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Brain AND criticality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823028/backbone-resonance-assignments-of-complexes-of-human-voltage-dependent-sodium-channel-nav1-2-iq-motif-peptide-bound-to-apo-calmodulin-and-to-the-c-domain-fragment-of-apo-calmodulin
#1
Ryan Mahling, Adina M Kilpatrick, Madeline A Shea
Human voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.2 has a single pore-forming α-subunit and two transmembrane β-subunits. Expressed primarily in the brain, NaV1.2 is critical for initiation and propagation of action potentials. Milliseconds after the pore opens, sodium influx is terminated by inactivation processes mediated by regulatory proteins including calmodulin (CaM). Both calcium-free (apo) CaM and calcium-saturated CaM bind tightly to an IQ motif in the C-terminal tail of the α-subunit. Our thermodynamic studies and solution structure (2KXW) of a C-domain fragment of apo (13)C,(15)N- CaM (CaMC) bound to an unlabeled peptide with the sequence of rat NaV1...
August 19, 2017: Biomolecular NMR Assignments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822817/rosiglitazone-promotes-cardiac-hypertrophy-and-alters-chromatin-remodeling-in-isolated-cardiomyocytes
#2
Lama Fawaz Pharaon, Naglaa Fathi El-Orabi, Muhammad Kunhi, Nadya Al Yacoub, Salma Mahmoud Awad, Coralie Poizat
Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic agent that raised a major controversy over its cardiovascular adverse effects. There is in vivo evidence that Rosiglitazone promotes cardiac hypertrophy by PPAR -γ-independent mechanisms. However, whether Rosiglitazone directly alters hypertrophic growth in cardiac cells is unknown. Chromatin remodeling by histone post-translational modifications has emerged as critical for many cardiomyopathies. Based on these observations, this study was initiated to investigate the cardiac hypertrophic effect of Rosiglitazone in a cellular model of primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM)...
August 16, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822779/molecular-characterization-of-kiss2-and-differential-regulation-of-reproduction-related-genes-by-sex-steroids-in-the-hypothalamus-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#3
Bin Wang, Quan Liu, Xuezhou Liu, Yongjiang Xu, Xuesong Song, Bao Shi
Kisspeptin (Kiss) plays a critical role in mediating gonadal steroid feedback to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in mammals. However, little information regarding the regulation of kisspeptin gene by sex steroids is available in teleosts. In this study, we examined the direct actions of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) on hypothalamic expression of kisspeptin and other key factors involved in reproductive function of half-smooth tongue sole. As a first step, a partial-length cDNA of kiss2 was identified from the brain of tongue sole and kiss2 transcript levels were shown to be widely expressed in various tissues, notably in the ovary...
August 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822114/glycosylation-of-dentin-matrix-protein-1-is-a-novel-key-element-for-astrocyte-maturation-and-bbb-integrity
#4
Bo Jing, Chunxue Zhang, Xianjun Liu, Liqiang Zhou, Jiping Liu, Yinan Yao, Juehua Yu, Yuteng Weng, Min Pan, Jie Liu, Zuolin Wang, Yao Sun, Yi Eve Sun
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a tight boundary formed between endothelial cells and astrocytes, which separates and protects brain from most pathogens as well as neural toxins in circulation. However, detailed molecular players involved in formation of BBB are not completely known. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1)-proteoglycan (PG), which is known to be involved in mineralization of bones and dentin, is also expressed in soft tissues including brain with unknown functions. In the present study, we reported that DMP1-PG was expressed in brain astrocytes and enriched in BBB units...
August 18, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822081/expression-profiling-of-the-map-kinase-phosphatase-family-reveals-a-role-for-dusp1-in-the-glioblastoma-stem-cell-niche
#5
Bradley N Mills, George P Albert, Marc W Halterman
The dual specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) constitute a family of stress-induced enzymes that provide feedback inhibition on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) critical in key aspects of oncogenic signaling. While described in other tumor types, the landscape of DUSP mRNA expression in glioblastoma (GB) remains largely unexplored. Interrogation of the REpository for Molecular BRAin Neoplasia DaTa (REMBRANDT) revealed induction (DUSP4, DUSP6), repression (DUSP2, DUSP7-9), or mixed (DUSP1, DUSP5, DUSP10, DUSP15) DUSP transcription of select DUSPs in bulk tumor specimens...
August 18, 2017: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821991/transcranial-doppler-in-autonomic-testing-standards-and-clinical-applications
#6
REVIEW
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Brahyan Galindo-Mendez, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Estibaliz Villarreal-Vitorica, Vera Novak
When cerebral blood flow falls below a critical limit, syncope occurs and, if prolonged, ischemia leads to neuronal death. The cerebral circulation has its own complex finely tuned autoregulatory mechanisms to ensure blood supply to the brain can meet the high metabolic demands of the underlying neuronal tissue. This involves the interplay between myogenic and metabolic mechanisms, input from noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons, and the release of vasoactive substrates, including adenosine from astrocytes and nitric oxide from the endothelium...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821675/synergistic-toxicity-of-polyglutamine-expanded-tbp-in-glia-and-neuronal-cells-therapeutic-implications-for-sca17
#7
Yang Yang, Su Yang, Jifeng Guo, Yiting Cui, Baisha Tang, Xiao-Jiang Li, Shihua Li
Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17) is caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion in the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and is among a family of neurodegenerative diseases in which polyQ expansion leads to preferential neuronal loss in the brain. Although previous studies have demonstrated that expression of polyQ-expanded proteins in glial cells can cause neuronal injury via non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, these studies investigated animal models that overexpress transgenic mutant proteins. Since glial cells are particularly reactive to overexpressed mutant proteins, it is important to investigate the in vivo role of glial dysfunction in neurodegeneration when mutant polyQ proteins are endogenously expressed...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821670/rodent-medial-frontal-control-of-temporal-processing-in-the-dorsomedial-striatum
#8
Eric B Emmons, Benjamin J De Corte, Youngcho Kim, Krystal L Parker, Matthew S Matell, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Although frontostriatal circuits are critical for the temporal control of action, how time is encoded in frontostriatal circuits is unknown. We recorded from frontal and striatal neurons while rats engaged in interval timing, an elementary cognitive function that engages both areas. We report four main results. First, 'ramping' activity-a monotonic change in neuronal firing rate across time-is observed throughout frontostriatal ensembles. Second, frontostriatal activity scales across multiple intervals. Third, striatal ramping neurons are correlated with activity of the medial frontal cortex...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821450/carvedilol-abrogates-hypoxia-induced-oxidative-stress-and-neuroinflammation-in-microglial-bv2-cells
#9
Xiujuan Gao, Bin Wu, Zhijian Fu, Zongwang Zhang, Guangjun Xu
Microglia initially undergo rapid activation in response to injury and stressful stimuli, such as hypoxia. Oxidative stress and the inflammatory response play critical roles in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Carvedilol is a β-blocker used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. In this study, we investigated whether carvedilol had a protective effect against hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in microglial BV2 cells. Our results indicate that hypoxic exposure significantly reduced mean cell viability of BV2 microglia, which was significantly restored by carvedilol (10 and 50μM)...
August 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821393/nutritional-status-brain-network-organization-and-general-intelligence
#10
Marta K Zamroziewicz, M Tanveer Talukdar, Chris E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
The high energy demands of the brain underscore the importance of nutrition in maintaining brain health and further indicate that aspects of nutrition may optimize brain health, in turn enhancing cognitive performance. General intelligence represents a critical cognitive ability that has been well characterized by cognitive neuroscientists and psychologists alike, but the extent to which a driver of brain health, namely nutritional status, impacts the neural mechanisms that underlie general intelligence is not understood...
August 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820467/aquaporin-4-functionality-and-virchow-robin-space-water-dynamics-physiological-model-for-neurovascular-coupling-and-glymphatic-flow
#11
REVIEW
Tsutomu Nakada, Ingrid L Kwee, Hironaka Igarashi, Yuji Suzuki
The unique properties of brain capillary endothelium, critical in maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and restricting water permeability across the BBB, have important consequences on fluid hydrodynamics inside the BBB hereto inadequately recognized. Recent studies indicate that the mechanisms underlying brain water dynamics are distinct from systemic tissue water dynamics. Hydrostatic pressure created by the systolic force of the heart, essential for interstitial circulation and lymphatic flow in systemic circulation, is effectively impeded from propagating into the interstitial fluid inside the BBB by the tightly sealed endothelium of brain capillaries...
August 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820290/local-histone-acetylation-by-acss2-promotes-gene-transcription-for-lysosomal-biogenesis-and-autophagy
#12
Xinjian Li, Xu Qian, Zhimin Lu
Overcoming metabolic stress is a critical step in tumorigenesis. Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) converted from glucose or acetate is a substrate used for histone acetylation to regulate gene expression. However, how acetyl-CoA is produced under nutritional stress conditions is unclear. Herein we report that nutritional stress induces nuclear translocation of ACSS2 (acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2). This translocation is mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent ACSS2 Ser659 phosphorylation and subsequent exposure of the nuclear localization signal of ACSS2 to KPNA1/importin α5 for binding...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820284/bnip3l-nix-mediated-mitophagy-protects-against-ischemic-brain-injury-independent-of-park2
#13
Yang Yuan, Yanrong Zheng, Xiangnan Zhang, Ying Chen, Xiaoli Wu, Jiaying Wu, Zhe Shen, Lei Jiang, Lu Wang, Wei Yang, Jianhong Luo, Zhenghong Qin, Weiwei Hu, Zhong Chen
Cerebral ischemia induces massive mitochondrial damage. These damaged mitochondria are cleared, thus attenuating brain injury, by mitophagy. Here, we identified the involvement of BNIP3L/NIX in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I-R)-induced mitophagy. Bnip3l knockout (bnip3l(-/-)) impaired mitophagy and aggravated cerebral I-R injury in mice, which can be rescued by BNIP3L overexpression. The rescuing effects of BNIP3L overexpression can be observed in park2(-/-) mice, which showed mitophagy deficiency after I-R...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820282/mir505-3p-regulates-axonal-development-via-inhibiting-the-autophagy-pathway-by-targeting-atg12
#14
Kan Yang, Bin Yu, Cheng Cheng, Tianlin Cheng, Bo Yuan, Kai Li, Junhua Xiao, Zilong Qiu, Yuxun Zhou
In addition to the canonical role in protein homeostasis, autophagy has recently been found to be involved in axonal dystrophy and neurodegeneration. Whether autophagy may also be involved in neural development remains largely unclear. Here we report that Mir505-3p is a crucial regulator for axonal elongation and branching in vitro and in vivo, through modulating autophagy in neurons. We identify that the key target gene of Mir505-3p in neurons is Atg12, encoding ATG12 (autophagy related 12) which is an essential component of the autophagy machinery during the initiation and expansion steps of autophagosome formation...
August 18, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819289/escrt-iii-membrane-trafficking-misregulation-contributes-to-fragile-x-syndrome-synaptic-defects
#15
Dominic J Vita, Kendal Broadie
The leading cause of heritable intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Fragile X syndrome (FXS), is caused by loss of the mRNA-binding translational suppressor Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). In the Drosophila FXS disease model, we found FMRP binds shrub mRNA (human Chmp4) to repress Shrub expression, causing overexpression during the disease state early-use critical period. The FXS hallmark is synaptic overelaboration causing circuit hyperconnectivity. Testing innervation of a central brain learning/memory center, we found FMRP loss and Shrub overexpression similarly increase connectivity...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818946/a-central-neural-circuit-for-itch-sensation
#16
Di Mu, Juan Deng, Ke-Fei Liu, Zhen-Yu Wu, Yu-Feng Shi, Wei-Min Guo, Qun-Quan Mao, Xing-Jun Liu, Hui Li, Yan-Gang Sun
Although itch sensation is an important protective mechanism for animals, chronic itch remains a challenging clinical problem. Itch processing has been studied extensively at the spinal level. However, how itch information is transmitted to the brain and what central circuits underlie the itch-induced scratching behavior remain largely unknown. We found that the spinoparabrachial pathway was activated during itch processing and that optogenetic suppression of this pathway impaired itch-induced scratching behaviors...
August 18, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818013/relationship-between-doppler-findings-and-fetal-brain-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-in-early-onset-intra-uterine-growth-restriction
#17
Mehmet Serdar Kutuk, Murside Sahin, Sureyya Burcu Gorkem, Selim Doganay, Ahmet Ozturk
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between uteroplacental Doppler sonography findings and cerebral diffusion measured by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in fetuses with early- onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 54 pregnant women with fetal IUGR and 15 healthy controls (n: 15). Fetuses with IUGR were classified into 4 groups based on Doppler findings: group 1 (n = 12), umbilical artery (UA) pulsatility index (PI) >95pc; group 2 (n = 11), UA PI > 95 pc and middle cerebral artery PI <5pc; group 3 (n = 21), absent end-diastolic (A-EDF) in UA; group 4 (n = 10), reversed EDF in UA...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817797/wrapped-to-adapt-experience-dependent-myelination
#18
REVIEW
Christopher W Mount, Michelle Monje
Activity of the nervous system has long been recognized as a critical modulator of brain structure and function. Influences of experience on the cytoarchitecture and functional connectivity of neurons have been appreciated since the classic work of Hubel and Wiesel (1963; Wiesel and Hubel, 1963a, 1963b). In recent years, a similar structural plasticity has come to light for the myelinated infrastructure of the nervous system. While an innate program of myelin development proceeds independently of nervous system activity, increasing evidence supports a role for activity-dependent, plastic changes in myelin-forming cells that influence myelin structure and neurological function...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817722/nicotinamide-alone-accelerates-the-conversion-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neuronal-populations
#19
Síle M Griffin, Mark R Pickard, Rowan P Orme, Clive P Hawkins, Adrian C Williams, Rosemary A Fricker
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B3 has been shown to play an important role during embryogenesis. Specifically, there is growing evidence that nicotinamide, the biologically active form of vitamin B3, plays a critical role as a morphogen in the differentiation of stem cells to mature cell phenotypes, including those of the central nervous system (CNS). Detailed knowledge of the action of small molecules during neuronal differentiation is not only critical for uncovering mechanisms underlying lineage-specification, but also to establish more effective differentiation protocols to obtain clinically relevant cells for regenerative therapies for neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817580/criticality-predicts-maximum-irregularity-in-recurrent-networks-of-excitatory-nodes
#20
Yahya Karimipanah, Zhengyu Ma, Ralf Wessel
A rigorous understanding of brain dynamics and function requires a conceptual bridge between multiple levels of organization, including neural spiking and network-level population activity. Mounting evidence suggests that neural networks of cerebral cortex operate at a critical regime, which is defined as a transition point between two phases of short lasting and chaotic activity. However, despite the fact that criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing, its supporting evidence is still far from conclusive, as it has been mostly based on power law scaling of size and durations of cascades of activity...
2017: PloS One
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