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Brain AND criticality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471213/cerebellar-gray-matter-explains-bimanual-coordination-performance-in-children-and-older-adults
#1
Matthieu P Boisgontier, Boris Cheval, Peter van Ruitenbeek, Koen Cuypers, Inge Leunissen, Stefan Sunaert, Raf Meesen, Hamed Zivari Adab, Olivier Renaud, Stephan P Swinnen
The cerebellum appears to undergo late maturation in children and early decline at older age. Whether these age-related changes affect bimanual coordination performance remains unclear at best. Here, we identified the ages at which bimanual coordination performance stops improving and starts declining. In an independent cohort, we defined brain regions of interest involved in bimanual coordination using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We used these regions of interest to investigate the extent to which the gray matter of cerebellar and other brain regions explains bimanual coordination performance from 10- to 80-year-olds...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470990/lis1-dysfunction-leads-to-traction-force-reduction-and-cytoskeletal-disorganization-during-cell-migration
#2
Guo-Wei Jheng, Sung Sik Hur, Chia-Ming Chang, Chun-Chieh Wu, Jia-Shing Cheng, Hsiao-Hui Lee, Bon-Chu Chung, Yang-Kao Wang, Keng-Hui Lin, Juan C Del Álamo, Shu Chien, Jin-Wu Tsai
Cell migration is a critical process during development, tissue repair, and cancer metastasis. It requires complex processes of cell adhesion, cytoskeletal dynamics, and force generation. Lis1 plays an important role in the migration of neurons, fibroblasts and other cell types, and is essential for normal development of the cerebral cortex. Mutations in human LIS1 gene cause classical lissencephaly (smooth brain), resulting from defects in neuronal migration. However, how Lis1 may affect force generation in migrating cells is still not fully understood...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470677/a-critical-view-of-the-quest-for-brain-structural-markers-of-albert-einstein-s-special-talents-a-pot-of-gold-under-the-rainbow
#3
Jorge A Colombo
Assertions regarding attempts to link glial and macrostructural brain events with cognitive performance regarding Albert Einstein, are critically reviewed. One basic problem arises from attempting to draw causal relationships regarding complex, delicately interactive functional processes involving finely tuned molecular and connectivity phenomena expressed in cognitive performance, based on highly variable brain structural events of a single, aged, formalin fixed brain. Data weaknesses and logical flaws are considered...
February 22, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470463/monitoring-intracellular-nanomolar-calcium-using-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging
#4
Kaiyu Zheng, Thomas P Jensen, Dmitri A Rusakov
Nanomolar-range fluctuations of intracellular [Ca2+ ] are critical for brain cell function but remain difficult to measure. We have advanced a microscopy technique to monitor intracellular [Ca2+ ] in individual cells in acute brain slices (also applicable in vivo) using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of the Ca2+ -sensitive fluorescent indicator Oregon Green BAPTA1 (OGB-1). The OGB-1 fluorescence lifetime is sensitive to [Ca2+ ] within the 10-500 nM range but not to other factors such as viscosity, temperature, or pH...
March 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469952/profiling-and-imaging-of-phospholipids-in-brains-of-abcd1-deficient-mice
#5
Kotaro Hama, Yuko Fujiwara, Masashi Morita, Fumiyoshi Yamazaki, Yuko Nakashima, Shiro Takei, Shigeo Takashima, Mitsutoshi Setou, Nobuyuki Shimozawa, Tsuneo Imanaka, Kazuaki Yokoyama
ABCD1 is a gene responsible for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), and is critical for the transport of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) into peroxisomes and subsequent β-oxidation. VLCFA-containing lipids accumulate in X-ALD patients, although the effect of ABCD1-deficiency on each lipid species in the central nervous system has not been fully characterized. In this study, each phospholipid and lysophospholipid species in Abcd1-deficient mice brains were profiled by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
February 22, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468672/ca-v-3-2-drives-sustained-burst-firing-which-is-critical-for-absence-seizure-propagation-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#6
Stuart M Cain, John R Tyson, Hyun-Beom Choi, Rebecca Ko, Paulo J C Lin, Jeffrey M LeDue, Kim L Powell, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Ravi L Rungta, Yi Yang, Pieter R Cullis, Terence J O'Brien, Brian A MacVicar, Terrance P Snutch
OBJECTIVE: Genetic alterations have been identified in the CACNA1H gene, encoding the CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channel in patients with absence epilepsy, yet the precise mechanisms relating to seizure propagation and spike-wave-discharge (SWD) pacemaking remain unknown. Neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) express high levels of CaV 3.2 calcium channels, and we investigated whether a gain-of-function mutation in the Cacna1h gene in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) contributes to seizure propagation and pacemaking in the TRN...
February 21, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468189/cytosolic-atp-relieves-voltage-dependent-inactivation-of-t-type-calcium-channels-and-facilitates-excitability-of-neurons-in-the-rat-central-medial-thalamus
#7
Tamara Timic Stamenic, Slobodan M Todorovic
The central medial nucleus (CeM) is a part of the intralaminar thalamus, which is involved in the control of arousal and sensory processing. However, ionic conductances and mechanisms that regulate the activity of the CeM are not well studied. Here, we used in vitro electrophysiology in acute brain slices from adolescent rats to demonstrate that T-type calcium currents (T-currents) are prominent in the majority of the studied CeM neurons and are critical determinants of low-threshold calcium spikes (LTSs), which in turn regulate excitability of these neurons...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468184/translational-potential-of-human-brain-organoids
#8
Alfred X Sun, Huck-Hui Ng, Eng-King Tan
The recent technology of 3D cultures of cellular aggregates derived from human stem cells have led to the emergence of tissue-like structures of various organs including the brain. Brain organoids bear molecular and structural resemblance with developing human brains, and have been demonstrated to recapitulate several physiological and pathological functions of the brain. Here we provide an overview of the development of brain organoids for the clinical community, focusing on the current status of the field with an critical evaluation of its translational value...
February 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467717/thioredoxin-1-protects-spinal-cord-from-demyelination-induced-by-methamphetamine-through-suppressing-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-inflammation
#9
Lihua Yang, Yinli Guo, Mengbin Huang, Xiaoli Wu, Xiang Li, Guobing Chen, Ye Li, Jie Bai
Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant abused around the world. Emerging evidence indicates that METH causes brain damage. However, there are very few reports on METH-induced demyelination. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox regulating protein and plays the roles in protecting neurons from various stresses. However, whether Trx-1 resists demyelination induced by METH has not been reported. In this study, we found that METH-induced thin myelin sheaths in spinal cord, whereas Trx-1 overexpression transgenic (TG) mice restored the myelin sheaths thickness...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467635/oscillatory-brain-responses-reflect-anticipation-during-comprehension-of-speech-acts-in-spoken-dialog
#10
Rosa S Gisladottir, Sara Bögels, Stephen C Levinson
Everyday conversation requires listeners to quickly recognize verbal actions, so-called speech acts , from the underspecified linguistic code and prepare a relevant response within the tight time constraints of turn-taking. The goal of this study was to determine the time-course of speech act recognition by investigating oscillatory EEG activity during comprehension of spoken dialog. Participants listened to short, spoken dialogs with target utterances that delivered three distinct speech acts (Answers, Declinations, Pre-offers)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467621/immunosignals-of-oligodendrocyte-markers-and-myelin-associated-proteins-are-critically-affected-after-experimental-stroke-in-wild-type-and-alzheimer-modeling-mice-of-different-ages
#11
Dominik Michalski, Anna L Keck, Jens Grosche, Henrik Martens, Wolfgang Härtig
Because stroke therapies are still limited and patients are often concerned by long-term sequelae with significant impairment of daily living, elaborated neuroprotective strategies are needed. During the last decades, research substantially improved the knowledge on cellular pathologies responsible for stroke-related tissue damage. In this context, the neurovascular unit (NVU) concept has been established, summarizing the affections of neurons, associated astrocytes and the vasculature. Although oligodendrocytes were already identified to play a major role in other brain pathologies, their role during stroke evolution and long-lasting tissue damage is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467615/decoding-english-alphabet-letters-using-eeg-phase-information
#12
YiYan Wang, Pingxiao Wang, Yuguo Yu
Increasing evidence indicates that the phase pattern and power of the low frequency oscillations of brain electroencephalograms (EEG) contain significant information during the human cognition of sensory signals such as auditory and visual stimuli. Here, we investigate whether and how the letters of the alphabet can be directly decoded from EEG phase and power data. In addition, we investigate how different band oscillations contribute to the classification and determine the critical time periods. An English letter recognition task was assigned, and statistical analyses were conducted to decode the EEG signal corresponding to each letter visualized on a computer screen...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467613/exercise-mediated-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-via-bdnf
#13
REVIEW
Patrick Z Liu, Robin Nusslock
Exercise is known to have numerous neuroprotective and cognitive benefits, especially pertaining to memory and learning related processes. One potential link connecting them is exercise-mediated hippocampal neurogenesis, in which new neurons are generated and incorporated into hippocampal circuits. The present review synthesizes the extant literature detailing the relationship between exercise and hippocampal neurogenesis, and identifies a key molecule mediating this process, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467603/cognitive-functions-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders-involving-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-mediodorsal-thalamus
#14
REVIEW
Zakaria Ouhaz, Hugo Fleming, Anna S Mitchell
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD) has been implicated in executive functions (such as planning, cognitive control, working memory, and decision-making) because of its significant interconnectivity with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Yet, whilst the roles of the PFC have been extensively studied, how the MD contributes to these cognitive functions remains relatively unclear. Recently, causal evidence in monkeys has demonstrated that in everyday tasks involving rapid updating (e.g., while learning something new, making decisions, or planning the next move), the MD and frontal cortex are working in close partnership...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467568/commentary-addressing-racial-disparities-in-stroke-the-wide-spectrum-investigation-of-stroke-outcome-disparities-on-multiple-levels-wissdom
#15
EDITORIAL
Robert J Adams, Charles Ellis, Gayenell Magwood, Mark S Kindy, Leonardo Bonilha, Daniel T Lackland
Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are well-established in the United States but the underlying causes are not well-understood. The typical assumption that racial-ethnic disparities in stroke recovery are explained by health care access inequities may be simplistic as access to stroke-related rehabilitation, for example, does not adequately explain the observed disparities. To approach the problem in a more comprehensive fashion, the Wide Spectrum Investigation of Stroke Outcome Disparities on Multiple Levels (WISSDOM) was developed to bring together scientists from Regenerative Medicine, Neurology, Rehabilitation, and Nursing to examine disparities in stroke "recovery...
2018: Ethnicity & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467426/neuronal-avalanche-dynamics-indicates-different-universality-classes-in-neuronal-cultures
#16
Mohammad Yaghoubi, Ty de Graaf, Javier G Orlandi, Fernando Girotto, Michael A Colicos, Jörn Davidsen
Neuronal avalanches have become an ubiquitous tool to describe the activity of large neuronal assemblies. The emergence of scale-free statistics with well-defined exponents has led to the belief that the brain might operate near a critical point. Yet not much is known in terms of how the different exponents arise or how robust they are. Using calcium imaging recordings of dissociated neuronal cultures we show that the exponents are not universal, and that significantly different exponents arise with different culture preparations, leading to the existence of different universality classes...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467228/brain-cytoplasmic-rna-1-suppresses-smooth-muscle-differentiation-and-vascular-development-in-mice
#17
Yung-Chun Wang, Ya-Hui Chuang, Qiang Shao, Jian-Fu Chen, Shi-You Chen
The cardiovascular system develops during the early stages of embryogenesis, and differentiation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is essential for that process. SMC differentiation is critically regulated by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) signaling, but other regulators may also play a role. For example, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate various cellular activities and events, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, whether lncRNAs also regulate SMC differentiation remains largely unknown...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466806/vitamin-d-and-its-role-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#18
Lyndsey E Stessman, Eric S Peeples
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that vitamin D plays an important role in many adult neurologic disorders, but is also critical in neuronal development and pruning in the neonatal and pediatric populations. Neonates are at a particularly high risk of vitamin D deficiency, in part due to the high prevalence of maternal deficiency during pregnancy. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated that infants born to vitamin D-deficient mothers are at a high risk of developing neonatal brain injury, and recent clinical studies have shown that neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) tend to be vitamin D-deficient...
February 21, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466735/noninflammatory-changes-of-microglia-are-sufficient-to-cause-epilepsy
#19
Xiaofeng Zhao, Yuan Liao, Shannon Morgan, Ramkumar Mathur, Paul Feustel, Joseph Mazurkiewicz, Jiang Qian, Julia Chang, Gary W Mathern, Matthew A Adamo, Anthony L Ritaccio, Michael Gruenthal, Xinjun Zhu, Yunfei Huang
Microglia are well known to play a critical role in maintaining brain homeostasis. However, their role in epileptogenesis has yet to be determined. Here, we demonstrate that elevated mTOR signaling in mouse microglia leads to phenotypic changes, including an amoeboid-like morphology, increased proliferation, and robust phagocytosis activity, but without a significant induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We further provide evidence that these noninflammatory changes in microglia disrupt homeostasis of the CNS, leading to reduced synapse density, marked microglial infiltration into hippocampal pyramidal layers, moderate neuronal degeneration, and massive proliferation of astrocytes...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466709/gastrointestinal-hormones-in-regulation-of-memory
#20
REVIEW
Anwesha Mandal, Kedar S Prabhavalkar, Lokesh K Bhatt
The connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain has been established many years ago. This relation is termed the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA is a bidirectional communication which not only regulates gastrointestinal homeostasis but is also linked with higher emotional and cognitive functions. Hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, nutrient partitioning and control of feeding behaviors. Various gut hormones are released inside the gastrointestinal tract on food intake...
February 18, 2018: Peptides
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