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Neuronal avalanches

Mohammad Yaghoubi, Ty de Graaf, Javier G Orlandi, Fernando Girotto, Michael A Colicos, Jörn Davidsen
Neuronal avalanches have become an ubiquitous tool to describe the activity of large neuronal assemblies. The emergence of scale-free statistics with well-defined exponents has led to the belief that the brain might operate near a critical point. Yet not much is known in terms of how the different exponents arise or how robust they are. Using calcium imaging recordings of dissociated neuronal cultures we show that the exponents are not universal, and that significantly different exponents arise with different culture preparations, leading to the existence of different universality classes...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Javier Diaz, Alejandro Bassi, Alex Coolen, Ennio A Vivaldi, Juan-Carlos Letelier
Traditionally, EEG is understood as originating from the synchronous activation of neuronal populations that generate rhythmic oscillations in specific frequency bands. Recently, new neuronal dynamics regimes have been identified (e.g. neuronal avalanches) characterized by irregular or arrhythmic activity. In addition, it is starting to be acknowledged that broadband properties of EEG spectrum (following a 1/f law) are tightly linked to brain function. Nevertheless, there is still no theoretical framework accommodating the coexistence of these two EEG phenomenologies: rhythmic/narrowband and arrhythmic/broadband...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Serena di Santo, Pablo Villegas, Raffaella Burioni, Miguel A Muñoz
Understanding the origin, nature, and functional significance of complex patterns of neural activity, as recorded by diverse electrophysiological and neuroimaging techniques, is a central challenge in neuroscience. Such patterns include collective oscillations emerging out of neural synchronization as well as highly heterogeneous outbursts of activity interspersed by periods of quiescence, called "neuronal avalanches." Much debate has been generated about the possible scale invariance or criticality of such avalanches and its relevance for brain function...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mohammad Dehghani-Habibabadi, Marzieh Zare, Farhad Shahbazi, Javad Usefie-Mafahim, Paolo Grigolini
The model of the current paper is an extension of a previous publication, wherein we have used the leaky integrate-and-fire model on a regular lattice with periodic boundary conditions, and introduced the temporal complexity as a genuine signature of criticality. In that work, the power-law distribution of neural avalanches was a manifestation of supercriticality rather than criticality. Here, however, we show that the continuous solution of the model and replacing the stochastic noise with a Gaussian zero-mean noise leads to the coincidence of power-law display of temporal complexity, and spatiotemporal patterns of neural avalanches at the critical point...
November 21, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Shan Yu, Tiago L Ribeiro, Christian Meisel, Samantha Chou, Andrew Mitz, Richard Saunders, Dietmar Plenz
Sensory events, cognitive processing and motor actions correlate with transient changes in neuronal activity. In cortex, these transients form widespread spatiotemporal patterns with largely unknown statistical regularities. Here, we show that activity associated with behavioral events carry the signature of scale-invariant spatiotemporal clusters, neuronal avalanches. Using high-density microelectrode arrays in nonhuman primates, we recorded extracellular unit activity and the local field potential (LFP) in premotor and prefrontal cortex during motor and cognitive tasks...
November 8, 2017: ELife
Elfriede Ruttmann, Marion Dietl, Tobias Kastenberger, Rene El Attal, Mathias Ströhle, Hanno Ulmer, Peter Mair
BACKGROUND: Aim of the study was to investigate patient characteristics, survival rates and neurological outcome among hypothermic patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) admitted to a trauma center. METHODS: A review of patients with OHCA and a core temperature ≤32°C admitted to a trauma center between 2004 and 2016. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients (mean temperature 25.8°C±3.9°C) were entered in the study, 37 (39%) of them after avalanche burial...
November 2017: Resuscitation
S Amin Moosavi, Afshin Montakhab, Alireza Valizadeh
Networks of excitable nodes have recently attracted much attention particularly in regards to neuronal dynamics, where criticality has been argued to be a fundamental property. Refractory behavior, which limits the excitability of neurons is thought to be an important dynamical property. We therefore consider a simple model of excitable nodes which is known to exhibit a transition to instability at a critical point (λ = 1), and introduce refractory period into its dynamics. We use mean-field analytical calculations as well as numerical simulations to calculate the activity dependent branching ratio that is useful to characterize the behavior of critical systems...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Gabriel Koch Ocker, Krešimir Josić, Eric Shea-Brown, Michael A Buice
Recent experimental advances are producing an avalanche of data on both neural connectivity and neural activity. To take full advantage of these two emerging datasets we need a framework that links them, revealing how collective neural activity arises from the structure of neural connectivity and intrinsic neural dynamics. This problem of structure-driven activity has drawn major interest in computational neuroscience. Existing methods for relating activity and architecture in spiking networks rely on linearizing activity around a central operating point and thus fail to capture the nonlinear responses of individual neurons that are the hallmark of neural information processing...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Ron D Frostig, Cynthia H Chen-Bee, Brett A Johnson, Nathan S Jacobs
This review brings together a collection of studies that specifically use wide-field high-resolution mesoscopic level imaging techniques (intrinsic signal optical imaging; voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging) to image the cortical point spread (PS): the total spread of cortical activation comprising a large neuronal ensemble evoked by spatially restricted (point) stimulation of the sensory periphery (e.g., whisker, pure tone, point visual stimulation). The collective imaging findings, combined with supporting anatomical and electrophysiological findings, revealed some key aspects about the PS including its very large (radius of several mm) and relatively symmetrical spatial extent capable of crossing cytoarchitectural borders and trespassing into other cortical areas; its relationship with underlying evoked subthreshold activity and underlying anatomical system of long-range horizontal projections within gray matter, both also crossing borders; its contextual modulation and plasticity; the ability of its relative spatiotemporal profile to remain invariant to major changes in stimulation parameters; its potential role as a building block for integrative cortical activity; and its ubiquitous presence across various cortical areas and across mammalian species...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
Javier G Orlandi, Jaume Casademunt
We introduce a coarse-grained stochastic model for the spontaneous activity of neuronal cultures to explain the phenomenon of noise focusing, which entails localization of the noise activity in excitable networks with metric correlations. The system is modeled as a continuum excitable medium with a state-dependent spatial coupling that accounts for the dynamics of synaptic connections. The most salient feature is the emergence at the mesoscale of a vector field V(r), which acts as an advective carrier of the noise...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
Bruno Del Papa, Viola Priesemann, Jochen Triesch
Many experiments have suggested that the brain operates close to a critical state, based on signatures of criticality such as power-law distributed neuronal avalanches. In neural network models, criticality is a dynamical state that maximizes information processing capacities, e.g. sensitivity to input, dynamical range and storage capacity, which makes it a favorable candidate state for brain function. Although models that self-organize towards a critical state have been proposed, the relation between criticality signatures and learning is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
Gerald Hahn, Adrian Ponce-Alvarez, Cyril Monier, Giacomo Benvenuti, Arvind Kumar, Frédéric Chavane, Gustavo Deco, Yves Frégnac
Brain activity displays a large repertoire of dynamics across the sleep-wake cycle and even during anesthesia. It was suggested that criticality could serve as a unifying principle underlying the diversity of dynamics. This view has been supported by the observation of spontaneous bursts of cortical activity with scale-invariant sizes and durations, known as neuronal avalanches, in recordings of mesoscopic cortical signals. However, the existence of neuronal avalanches in spiking activity has been equivocal with studies reporting both its presence and absence...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Xiumin Li, Qing Chen, Fangzheng Xue
In recent years, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that networks in the brain can self-organize into a critical state where dynamics exhibit a mixture of ordered and disordered patterns. This critical branching phenomenon is termed neuronal avalanches. It has been hypothesized that the homeostatic level balanced between stability and plasticity of this critical state may be the optimal state for performing diverse neural computational tasks. However, the critical region for high performance is narrow and sensitive for spiking neural networks (SNNs)...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Yahya Karimipanah, Zhengyu Ma, Jae-Eun Kang Miller, Rafael Yuste, Ralf Wessel
Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that the cortex operates near a critical state, defined as the transition point between order (large-scale activity) and disorder (small-scale activity). This criticality is manifested by power law distribution of the size and duration of spontaneous cascades of activity, which are referred as neuronal avalanches. The existence of such neuronal avalanches has been confirmed by several studies both in vitro and in vivo, among different species and across multiple spatial scales...
2017: PloS One
A Levina, V Priesemann
In real-world applications, observations are often constrained to a small fraction of a system. Such spatial subsampling can be caused by the inaccessibility or the sheer size of the system, and cannot be overcome by longer sampling. Spatial subsampling can strongly bias inferences about a system's aggregated properties. To overcome the bias, we derive analytically a subsampling scaling framework that is applicable to different observables, including distributions of neuronal avalanches, of number of people infected during an epidemic outbreak, and of node degrees...
May 4, 2017: Nature Communications
F Lombardi, H J Herrmann, L de Arcangelis
The 1/f-like decay observed in the power spectrum of electro-physiological signals, along with scale-free statistics of the so-called neuronal avalanches, constitutes evidence of criticality in neuronal systems. Recent in vitro studies have shown that avalanche dynamics at criticality corresponds to some specific balance of excitation and inhibition, thus suggesting that this is a basic feature of the critical state of neuronal networks. In particular, a lack of inhibition significantly alters the temporal structure of the spontaneous avalanche activity and leads to an anomalous abundance of large avalanches...
April 2017: Chaos
Miho Itoh, Timothée Leleu
Recent experiments have shown that stereotypical spatiotemporal patterns occur during brief packets of spiking activity in the cortex, and it has been suggested that top-down inputs can modulate these patterns according to the context. We propose a simple model that may explain important features of these experimental observations and is analytically tractable. The key mechanism underlying this model is that context-dependent top-down inputs can modulate the effective connection strengths between neurons because of short-term synaptic depression...
May 2017: Neural Computation
Fabrizio Pittorino, Miguel Ibáñez-Berganza, Matteo di Volo, Alessandro Vezzani, Raffaella Burioni
A collective chaotic phase with power law scaling of activity events is observed in a disordered mean field network of purely excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with short-term synaptic plasticity. The dynamical phase diagram exhibits two transitions from quasisynchronous and asynchronous regimes to the nontrivial, collective, bursty regime with avalanches. In the homogeneous case without disorder, the system synchronizes and the bursty behavior is reflected into a period doubling transition to chaos for a two dimensional discrete map...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Dong-Ping Yang, Hai-Jun Zhou, Changsong Zhou
The brain is highly energy consuming, therefore is under strong selective pressure to achieve cost-efficiency in both cortical connectivities and activities. However, cost-efficiency as a design principle for cortical activities has been rarely studied. Especially it is not clear how cost-efficiency is related to ubiquitously observed multi-scale properties: irregular firing, oscillations and neuronal avalanches. Here we demonstrate that these prominent properties can be simultaneously observed in a generic, biologically plausible neural circuit model that captures excitation-inhibition balance and realistic dynamics of synaptic conductance...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Kevin C Elliott, Wei Wu, Richard Bertram, Richard L Hyson, Frank Johnson
Neural activity within the cortical premotor nucleus HVC (acronym is name) encodes the learned songs of adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). HVC activity is driven and/or modulated by a group of five afferent nuclei (the Medial Magnocellular nucleus of the Anterior Nidopallium, MMAN; Nucleus Interface, NIf; nucleus Avalanche, Av; the Robust nucleus of the Arcopallium, RA; the Uvaeform nucleus, Uva). While earlier evidence suggested that HVC receives a uniformly distributed and nontopographic pattern of afferent input, recent evidence suggests this view is incorrect (Basista et al...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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