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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538662/maternal-factors-that-induce-epigenetic-changes-contribute-to-neurological-disorders-in-offspring
#1
REVIEW
Avijit Banik, Deepika Kandilya, Seshadri Ramya, Walter Stünkel, Yap Seng Chong, S Thameem Dheen
It is well established that the regulation of epigenetic factors, including chromatic reorganization, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation, is critical for the normal development and functioning of the human brain. There are a number of maternal factors influencing epigenetic pathways such as lifestyle, including diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, as well as age and infections (viral or bacterial). Genetic and metabolic alterations such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and thyroidism alter epigenetic mechanisms, thereby contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) such as embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), autism, Down's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and later onset of neuropsychological deficits...
May 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538641/prehospital-plasma-resuscitation-associated-with-improved-neurologic-outcomes-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Matthew C Hernandez, Cornelius A Thiels, Johnathon M Aho, Elizabeth B Habermann, Martin D Zielinski, James A Stubbs, Donald H Jenkins, Scott P Zietlow
INTRODUCTION: Trauma related hypotension and coagulopathy worsen secondary brain injury in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Early damage control resuscitation with blood products may mitigate hypotension and coagulopathy. Preliminary data suggest resuscitation with plasma in large animals improve neurologic function after TBI; however, data in humans are lacking. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all poly-trauma patients age >15 years with head injuries undergoing prehospital resuscitation with blood products at a single level I trauma center from 01/2002 to 12/2013...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538519/expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factors-neurotrophin-3-and-neurotrophin-4-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-during-heroin-dependency-and-withdrawal
#3
Yixin Li, Baijuan Xia, Rongrong Li, Dan Yin, Yanlin Wang, Wenmei Liang
Neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), have been implicated in the modulation of heroin dependency. This study was designed to explore the expression alterations of BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in the context of heroin dependence and withdrawal in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc). Heroin dependence was induced by a progressive intraperitoneal treatment of heroin. The results showed that the expression levels of BDNF and NT-4 were significantly decreased in the NAc of rats with heroin addiction in comparison with the control group, whereas there was a significant increase in BDNF and NT-4 expressions in the groups of rats with both naloxone-induced and spontaneous withdrawal...
May 19, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535548/is-traumatic-and-non-traumatic-neck-pain-associated-with-brain-alterations-a-systematic-review
#4
Robby DePauw, Iris Coppieters, Mira Meeus, Karen Caeyenberghs, Lieven Danneels, Barbara Cagnie
BACKGROUND: Chronic neck pain affects 50% - 85% of people who have experienced an acute episode. This transition and the persistence of chronic complaints are believed to be mediated by brain alterations among different central mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to systematically review and critically appraise the current existing evidence regarding structural and functional brain alterations in patients with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and idiopathic neck pain (INP)...
May 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535372/a-brain-region-specific-neural-pathway-regulating-germinal-matrix-angiogenesis
#5
Shang Ma, Devi Santhosh, Peeyush Kumar T, Zhen Huang
Intimate communication between neural and vascular cells is critical for normal brain development and function. Germinal matrix (GM), a key primordium for the brain reward circuitry, is unique among brain regions for its distinct pace of angiogenesis and selective vulnerability to hemorrhage during development. A major neonatal condition, GM hemorrhage can lead to cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Here we identify a brain-region-specific neural progenitor-based signaling pathway dedicated to regulating GM vessel development...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535307/intergenerational-impact-of-paternal-lifetime-exposures-to-both-folic-acid-deficiency-and-supplementation-on-reproductive-outcomes-and-imprinted-gene-methylation
#6
Lundi Ly, Donovan Chan, Mahmoud Aarabi, Mylène Landry, Nathalie A Behan, Amanda J MacFarlane, Jacquetta Trasler
STUDY QUESTION: Do paternal exposures to folic acid deficient (FD), and/or folic acid supplemented (FS) diets, throughout germ cell development adversely affect male germ cells and consequently offspring health outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Male mice exposed over their lifetimes to both FD and FS diets showed decreased sperm counts and altered imprinted gene methylation with evidence of transmission of adverse effects to the offspring, including increased postnatal-preweaning mortality and variability in imprinted gene methylation...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535304/the-interplay-of-micrornas-in-the-inflammatory-mechanisms-following-ischemic-stroke
#7
Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam, William Winlow, Maryam Farzaneh
Immunity and inflammation are important parameters of the pathophysiology of stroke, a destructive illness that is the second most common cause of death worldwide. Following ischemic stroke, neuroinflammation plays a critical role in neurodegeneration and brain injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenously expressed, noncoding RNA molecules that function to inhibit mRNA translation. Recent studies demonstrate that miRNAs are key regulators of inflammatory processes contributing to ischemic stroke injuries...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534507/cecr1-mediated-cross-talk-between-macrophages-and-vascular-mural-cells-promotes-neovascularization-in-malignant-glioma
#8
C Zhu, I Chrifi, D Mustafa, M van der Weiden, P J M Leenen, D J Duncker, J M Kros, C Cheng
Glioblastomas (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM) are most malignant brain tumors characterized by profound vascularization. The activation of macrophages strongly contributes to tumor angiogenesis during GBM development. Previously, we showed that extracellular adenosine deaminase protein Cat Eye Syndrome Critical Region Protein 1 (CECR1) is highly expressed by M2-like macrophages in GBM where it defines macrophage M2 polarization and contributes to tumor expansion. In this study, the effect of CECR1 in macrophages on tumor angiogenesis was investigated...
May 22, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533754/the-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-mas-receptor-axis-pleiotropic-roles-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Juanjuan Xu, Jinshuo Fan, Feng Wu, Qi Huang, Mengfei Guo, Zhilei Lv, Jieli Han, Limin Duan, Guorong Hu, Lian Chen, Tingting Liao, Wanli Ma, Xiaonan Tao, Yang Jin
Cancer remains one of the most common causes of death and disability and represents a major economic burden in industrialized nations. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been well-recognized as one of the most important regulators of both normal and pathological physiological processes in the brain, kidney, heart, and blood vessels. The activation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mitochondrial assembly receptor [ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR] axis, which is one component of the RAS, has recently been identified as a critical component of pulmonary systems, gastric mucosa, and cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533515/perivascular-aqp4-dysregulation-in-the-hippocampal-ca1-area-after-traumatic-brain-injury-is-alleviated-by-adenosine-a2a-receptor-inactivation
#10
Zi-Ai Zhao, Ping Li, Shi-Yang Ye, Ya-Lei Ning, Hao Wang, Yan Peng, Nan Yang, Yan Zhao, Zhuo-Hang Zhang, Jiang-Fan Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce cognitive dysfunction due to the regional accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (p-tau). However, the factors that cause p-tau to concentrate in specific brain regions remain unclear. Here, we show that AQP4 polarization in the perivascular astrocytic end feet was impaired after TBI, which was most prominent in the ipsilateral brain tissue surrounding the directly impacted region and the contralateral hippocampal CA1 area and was accompanied by increased local p-tau, changes in dendritic spine density and morphology, and upregulation of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533056/white-matter-damage-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-role-for-damage-associated-molecular-patterns
#11
REVIEW
Molly Braun, Kumar Vaibhav, Nancy M Saad, Sumbul Fatima, John R Vender, Babak Baban, Md Nasrul Hoda, Krishnan M Dhandapani
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and long-term morbidity worldwide. Despite decades of pre-clinical investigation, therapeutic strategies focused on acute neuroprotection failed to improve TBI outcomes. This lack of translational success has necessitated a reassessment of the optimal targets for intervention, including a heightened focus on secondary injury mechanisms. Chronic immune activation correlates with progressive neurodegeneration for decades after TBI; however, significant challenges remain in functionally and mechanistically defining immune activation after TBI...
May 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532644/increasing-gaba-reverses-age-related-alterations-in-excitatory-receptive-fields-and-intensity-coding-of-auditory-midbrain-neurons%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-aged-mice
#12
Elliott J Brecht, Kathy Barsz, Benjamin Gross, Joseph P Walton
A key feature of age-related hearing loss is a reduction in the expression of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central auditory system. This loss is partially responsible for changes in central auditory processing, as inhibitory receptive fields play a critical role in shaping neural responses to sound stimuli. Vigabatrin (VGB), an antiepileptic agent that irreversibly inhibits γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase, leads to increased availability of GABA throughout the brain. This study used multi-channel electrophysiology measurements to assess the excitatory frequency response areas in old CBA mice to which VGB had been administered...
April 12, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531990/safety-protocol-for-the-gold-nanoparticles-administration-in-rats
#13
Alexandre Pastoris Muller, Gabriela Kozuchovski Ferreira, Sabrina da Silva, Renata Tiscoski Nesi, Gustavo de Bem Silveira, Carolini Mendes, Ricardo A Pinho, Marcos Marques da Silva Paula, Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, toxicity is still a concern; therefore, it is critical to study both the therapeutic and toxic properties of GNPs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the intraperitoneal administration of GNPs (20nm, at a concentration of 2.5mg/L for 21days) every 24 or 48h on oxidative stress, antioxidant status, and electron chain transport (ETC) in the brain. Liver histology and blood marker analyses were conducted to establish a time routine of GNP administration...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531831/workflow-methodology-for-rat-brain-metabolome-exploration-using-nmr-lc-ms-and-gc-ms-analytical-platforms
#14
Binta Diémé, Antoine Lefèvre, Lydie Nadal-Desbarats, Laurent Galineau, Blandine Madji Hounoum, Frédéric Montigny, Hélène Blasco, Christian R Andres, Patrick Emond, Sylvie Mavel
We developed a multi-platform approach for the metabolome exploration of rat brain tissue, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The critical steps for metabolite exploration of cerebral tissues are tissue lysis and metabolites extraction. We first evaluated the impact of freeze-drying compared to wet tissue metabolites extraction using NMR and LC-MS with a reversed phase liquid chromatography...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531764/disrupted-resting-brain-graph-measures-in-individuals-at-high-risk-for-alcoholism
#15
Bharath Holla, Rajanikant Panda, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bharat Biswal, Rose Dawn Bharath, Vivek Benegal
Familial susceptibility to alcoholism is likely to be linked to the externalizing diathesis seen in high-risk offspring from high-density alcohol use disorder (AUD) families. The present study aimed at comparing resting brain functional connectivity and their association with externalizing symptoms and alcoholism familial density in 40 substance-naive high-risk (HR) male offspring from high-density AUD families and 30 matched healthy low-risk (LR) males without a family history of substance dependence using graph theory-based network analysis...
May 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529872/functional-network-changes-and-cognitive-control-in-schizophrenia
#16
Kimberly L Ray, Tyler A Lesh, Amber M Howell, Taylor P Salo, J Daniel Ragland, Angus W MacDonald, James M Gold, Steven M Silverstein, Deana M Barch, Cameron S Carter
Cognitive control is a cognitive and neural mechanism that contributes to managing the complex demands of day-to-day life. Studies have suggested that functional impairments in cognitive control associated brain circuitry contribute to a broad range of higher cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. To examine this issue, we assessed functional connectivity networks in healthy adults and individuals with schizophrenia performing tasks from two distinct cognitive domains that varied in demands for cognitive control, the RiSE episodic memory task and DPX goal maintenance task...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529599/snail-homolog-1-is-involved-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-like-processes-in-human-glioblastoma-cells
#17
Caspar D Kühnöl, Carina Würfel, Martin S Staege, Christof Kramm
Despite advancements in neurosurgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, the outcome of patients with glioblastoma remains poor. The migration of tumor cells from the primary tumor site with subsequent invasion of these cells into the surrounding normal brain tissue is frequently responsible for relapse and treatment failure. The present study hypothesized that snail homolog 1 (SNAI1), a factor critically involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human carcinoma cells, may also contribute to an invasive EMT-like phenotype of glioblastoma cells...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529112/myeloid-differentiation-factor-88-is-up-regulated-in-epileptic-brain-and-contributes-to-experimental-seizures-in-rats
#18
Na Wang, Xiong Han, Haipeng Liu, Ting Zhao, Jie Li, Yan Feng, Xiujuan Mi, Yanke Zhang, Yanan Chen, Xuefeng Wang
Accumulating evidence supports that activation of inflammatory pathways is a crucial factor contributing to the pathogenesis of seizures. In particular, the activation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) system exerts proconvulsant effects in a large variety of seizure models. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a critical adaptor protein in the signaling cascade elicited by IL-1β. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of MyD88 in rat models of seizures and in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to study the role of MyD88 in epileptic seizures...
May 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529059/a-review-of-human-neuroimaging-investigations-involved-with-central-autonomic-regulation-of-baroreflex-mediated-cardiovascular-control
#19
Derek S Kimmerly
Effective regulation of central blood volume and arterial pressure is critical for optimal cardiovascular homeostasis. Inadequate regulation of mean arterial pressure has important pathophysiological implications including syncope, end organ damage, and stroke. Such regulation requires appropriate central integration of barosensory afferents and reflex autonomic control of the heart and blood vessels. The neural pathways involved with the baroreflex include brainstem nuclei that receive modulatory input from higher brain centres...
May 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529046/targeted-downregulation-of-dmyc-restricts-neurofibrillary-tangles-mediated-pathogenesis-of-human-neuronal-tauopathies-in-drosophila
#20
Soram Idiyasan Chanu, Surajit Sarkar
Formation of Neurofibrillary Tangles (NFTs) in neuronal tissues has been implicated as the hallmark of disease pathogenesis and tau mediated toxicity in human and mammalian models. However, previous studies had failed to correlate NFT formation with pathogenesis of human neuronal tauopathies in Drosophila disease models. Though, a recent report suggests formation of tau mediated NFTs like structures confined to dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila adult brain, by utilizing various approaches, we demonstrate distinct and recurrent formation of NFTs in Drosophila neuronal tissues upon expression of wild type or mutant isoforms of human tau, and this appears as the key mediator of the pathogenesis of human neuronal tauopathy in Drosophila...
May 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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