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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055271/neurocysticercosis-as-an-infectious-acquired-epilepsy-worldwide
#1
REVIEW
Doodipala Samba Reddy, Randy Volkmer
Aside from brain injury and genetic causes, there is emerging information on brain infection and inflammation as a common cause of epilepsy. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the most common cause of epilepsy worldwide, is caused by brain cysts from the Taenia solium tapeworm. In this article, we provide a critical analysis of current and emerging information on the relationship between NCC infection and epilepsy occurrence. We searched PubMed and other databases for reports on the prevalence of NCC and incidence of epilepsy in certain regions worldwide...
October 7, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055099/regulation-of-glycosaminoglycan-biogenesis-is-critical-for-sensitive-period-dependent-vocal-ontogeny
#2
Caitlin P Mencio, Vy My Tran, Maritza V Quintero, Mamoru Koketsu, Franz Goller, Balagurunathan Kuberan
In the brain, the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a central role during neural development and thus modulates critical-period regulated behavioral ontogeny. The major components of the ECM are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including chondroitin sulfate (CS). However, the specific roles of GAGs in behavioral development are largely unknown. It has been shown that xylosides affect the biological functions of GAGs through modulating GAG biosynthesis. Particularly, xylosides affect GAG biosynthesis through priming of GAG chains (priming activity), competing with endogenous core proteins that carry GAG initiation sites (decoy activity), or both...
October 21, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054881/ablation-of-tfr1-in-purkinje-cells-inhibits-mglu1-trafficking-and-impairs-motor-coordination-but-not-autistic-like-behaviors
#3
Jia-Huan Zhou, Xin-Tai Wang, Liang Zhou, Lin Zhou, Fang-Xiao Xu, Li-Da Su, Hao Wang, Fan Jia, Fu-Qiang Xu, Gui-Quan Chen, Chris De Zeeuw, Ying Shen
Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1/5) are critical to synapse formation and participate in synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in the brain. mGlu1/5 signaling alterations have been documented in cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative disorders, and psychiatric diseases, but underlying mechanisms for its modulation are not clear. Here, we report that transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), a trans-membrane protein of clathrin complex, modulates the trafficking of mGlu1 in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) from male mice...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054879/domain-specificity-of-oculomotor-learning-after-changes-in-sensory-processing
#4
Yuliy Tsank, Miguel P Eckstein
Humans visually process the world with varying spatial resolution and can program their eye movements optimally to maximize information acquisition for a variety of everyday tasks. Diseases such as macular degeneration can change visual sensory processing, introducing central vision loss (a scotoma). However, humans can learn to direct a new preferred retinal location to regions of interest for simple visual tasks. Whether such learned compensatory saccades are optimal and generalize to more complex tasks, which require integrating information across a large area of the visual field, is not well-understood...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054733/disrupted-ionic-homeostasis-in-ischemic-stroke-and-new-therapeutic-targets
#5
REVIEW
Hui-Jie Hu, Mingke Song
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability. All neuroprotectants targeting excitotoxicity have failed to become stroke medications. In order to explore and identify new therapeutic targets for stroke, we here reviewed present studies of ionic transporters and channels that are involved in ischemic brain damage. METHOD: We surveyed recent literature from animal experiments and clinical reports in the databases of PubMed and Elsevier ScienceDirect to analyze ionic mechanisms underlying ischemic cell damage and suggest promising ideas for stroke therapy...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054694/the-resilient-brain-and-the-guardians-of-sleep-new-perspectives-on-old-assumptions
#6
REVIEW
Liborio Parrino, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano
Resilience is the capacity of a system, enterprise or a person to maintain its core purpose and integrity in the face of dramatically changed circumstances. In human physiology, resilience is the capacity of adaptively overcoming stress and adversity while maintaining normal psychological and physical functioning. In this review, we investigate the resilient strategies of sleep. First, we discuss the concept of brain resilience, highlighting the modular structure of small-world networking, neuronal plasticity and critical brain behavior...
October 17, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054488/the-histone-demethylase-jmjd2a-regulates-the-expression-of-bdnf-and-mediates-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#7
Junfei Zhou, Fang Wang, Chang Xu, Zipeng Zhou, Wei Zhang
JMJD2A is a JmjC histone demethylase that catalyzes the demethylation of di- and trimethylated Lys9 and Lys36 in histone H3 (H3K9me2/3 and H3K36me2/3). The role of spinal JMJD2A-dependent histone demethylation in nociception hypersensitivity development remains elusive. Here we reported that the JMJD2A responded to neuropathic pain and participated in the maintenance of neuropathic pain. The mRNA and protein levels of Jmjd2a were significantly increased in the neurons of mouse undergoing neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve chronic constrictive injury (CCI) or unilateral spared nerve injury (SNI)...
October 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054467/the-multi-dimensional-roles-of-astrocytes-in-als
#8
REVIEW
Koji Yamanaka, Okiru Komine
Despite significant progress in understanding the molecular and genetic aspects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons, the precise and comprehensive pathomechanisms remain largely unknown. In addition to motor neuron involvement, recent studies using cellular and animal models of ALS indicate that there is a complex interplay between motor neurons and neighboring non-neuronal cells, such as astrocytes, in non-cell autonomous neurodegeneration...
October 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054412/regulatory-mechanisms-for-iron-transport-across-the-blood-brain-barrier
#9
Kari A Duck, Ian A Simpson, James R Connor
Many critical metabolic functions in the brain require adequate and timely delivery of iron. However, most studies when considering brain iron uptake have ignored the iron requirements of the endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Moreover, current models of BBB iron transport do not address regional regulation of brain iron uptake or how neurons, when adapting to metabolic demands, can acquire more iron. In this study, we demonstrate that both iron-poor transferrin (apo-Tf) and the iron chelator, deferoxamine, stimulate release of iron from iron-loaded endothelial cells in an in vitro BBB model...
October 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053833/clinical-pathological-and-functional-characterization-of-riboflavin-responsive-neuropathy
#10
Andreea Manole, Zane Jaunmuktane, Iain Hargreaves, Marthe H R Ludtmann, Vincenzo Salpietro, Oscar D Bello, Simon Pope, Amelie Pandraud, Alejandro Horga, Renata S Scalco, Abi Li, Balasubramaniem Ashokkumar, Charles M Lourenço, Simon Heales, Rita Horvath, Patrick F Chinnery, Camilo Toro, Andrew B Singleton, Thomas S Jacques, Andrey Y Abramov, Francesco Muntoni, Michael G Hanna, Mary M Reilly, Tamas Revesz, Dimitri M Kullmann, James E C Jepson, Henry Houlden
Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome represents a phenotypic spectrum of motor, sensory, and cranial nerve neuropathy, often with ataxia, optic atrophy and respiratory problems leading to ventilator-dependence. Loss-of-function mutations in two riboflavin transporter genes, SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, have recently been linked to Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome. However, the genetic frequency, neuropathology and downstream consequences of riboflavin transporter mutations are unclear. By screening a large cohort of 132 patients with early-onset severe sensory, motor and cranial nerve neuropathy we confirmed the strong genetic link between riboflavin transporter mutations and Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome, identifying 22 pathogenic mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, 14 of which were novel...
September 26, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053644/dental-approach-for-apert-syndrome-in-children-a-systematic-review
#11
A-S López-Estudillo, M-A Rosales-Bérber, S Ruiz-Rodríguez, A Pozos-Guillén, Á Noyola-Frías, A Garrocho-Rangel
BACKGROUND: Apert Syndrome (AS), or type I acrocephalosyndactyly, is a rare, congenital craniosynostosis condition resulting from missense mutations in the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. It is characterized by three specific clinical features: brachycephalic skull; midface hypoplasia, and limb abnormalities (syndactyly of hands and feet). The disorder exhibits variable presentations in bones, brain, skin, internal organs, and in the oral/maxillofacial region. The aim of the present paper was to show the main results from a systematic review of AS...
October 20, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052934/the-contribution-of-alternative-splicing-to-genetic-risk-for-psychiatric-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Emma Reble, Aidan Dineen, Cathy L Barr
A genetic contribution to psychiatric disorders has clearly been established and genome-wide association studies now provide the location of risk genes and genetic variants associated with risk. However, the mechanism by which these genes and variants contribute to psychiatric disorders is mostly undetermined. This is in part because non-synonymous protein coding changes cannot explain the majority of variants associated with complex genetic traits. Based on this, it is predicted that these variants are causing gene expression changes, including changes to alternative splicing...
October 20, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052807/current-trends-in-mouse-models-of-glioblastoma
#13
REVIEW
Masafumi Miyai, Hiroyuki Tomita, Akio Soeda, Hirohito Yano, Toru Iwama, Akira Hara
Glioblastoma is the most deadly brain tumor type and is characterized by a severe and high rate of angiogenesis, remaining an incurable disease in the majority of cases. Mechanistic understanding of glioblastoma initiation and progression is complicated by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental initiating events and lack of clarity regarding the cell or tissue of origin. To determine these mechanisms, mouse models that recapitulate the molecular and histological characteristics of glioblastoma are required...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052613/dynorphin-counteracts-orexin-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-thalamus-cellular-and-behavioral-evidence
#14
Alessandra Matzeu, Marsida Kallupi, Olivier George, Paul Schweitzer, Rémi Martin-Fardon
The orexin (Orx) system plays a critical role in drug addiction and reward-related behaviors. The dynorphin (Dyn) system promotes depressive-like behavior and plays a key role in the aversive effects of stress. Orx and Dyn are co-released and have opposing functions in reward and motivation in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Previous studies suggested that OrxA transmission in the posterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (pPVT) participates in cocaine-seeking behavior. This study determined whether Orx and Dyn interact in the pPVT...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052004/hypoxia-regulated-catecholamine-secretion-in-chromaffin-cells
#15
REVIEW
Colin A Nurse, Shaima Salman, Angela L Scott
Adrenal catecholamine (CAT) secretion is a general physiological response of animals to environmental stressors such as hypoxia. This represents an important adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis and protect vital organs such as the brain. In adult mammals, CAT secretory responses are triggered by activation of the sympathetic nervous system that supplies cholinergic innervation of adrenomedullary chromaffin cells (AMC) via the splanchnic nerve. In the neonate, the splanchnic innervation of AMC is immature or absent, yet hypoxia stimulates a non-neurogenic CAT secretion that is critical for adaptation to extra-uterine life...
October 19, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051909/performance-monitoring-in-children-following-traumatic-brain-injury-compared-to-typically-developing-children
#16
Amy A Wilkinson, Maureen Dennis, Margot J Taylor, Anne-Marie Guerguerian, Kathy Boutis, Karen Choong, Craig Campbell, Douglas Fraser, Jamie Hutchison, Russell Schachar
Children with traumatic brain injury are reported to have deficits in performance monitoring, but the mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Four performance monitoring hypotheses were explored by comparing how 28 children with traumatic brain injury and 28 typically developing controls (matched by age and sex) performed on the stop-signal task. Control children slowed significantly more following incorrect than correct stop-signal trials, fitting the error monitoring hypothesis. In contrast, the traumatic brain injury group showed no performance monitoring difference with trial types, but significant group differences did not emerge, suggesting that children with traumatic brain injury may not perform the same way as controls...
January 2017: Child neurology open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051739/impaired-feedback-processing-for-symbolic-reward-in-individuals-with-internet-game-overuse
#17
Jinhee Kim, Hackjin Kim, Eunjoo Kang
Reward processing, which plays a critical role in adaptive behavior, is impaired in addiction disorders, which are accompanied by functional abnormalities in brain reward circuits. Internet gaming disorder, like substance addiction, is thought to be associated with impaired reward processing, but little is known about how it affects learning, especially when feedback is conveyed by less-salient motivational events. Here, using both monetary (±500 KRW) and symbolic (Chinese characters "right" or "wrong") rewards and penalties, we investigated whether behavioral performance and feedback-related neural responses are altered in Internet game overuse (IGO) group...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051587/dna-methylation-and-hydroxymethylation-analyses-of-the-active-line-1-subfamilies-in-mice
#18
Yui Murata, Miki Bundo, Junko Ueda, Mie Kubota-Sakashita, Kiyoto Kasai, Tadafumi Kato, Kazuya Iwamoto
Retrotransposon long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) occupies a large proportion of the mammalian genome, comprising approximately 100,000 genomic copies in mice. Epigenetic status of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of LINE-1 is critical for its promoter activity. DNA methylation levels in the 5'-UTR of human active LINE-1 subfamily can be measured by well-established methods, such as a pyrosequencing-based assay. However, because of the considerable sequence and structural diversity in LINE-1 among species, methods for such assays should be adapted for the species of interest...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050798/animals-anxiety-and-anxiety-disorders-how-to-measure-anxiety-in-rodents-and-why
#19
REVIEW
Jaanus Harro
Measurement of anxiety is desirable for the benefit of drug development and understanding the brain function and mental well-being. Animal models offer the advantages of detailed neurobiological analysis, experimental manipulation of specific components in the brain circuits that underlie psychopathology, and the possibility of screening novel drugs with clinical potential. A large variety of animal models of anxiety and screening tests of anxiolytics is currently in use. While their value in advancing the knowledge and predicting therapeutic success of drugs is unquestionable, the expectations have grown much higher, and the frustration over absence of novel successful drug concepts is rising...
October 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050512/iron-deficiency-beyond-erythropoiesis-should-we-be-concerned
#20
Khaled M Musallam, Ali T Taher
OBJECTIVE: To consider the key implications of iron deficiency for biochemical and physiological functions beyond erythropoiesis. METHODS: PubMed was searched for relevant journal articles published up to August 2017. RESULTS: Anemia is the most well-recognized consequence of persisting iron deficiency, but various other unfavorable consequences can develop either before or concurrently with anemia. Mitochondrial function can be profoundly disturbed since iron is a cofactor for heme-containing enzymes and non-heme iron-containing enzymes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain...
October 20, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
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