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Neuronal avalanches

Oshrit Arviv, Mordekhay Medvedovsky, Liron Sheintuch, Abraham Goldstein, Oren Shriki
: The framework of criticality provides a unifying perspective on neuronal dynamics from in vitro cortical cultures to functioning human brains. Recent findings suggest that a healthy cortex displays critical dynamics, giving rise to scale-free spatiotemporal cascades of activity, termed neuronal avalanches. Pharmacological manipulations of the excitation-inhibition balance (EIB) in cortical cultures were previously shown to result in deviations from criticality and from the power law scaling of avalanche size distribution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ludmila Brochini, Ariadne de Andrade Costa, Miguel Abadi, Antônio C Roque, Jorge Stolfi, Osame Kinouchi
Phase transitions and critical behavior are crucial issues both in theoretical and experimental neuroscience. We report analytic and computational results about phase transitions and self-organized criticality (SOC) in networks with general stochastic neurons. The stochastic neuron has a firing probability given by a smooth monotonic function Φ(V) of the membrane potential V, rather than a sharp firing threshold. We find that such networks can operate in several dynamic regimes (phases) depending on the average synaptic weight and the shape of the firing function Φ...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicholas M Timme, Najja J Marshall, Nicholas Bennett, Monica Ripp, Edward Lautzenhiser, John M Beggs
The analysis of neural systems leverages tools from many different fields. Drawing on techniques from the study of critical phenomena in statistical mechanics, several studies have reported signatures of criticality in neural systems, including power-law distributions, shape collapses, and optimized quantities under tuning. Independently, neural complexity-an information theoretic measure-has been introduced in an effort to quantify the strength of correlations across multiple scales in a neural system. This measure represents an important tool in complex systems research because it allows for the quantification of the complexity of a neural system...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
L Michiels van Kessenich, L de Arcangelis, H J Herrmann
Neuronal avalanches measured in vitro and in vivo in different cortical networks consistently exhibit power law behaviour for the size and duration distributions with exponents typical for a mean field self-organized branching process. These exponents are also recovered in neuronal network simulations implementing various neuronal dynamics on different network topologies. They can therefore be considered a very robust feature of spontaneous neuronal activity. Interestingly, this scaling behaviour is also observed on regular lattices in finite dimensions, which raises the question about the origin of the mean field behavior observed experimentally...
2016: Scientific Reports
Todd Zorick, Jason Smith
Recent advances in neuroscience have raised the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG) signals is via power-law distributed neuronal avalanches, while EEG signals are nonstationary. Therefore, spectral analysis of EEG may miss many properties inherent in such signals. A complete understanding of such dynamical systems requires knowledge of the underlying nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In recent work by Fielitz and Borchardt (2011, 2014), the concept of information equilibrium (IE) in information transfer processes has successfully characterized many different systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
M Girardi-Schappo, G S Bortolotto, J J Gonsalves, L T Pinto, M H R Tragtenberg
Activity in the brain propagates as waves of firing neurons, namely avalanches. These waves' size and duration distributions have been experimentally shown to display a stable power-law profile, long-range correlations and 1/f (b) power spectrum in vivo and in vitro. We study an avalanching biologically motivated model of mammals visual cortex and find an extended critical-like region - a Griffiths phase - characterized by divergent susceptibility and zero order parameter. This phase lies close to the expected experimental value of the excitatory postsynaptic potential in the cortex suggesting that critical be-havior may be found in the visual system...
2016: Scientific Reports
F Lombardi, H J Herrmann, D Plenz, L de Arcangelis
Ongoing cortical activity consists of sequences of synchronized bursts, named neuronal avalanches, whose size and duration are power law distributed. These features have been observed in a variety of systems and conditions, at all spatial scales, supporting scale invariance, universality and therefore criticality. However, the mechanisms leading to burst triggering, as well as the relationship between bursts and quiescence, are still unclear. The analysis of temporal correlations constitutes a major step towards a deeper understanding of burst dynamics...
2016: Scientific Reports
Aleena Shaukat, Jean-Philippe Thivierge
Neural avalanches are a prominent form of brain activity characterized by network-wide bursts whose statistics follow a power-law distribution with a slope near 3/2. Recent work suggests that avalanches of different durations can be rescaled and thus collapsed together. This collapse mirrors work in statistical physics where it is proposed to form a signature of systems evolving in a critical state. However, no rigorous statistical test has been proposed to examine the degree to which neuronal avalanches collapse together...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Tiago L Ribeiro, Sidarta Ribeiro, Mauro Copelli
Neuronal avalanches measured as consecutive bouts of thresholded field potentials represent a statistical signature that the brain operates near a critical point. In theory, criticality optimizes stimulus sensitivity, information transmission, computational capability and mnemonic repertoires size. Field potential avalanches recorded via multielectrode arrays from cortical slice cultures are repeatable spatiotemporal activity patterns. It remains unclear whether avalanches of action potentials observed in forebrain regions of freely-behaving rats also form recursive repertoires, and whether these have any behavioral relevance...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Moira L Steyn-Ross, D A Steyn-Ross
Mean-field models of the brain approximate spiking dynamics by assuming that each neuron responds to its neighbors via a naive spatial average that neglects local fluctuations and correlations in firing activity. In this paper we address this issue by introducing a rigorous formalism to enable spatial coarse-graining of spiking dynamics, scaling from the microscopic level of a single type 1 (integrator) neuron to a macroscopic assembly of spiking neurons that are interconnected by chemical synapses and nearest-neighbor gap junctions...
February 2016: Physical Review. E
Sheng-Jun Wang, Guang Ouyang, Jing Guang, Mingsha Zhang, K Y Michael Wong, Changsong Zhou
Self-organized critical states (SOCs) and stochastic oscillations (SOs) are simultaneously observed in neural systems, which appears to be theoretically contradictory since SOCs are characterized by scale-free avalanche sizes but oscillations indicate typical scales. Here, we show that SOs can emerge in SOCs of small size systems due to temporal correlation between large avalanches at the finite-size cutoff, resulting from the accumulation-release process in SOCs. In contrast, the critical branching process without accumulation-release dynamics cannot exhibit oscillations...
January 8, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Todd Zorick, Mark A Mandelkern
Electroencephalography (EEG) is typically viewed through the lens of spectral analysis. Recently, multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that the underlying neuronal dynamics are characterized by scale-free avalanches. These results suggest that techniques from statistical physics may be used to analyze EEG signals. We utilized a publicly available database of fourteen subjects with waking and sleep stage 2 EEG tracings per subject, and observe that power-law dynamics of critical-state neuronal avalanches are not sufficient to fully describe essential features of EEG signals...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
S Amin Moosavi, Afshin Montakhab
Critical dynamics of cortical neurons have been intensively studied over the past decade. Neuronal avalanches provide the main experimental as well as theoretical tools to consider criticality in such systems. Experimental studies show that critical neuronal avalanches show mean-field behavior. There are structural as well as recently proposed [Phys. Rev. E 89, 052139 (2014)] dynamical mechanisms that can lead to mean-field behavior. In this work we consider a simple model of neuronal dynamics based on threshold self-organized critical models with synaptic noise...
2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Eric S Kuebler, Joseph S Tauskela, Amy Aylsworth, Xigeng Zhao, Jean-Philippe Thivierge
Neuronal activity in vitro exhibits network bursts characterized by brief periods of increased spike rates. Recent work shows that a subpopulation of neurons reliably predicts the occurrence of network bursts. Here, we examined the role of burst predictors in cultures undergoing an in vitro model of cerebral ischemia. Dissociated primary cortical neurons were plated on multielectrode arrays and spontaneous activity was recorded at 17 days in vitro (DIV). This activity was characterized by neuronal avalanches where burst statistics followed a power law...
December 9, 2015: Scientific Reports
Guido Gigante, Gustavo Deco, Shimon Marom, Paolo Del Giudice
Cortical networks, in-vitro as well as in-vivo, can spontaneously generate a variety of collective dynamical events such as network spikes, UP and DOWN states, global oscillations, and avalanches. Though each of them has been variously recognized in previous works as expression of the excitability of the cortical tissue and the associated nonlinear dynamics, a unified picture of the determinant factors (dynamical and architectural) is desirable and not yet available. Progress has also been partially hindered by the use of a variety of statistical measures to define the network events of interest...
November 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Oshrit Arviv, Abraham Goldstein, Oren Shriki
UNLABELLED: In recent years, numerous studies have found that the brain at resting state displays many features characteristic of a critical state. Here we examine whether stimulus-evoked activity can also be regarded as critical. Additionally, we investigate the relation between resting-state activity and stimulus-evoked activity from the perspective of criticality. We found that cortical activity measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG) is near critical and organizes as neuronal avalanches at both resting-state and stimulus-evoked activities...
October 14, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Zalán Rajna, Janne Kananen, Anja Keskinarkaus, Tapio Seppänen, Vesa Kiviniemi
Recent studies pinpoint visually cued networks of avalanches with MEG/EEG data. Co-activation pattern (CAP) analysis can be used to detect single brain volume activity profiles and hemodynamic fingerprints of neuronal avalanches as sudden high signal activity peaks in classical fMRI data. In this study, we aimed to detect dynamic patterns of brain activity spreads with the use of ultrafast MR encephalography (MREG). MREG achieves 10 Hz whole brain sampling, allowing the estimation of spatial spread of an avalanche, even with the inherent hemodynamic delay of the BOLD signal...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Timothy Bellay, Andreas Klaus, Saurav Seshadri, Dietmar Plenz
Spontaneous fluctuations in neuronal activity emerge at many spatial and temporal scales in cortex. Population measures found these fluctuations to organize as scale-invariant neuronal avalanches, suggesting cortical dynamics to be critical. Macroscopic dynamics, though, depend on physiological states and are ambiguous as to their cellular composition, spatiotemporal origin, and contributions from synaptic input or action potential (AP) output. Here, we study spontaneous firing in pyramidal neurons (PNs) from rat superficial cortical layers in vivo and in vitro using 2-photon imaging...
2015: ELife
Alexander Zhigalov, Gabriele Arnulfo, Lino Nobili, Satu Palva, J Matias Palva
A growing body of evidence suggests that the neuronal dynamics are poised at criticality. Neuronal avalanches and long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) are hallmarks of such critical dynamics in neuronal activity and occur at fast (subsecond) and slow (seconds to hours) timescales, respectively. The critical dynamics at different timescales can be characterized by their power-law scaling exponents. However, insight into the avalanche dynamics and LRTCs in the human brain has been largely obtained with sensor-level MEG and EEG recordings, which yield only limited anatomical insight and results confounded by signal mixing...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Erik D Fagerholm, Romy Lorenz, Gregory Scott, Martin Dinov, Peter J Hellyer, Nazanin Mirzaei, Clare Leeson, David W Carmichael, David J Sharp, Woodrow L Shew, Robert Leech
The analysis of neuronal avalanches supports the hypothesis that the human cortex operates with critical neural dynamics. Here, we investigate the relationship between cascades of activity in electroencephalogram data, cognitive state, and reaction time in humans using a multimodal approach. We recruited 18 healthy volunteers for the acquisition of simultaneous electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging during both rest and during a visuomotor cognitive task. We compared distributions of electroencephalogram-derived cascades to reference power laws for task and rest conditions...
March 18, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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