce, Z Ustunol
Iron-fortified Cheddar cheese was manufactured with large microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (LMFS; 700-1,000 µm in diameter) or small microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (SMFS; 220-422 µm in diameter). Cheeses were aged 90 d. Compositional, chemical, and sensory characteristics were compared with control cheeses, which had no ferrous sulfate added. Compositional analysis included fat, protein, ash, moisture, as well as divalent cations iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Thiobarbituric acid reactive species assay was conducted to determine lipid oxidation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725585/influence-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-on-cancer-cells-metabolic-reprogramming
#12
REVIEW
Victoire Gouirand, Fabienne Guillaumond, Sophie Vasseur
As with castles, tumor cells are fortified by surrounding non-malignant cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts, immune cells, but also nerve fibers and extracellular matrix. In most cancers, this fortification creates a considerable solid pressure which limits oxygen and nutrient delivery to the tumor cells and causes a hypoxic and nutritional stress. Consequently, tumor cells have to adapt their metabolism to survive and proliferate in this harsh microenvironment. To satisfy their need in energy and biomass, tumor cells develop new capacities to benefit from metabolites of the microenvironment, either by their uptake through the macropinocytosis process or through metabolite transporters, or by a cross-talk with stromal cells and capture of extracellular vesicles that are released by the neighboring cells...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717180/zinc-use-efficiency-is-enhanced-in-wheat-through-nanofertilization
#13
Ashwin Dapkekar, Paresh Deshpande, Manoj D Oak, Kishore M Paknikar, Jyutika M Rajwade
Ferti-fortification of wheat with zinc, an essential micronutrient is one of the strategies for combating 'hidden hunger' in a large proportion of people all over the world. During fertilization, application of large quantities of micronutrients often results in nutrient wastage and subsequent environmental pollution. Here, we report zinc complexed chitosan nanoparticles (Zn-CNP) for ferti-fortification of durum wheat in field-scale experiments. The efficacy of Zn-CNP was assessed vis-à-vis conventionally applied ZnSO4 (0...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715603/pro-technological-and-functional-characterization-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-to-be-used-as-starters-for-hemp-cannabis-sativa-l-sourdough-fermentation-and-wheat-bread-fortification
#14
Luana Nionelli, Marco Montemurro, Erica Pontonio, Michela Verni, Marco Gobbetti, Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello
Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) flour, spontaneously fermented dough, and type I sourdough. Isolates were identified and further selected based on pro-technological, nutritional and functional properties. Lactobacillus plantarum/s5, Pediococcus acidilactici/s5, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides/s1 were used as mixed starter to produce hemp sourdough. Significant decreases of the concentration of phytic acid, condensed tannins, and total saponins were observed during fermentation...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705881/age-and-gender-differences-in-the-prevalence-and-correlates-of-vitamin-d-deficiency
#15
AlJohara M AlQuaiz, Ambreen Kazi, Mona Fouda, Nada Alyousefi
Younger adults and males had a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to older participants and females. Low intake of milk, central obesity, and lack of use of vitamin D supplements were associated with vitamin D deficiency, highlighting potentially important avenues for preventive intervention. BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a public health concern. This study's objective was to measure the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and determine its correlates among Saudi adults in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...
April 29, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705412/use-of-%C3%AE-glucan-from-spent-brewer-s-yeast-as-a-thickener-in-skimmed-yogurt-physicochemical-textural-and-structural-properties-related-to-sensory-perception
#16
Vassilios Raikos, Shannon B Grant, Helen Hayes, Viren Ranawana
Powdered β-glucan extracted from brewer's yeast (Yestimun, Leiber GmbH, Bramsche, Germany) was incorporated into skimmed-milk yogurt at varying concentrations (0.2-0.8% wt/wt) to investigate its potential application as a thickener. The effect of β-glucan fortification on the nutritional profile, microstructure, physicochemical properties, and texture of freshly prepared yogurts was investigated. Sensory evaluation was also conducted and was correlated with instrumental analysis. The addition of Yestimun significantly reduced the fermentation time of the yogurt mix from 4 h to 3 h...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704906/contemporary-challenges-to-iodine-status-and-nutrition-the-role-of-foods-dietary-recommendations-fortification-and-supplementation
#17
M Bouga, M E J Lean, E Combet
Iodine deficiency (ID) in women of childbearing age remains a global public health concern, mainly through its impact on fetal and infant neurodevelopment. While iodine status is improving globally, ID is still prevalent in pregnancy, when requirements increase. More than 120 countries have implemented salt iodisation and food fortification, strategies that have been partially successful. Supplementation during pregnancy is recommended in some countries and supported by the WHO when mandatory salt iodisation is not present...
April 29, 2018: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701895/interactions-between-flavonoid-rich-extracts-and-sodium-caseinate-modulate-protein-functionality-and-flavonoid-bioaccessibility-in-model-food-systems
#18
Jennifer L Elegbede, Min Li, Owen G Jones, Osvaldo H Campanella, Mario G Ferruzzi
With growing interest in formulating new food products with added protein and flavonoid-rich ingredients for health benefits, direct interactions between these ingredient classes becomes critical in so much as they may impact protein functionality, product quality, and flavonoids bioavailability. In this study, sodium caseinate (SCN)-based model products (foams and emulsions) were formulated with grape seed extract (GSE, rich in galloylated flavonoids) and green tea extract (GTE, rich in nongalloylated flavonoids), respectively, to assess changes in functional properties of SCN and impacts on flavonoid bioaccessibility...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696163/comparison-of-home-fortification-with-two-iron-formulations-among-kenyan-children-rationale-and-design-of-a-placebo-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#19
Emily M Teshome, Walter Otieno, Sofie R Terwel, Victor Osoti, Ayşe Y Demir, Pauline E A Andango, Andrew M Prentice, Hans Verhoef
Introduction: Home fortification powders containing iron and other micronutrients have been recommended by World Health Organisation to prevent iron deficiency anaemia in areas of high prevalence. There is evidence, however, that home fortification at this iron dose may cause gastrointestinal adverse events including diarrhoea. Providing a low dose of highly absorbable iron (3 mg iron as NaFeEDTA) may be safer because the decreased amount of iron in the gut lumen can possibly reduce the burden of these adverse effects whilst resulting in similar or higher amounts of absorbed iron...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689751/effect-of-standardized-feeding-protocol-on-nutrient-supply-and-postnatal-growth-of-preterm-infants-a-prospective-study
#20
Z Khan, N Morris, H Unterrainer, N Haiden, S J Holasek, B Urlesberger
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is a medical emergency and it is becoming evident that adequate nutrition starting in the first hours of life is of major importance for short and even more so for long-term health outcomes of the premature newborn. The aim was to analyze postnatal nutrient supply and growth patterns of preterm infants in response to a standardized feeding protocol during stay at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at NICU, Children Hospital Graz...
2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
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