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Neuronal avalanches

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769096/refractory-period-in-network-models-of-excitable-nodes-self-sustaining-stable-dynamics-extended-scaling-region-and-oscillatory-behavior
#1
S Amin Moosavi, Afshin Montakhab, Alireza Valizadeh
Networks of excitable nodes have recently attracted much attention particularly in regards to neuronal dynamics, where criticality has been argued to be a fundamental property. Refractory behavior, which limits the excitability of neurons is thought to be an important dynamical property. We therefore consider a simple model of excitable nodes which is known to exhibit a transition to instability at a critical point (λ = 1), and introduce refractory period into its dynamics. We use mean-field analytical calculations as well as numerical simulations to calculate the activity dependent branching ratio that is useful to characterize the behavior of critical systems...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644840/linking-structure-and-activity-in-nonlinear-spiking-networks
#2
Gabriel Koch Ocker, Krešimir Josić, Eric Shea-Brown, Michael A Buice
Recent experimental advances are producing an avalanche of data on both neural connectivity and neural activity. To take full advantage of these two emerging datasets we need a framework that links them, revealing how collective neural activity arises from the structure of neural connectivity and intrinsic neural dynamics. This problem of structure-driven activity has drawn major interest in computational neuroscience. Existing methods for relating activity and architecture in spiking networks rely on linearizing activity around a central operating point and thus fail to capture the nonlinear responses of individual neurons that are the hallmark of neural information processing...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630879/imaging-cajal-s-neuronal-avalanche-how-wide-field-optical-imaging-of-the-point-spread-advanced-the-understanding-of-neocortical-structure-function-relationship
#3
REVIEW
Ron D Frostig, Cynthia H Chen-Bee, Brett A Johnson, Nathan S Jacobs
This review brings together a collection of studies that specifically use wide-field high-resolution mesoscopic level imaging techniques (intrinsic signal optical imaging; voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging) to image the cortical point spread (PS): the total spread of cortical activation comprising a large neuronal ensemble evoked by spatially restricted (point) stimulation of the sensory periphery (e.g., whisker, pure tone, point visual stimulation). The collective imaging findings, combined with supporting anatomical and electrophysiological findings, revealed some key aspects about the PS including its very large (radius of several mm) and relatively symmetrical spatial extent capable of crossing cytoarchitectural borders and trespassing into other cortical areas; its relationship with underlying evoked subthreshold activity and underlying anatomical system of long-range horizontal projections within gray matter, both also crossing borders; its contextual modulation and plasticity; the ability of its relative spatiotemporal profile to remain invariant to major changes in stimulation parameters; its potential role as a building block for integrative cortical activity; and its ubiquitous presence across various cortical areas and across mammalian species...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618531/noise-focusing-in-neuronal-tissues-symmetry-breaking-and-localization-in-excitable-networks-with-quenched-disorder
#4
Javier G Orlandi, Jaume Casademunt
We introduce a coarse-grained stochastic model for the spontaneous activity of neuronal cultures to explain the phenomenon of noise focusing, which entails localization of the noise activity in excitable networks with metric correlations. The system is modeled as a continuum excitable medium with a state-dependent spatial coupling that accounts for the dynamics of synaptic connections. The most salient feature is the emergence at the mesoscale of a vector field V(r), which acts as an advective carrier of the noise...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552964/criticality-meets-learning-criticality-signatures-in-a-self-organizing-recurrent-neural-network
#5
Bruno Del Papa, Viola Priesemann, Jochen Triesch
Many experiments have suggested that the brain operates close to a critical state, based on signatures of criticality such as power-law distributed neuronal avalanches. In neural network models, criticality is a dynamical state that maximizes information processing capacities, e.g. sensitivity to input, dynamical range and storage capacity, which makes it a favorable candidate state for brain function. Although models that self-organize towards a critical state have been proposed, the relation between criticality signatures and learning is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542191/spontaneous-cortical-activity-is-transiently-poised-close-to-criticality
#6
Gerald Hahn, Adrian Ponce-Alvarez, Cyril Monier, Giacomo Benvenuti, Arvind Kumar, Frédéric Chavane, Gustavo Deco, Yves Frégnac
Brain activity displays a large repertoire of dynamics across the sleep-wake cycle and even during anesthesia. It was suggested that criticality could serve as a unifying principle underlying the diversity of dynamics. This view has been supported by the observation of spontaneous bursts of cortical activity with scale-invariant sizes and durations, known as neuronal avalanches, in recordings of mesoscopic cortical signals. However, the existence of neuronal avalanches in spiking activity has been equivocal with studies reporting both its presence and absence...
May 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507231/biological-modelling-of-a-computational-spiking-neural-network-with-neuronal-avalanches
#7
Xiumin Li, Qing Chen, Fangzheng Xue
In recent years, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that networks in the brain can self-organize into a critical state where dynamics exhibit a mixture of ordered and disordered patterns. This critical branching phenomenon is termed neuronal avalanches. It has been hypothesized that the homeostatic level balanced between stability and plasticity of this critical state may be the optimal state for performing diverse neural computational tasks. However, the critical region for high performance is narrow and sensitive for spiking neural networks (SNNs)...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489906/neocortical-activity-is-stimulus-and-scale-invariant
#8
Yahya Karimipanah, Zhengyu Ma, Jae-Eun Kang Miller, Rafael Yuste, Ralf Wessel
Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that the cortex operates near a critical state, defined as the transition point between order (large-scale activity) and disorder (small-scale activity). This criticality is manifested by power law distribution of the size and duration of spontaneous cascades of activity, which are referred as neuronal avalanches. The existence of such neuronal avalanches has been confirmed by several studies both in vitro and in vivo, among different species and across multiple spatial scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469176/subsampling-scaling
#9
A Levina, V Priesemann
In real-world applications, observations are often constrained to a small fraction of a system. Such spatial subsampling can be caused by the inaccessibility or the sheer size of the system, and cannot be overcome by longer sampling. Spatial subsampling can strongly bias inferences about a system's aggregated properties. To overcome the bias, we derive analytically a subsampling scaling framework that is applicable to different observables, including distributions of neuronal avalanches, of number of people infected during an epidemic outbreak, and of node degrees...
May 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456161/balance-of-excitation-and-inhibition-determines-1-f-power-spectrum-in-neuronal-networks
#10
F Lombardi, H J Herrmann, L de Arcangelis
The 1/f-like decay observed in the power spectrum of electro-physiological signals, along with scale-free statistics of the so-called neuronal avalanches, constitutes evidence of criticality in neuronal systems. Recent in vitro studies have shown that avalanche dynamics at criticality corresponds to some specific balance of excitation and inhibition, thus suggesting that this is a basic feature of the critical state of neuronal networks. In particular, a lack of inhibition significantly alters the temporal structure of the spontaneous avalanche activity and leads to an anomalous abundance of large avalanches...
April 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333586/modulation-of-context-dependent-spatiotemporal-patterns-within-packets-of-spiking-activity
#11
Miho Itoh, Timothée Leleu
Recent experiments have shown that stereotypical spatiotemporal patterns occur during brief packets of spiking activity in the cortex, and it has been suggested that top-down inputs can modulate these patterns according to the context. We propose a simple model that may explain important features of these experimental observations and is analytically tractable. The key mechanism underlying this model is that context-dependent top-down inputs can modulate the effective connection strengths between neurons because of short-term synaptic depression...
May 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306273/chaos-and-correlated-avalanches-in-excitatory-neural-networks-with-synaptic-plasticity
#12
Fabrizio Pittorino, Miguel Ibáñez-Berganza, Matteo di Volo, Alessandro Vezzani, Raffaella Burioni
A collective chaotic phase with power law scaling of activity events is observed in a disordered mean field network of purely excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with short-term synaptic plasticity. The dynamical phase diagram exhibits two transitions from quasisynchronous and asynchronous regimes to the nontrivial, collective, bursty regime with avalanches. In the homogeneous case without disorder, the system synchronizes and the bursty behavior is reflected into a period doubling transition to chaos for a two dimensional discrete map...
March 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192429/co-emergence-of-multi-scale-cortical-activities-of-irregular-firing-oscillations-and-avalanches-achieves-cost-efficient-information-capacity
#13
Dong-Ping Yang, Hai-Jun Zhou, Changsong Zhou
The brain is highly energy consuming, therefore is under strong selective pressure to achieve cost-efficiency in both cortical connectivities and activities. However, cost-efficiency as a design principle for cortical activities has been rarely studied. Especially it is not clear how cost-efficiency is related to ubiquitously observed multi-scale properties: irregular firing, oscillations and neuronal avalanches. Here we demonstrate that these prominent properties can be simultaneously observed in a generic, biologically plausible neural circuit model that captures excitation-inhibition balance and realistic dynamics of synaptic conductance...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188629/orthogonal-topography-in-the-parallel-input-architecture-of-songbird-hvc
#14
Kevin C Elliott, Wei Wu, Richard Bertram, Richard L Hyson, Frank Johnson
Neural activity within the cortical premotor nucleus HVC (acronym is name) encodes the learned songs of adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). HVC activity is driven and/or modulated by a group of five afferent nuclei (the Medial Magnocellular nucleus of the Anterior Nidopallium, MMAN; Nucleus Interface, NIf; nucleus Avalanche, Av; the Robust nucleus of the Arcopallium, RA; the Uvaeform nucleus, Uva). While earlier evidence suggested that HVC receives a uniformly distributed and nontopographic pattern of afferent input, recent evidence suggests this view is incorrect (Basista et al...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088482/combined-spatiotemporal-ica-stica-for-continuous-and-dynamic-lag-structure-analysis-of-mreg-data
#15
Ville Raatikainen, Niko Huotari, Vesa Korhonen, Aleksi Rasila, Janne Kananen, Lauri Raitamaa, Tuija Keinänen, Jussi Kantola, Osmo Tervonen, Vesa Kiviniemi
This study investigated lag structure in the resting-state fMRI by applying a novel independent component (ICA) method to magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG) data. Briefly, the spatial ICA (sICA) was used for defining the frontal and back nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and the temporal ICA (tICA), which is enabled by the high temporal resolution of MREG (TR=100ms), was used to separate both neuronal and physiological components of these two spatial map regions. Subsequently, lag structure was investigated between the frontal (DMNvmpf) and posterior (DMNpcc) DMN nodes using both conventional method with all-time points and a sliding-window approach...
January 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063948/cytokine-il-10-activators-of-pi3-kinase-agonists-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenoreceptor-and-antioxidants-prevent-ischemia-induced-cell-death-in-rat-hippocampal-cultures
#16
Egor A Turovsky, Maria V Turovskaya, Sergei G Gaidin, Valery P Zinchenko
In the present work we compared the protective effect of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 with the action of a PI3-kinase selective activator 740 Y-P, selective agonists of alpha-2 adrenoreceptor, guanfacine and UK-14,304, and compounds having antioxidant effect: recombinant human peroxiredoxin 6 and B27, in hippocampal cell culture during OGD (ischemia-like conditions). It has been shown that the response of cells to OGD in the control includes two phases. The first phase was accompanied by an increase in the frequency of spontaneous synchronous Ca(2+)-oscillations (SSCO) in neurons and Ca(2+)-pulse in astrocytes...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048306/we-fg-bra-04-a-portable-confocal-microscope-to-image-live-cell-damage-response-induced-by-therapeutic-radiation
#17
C McFadden, D Flint, D Sadetaporn, A Asaithamby, D Grosshans, G Sawakuchi
PURPOSE: To construct a custom and portable fluorescence confocal laser-scanning microscope (FCLSM) that can be placed in the path of therapeutic radiation beams to study real-time radiation-induced damage response in live cells. METHODS: We designed and constructed a portable FCLSM with three laser diodes for excitation (405, 488, and 635 nm). An objective lens focuses the excitation light and collects fluorescence from the sample. A pair of galvanometer mirrors scans/collects the laser beam/fluorescence along the focal plane (x/y-directions)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019026/psychedelics-as-medicines-an-emerging-new-paradigm
#18
REVIEW
D E Nichols, M W Johnson, C D Nichols
Scientific interest in serotonergic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin and LSD; 5-HT2A receptor agonists) has dramatically increased within the last decade. Clinical studies administering psychedelics with psychotherapy have shown preliminary evidence of robust efficacy in treating anxiety and depression, as well as addiction to tobacco and alcohol. Moreover, recent research has suggested that these compounds have potential efficacy against inflammatory diseases through novel mechanisms, with potential advantages over existing antiinflammatory agents...
February 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923040/a-low-correlation-resting-state-of-the-striatum-during-cortical-avalanches-and-its-role-in-movement-suppression
#19
Andreas Klaus, Dietmar Plenz
During quiet resting behavior, involuntary movements are suppressed. Such movement control is attributed to cortico-basal ganglia loops, yet population dynamics within these loops during resting and their relation to involuntary movements are not well characterized. Here, we show by recording cortical and striatal ongoing population activity in awake rats during quiet resting that intrastriatal inhibition maintains a low-correlation striatal resting state in the presence of cortical neuronal avalanches. Involuntary movements arise from disturbed striatal resting activity through two different population dynamics...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915209/development-of-neural-population-activity-toward-self-organized-criticality
#20
Yuichiro Yada, Takeshi Mita, Akihiro Sanada, Ryuichi Yano, Ryohei Kanzaki, Douglas J Bakkum, Andreas Hierlemann, Hirokazu Takahashi
Self-organized criticality (SoC), a spontaneous dynamic state established and maintained in networks of moderate complexity, is a universal characteristic of neural systems. Such systems produce cascades of spontaneous activity that are typically characterized by power-law distributions and rich, stable spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., neuronal avalanches). Since the dynamics of the critical state confer advantages in information processing within neuronal networks, it is of great interest to determine how criticality emerges during development...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
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