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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106812/whey-protein-hydrolysate-supplementation-accelerates-recovery-from-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-females
#1
Meghan A Brown, Emma J Stevenson, Glyn Howatson
A number of different forms of protein and their analogues have been investigated for their efficacy in ameliorating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and recovery. Preliminary data regarding whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) supplementation are promising. However, its efficacy beyond acute eccentric/resistance exercise bouts or longer-term training programmes are limited and all investigations have been conducted in male or mixed-sex groups. This study sought to elucidate whether the benefits of WPH previously reported can be demonstrated in females following repeated-sprint exercise...
November 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019743/injury-prevention-in-male-youth-soccer-current-practices-and-perceptions-of-practitioners-working-at-elite-english-academies
#2
Paul J Read, Pablo Jimenez, Jon L Oliver, Rhodri S Lloyd
Forty-one practitioners inclusive of physiotherapists, sports scientists and strength and conditioning coaches from the academies of elite soccer clubs in the United Kingdom completed an on-line questionnaire which examined their: (1) background information; (2) perceptions of injury occurrence and risk factors; (3) screening and return to play; and (4) approach to designing and delivering injury prevention programmes with a response rate of 55% (41/75). Contact injuries were the most common mechanism reported and players between 13-16 years of age were perceived to be at the greatest risk...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964827/movement-velocity-during-high-and-low-velocity-resistance-exercise-protocols-in-older-adults
#3
Darren L Richardson, Michael J Duncan, Alfonso Jimenez, Victoria M Jones, Paul M Juris, Neil D Clarke
The primary aim of the present study was to determine the actual movement velocity of high-velocity, low-load (HVLL) and low-velocity, high-load (LVHL) resistance exercise in a group of older adults. The secondary aim was to examine the differences in velocities produced between male and females. In a crossover study design, four males (age: 67±3years) and five females (age: 68±2years) completed three sets of leg press, calf raise, leg curl, leg extension, chest press, seated row, bicep curl and tricep extension on six separate occasions (three HVLL and three LVHL sessions)...
September 28, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964826/randomized-four-arm-dose-response-clinical-trial-to-optimize-resistance-exercise-training-for-older-adults-with-age-related-muscle-atrophy
#4
Michael J Stec, Anna Thalacker-Mercer, David L Mayhew, Neil A Kelly, S Craig Tuggle, Edward K Merritt, Cynthia J Brown, Samuel T Windham, Louis J Dell'Italia, C Scott Bickel, Brandon M Roberts, Kristina M Vaughn, Irina Isakova-Donahue, Gina M Many, Marcas M Bamman
PURPOSE: The myriad consequences of age-related muscle atrophy include reduced muscular strength, power, and mobility; increased risk of falls, disability, and metabolic disease; and compromised immune function. At its root, aging muscle atrophy results from a loss of myofibers and atrophy of the remaining type II myofibers. The purpose of this trial (NCT02442479) was to titrate the dose of resistance training (RT) in older adults in an effort to maximize muscle regrowth and gains in muscle function...
December 1, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936703/cross-education-of-muscular-strength-following-unilateral-resistance-training-a-meta-analysis
#5
A Manca, D Dragone, Z Dvir, Franca Deriu
PURPOSE: Cross-education (CE) of strength is a well-known phenomenon whereby exercise of one limb can induce strength gains in the contralateral untrained limb. The only available meta-analyses on CE, which date back to a decade ago, estimated a modest 7.8% increase in contralateral strength following unilateral training. However, in recent years new evidences have outlined larger contralateral gains, which deserve to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to appraise current data on CE and determine its overall magnitude of effect...
November 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912650/the-effects-combining-cryocompression-therapy-following-an-acute-bout-of-resistance-exercise-on-performance-and-recovery
#6
William H DuPont, Brek J Meuris, Vincent H Hardesty, Emily C Barnhart, Landon H Tompkins, Morricia J P Golden, Clayton J Usher, Paul A Spence, Lydia K Caldwell, Emily M Post, Matthew K Beeler, William J Kraemer
Compression and cold therapy used separately have shown to reduce negative effects of tissue damage. The combining compression and cold therapy (cryocompression) as a single recovery modality has yet to be fully examined. To examine the effects of cryocompression on recovery following a bout of heavy resistance exercise, recreationally resistance trained men (n =16) were recruited, matched, and randomly assigned to either a cryocompression group (CRC) or control group (CON). Testing was performed before and then immediately after exercise, 60 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours after a heavy resistance exercise workout (barbell back squats for 4 sets of 6 reps at 80% 1RM, 90 sec rest between sets, stiff legged deadlifts for 4 sets of 8 reps at 1...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900614/echocardiographic-evaluation-of-pulmonary-pressures-and-right-ventricular-function-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery-a-simple-approach-for-the-intensivist
#7
REVIEW
Maurice Beghetti
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is diagnosed using cardiac catheterization and is defined as an elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) greater than 25 mmHg. Although invasive hemodynamics remains the gold standard and is mandatory for disease confirmation, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is an extremely useful non-invasive and widely available tool that allows for screening and follow-up, in particular, in the acute setting. TTE may be a valuable alternative, allowing for direct measurement and/or indirect assessment of PAP...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887154/comparing-the-effects-of-two-distinct-eccentric-modalities-to-traditional-resistance-training-in-resistance-trained-higher-functioning-older-adults
#8
Ashley Gluchowski, Deborah Dulson, Fabrice Merien, Lindsay Plank, Nigel Harris
BACKGROUND: The effects of eccentric resistance exercise are of interest in the older adult cohort, but to our knowledge, there is no research on the relative effects of different eccentric modalities on a range of outcomes in higher functioning, resistance trained older adults. METHODS: 33 resistance-trained older adults (aged 67±4.5years) were randomized into one of three supervised training groups: traditional (TRE), eccentric only (ERE) or eccentrically biased resistance exercise (EBRE) on a 45°, plate-loaded leg press machine...
September 6, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885389/load-velocity-relationship-in-variations-of-the-half-squat-exercise-influence-of-execution-technique
#9
Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Amador García-Ramos, Paulino Padial, Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Belén Feriche
Previous studies have revealed that the velocity of the bar can be used to determine the intensity of different resistance training exercises. However, the load-velocity relationship seems to be exercise dependent. This study aimed to compare the load-velocity relationship obtained from two variations of the half-squat exercise (traditional vs. ballistic) using two execution techniques (eccentric-concentric vs. concentric-only). Twenty men performed a submaximal progressive loading test in four half-squat exercises: eccentric-concentric traditional-squat, concentric-only traditional-squat, countermovement jump (i...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738671/inertial-flywheel-resistance-training-and-muscle-oxygen-saturation
#10
Rafael Timón, Jesús G Ponce-González, José L González-Montesinos, Guillermo Olcina, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez, José Castro-Piñero
BACKGROUND: The inertial flywheel device causes an increase in eccentric overload during training. The aim was to study muscle oxygen saturation produced during an inertial flywheel squat training, comparing it with a barbell squat training. METHODS: Twelve male adults performed a barbell squat training (3 x 8 reps, 75-80% 1RM) and a flywheel squat training (3 x 8 reps, all-out). Muscle oxygen saturation (%SmO2), total hemoglobin (tHb), reoxygenation, heart rate (HR), lactate, vertical jumps, maximal voluntary isometric contraction and rated perceived exertion (RPE) were studied...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737588/longer-concentric-action-increases-muscle-activation-and-neuromuscular-fatigue-responses-in-protocols-equalized-by-repetition-duration
#11
Lucas T Lacerda, Cinara G Costa, Fernando V Lima, Hugo C Martins-Costa, Rodrigo C R Diniz, André G P Andrade, Gustavo H C Peixoto, Michael G Bemben, Mauro H Chagas
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of protocols equalized by the repetition duration but composed of different concentric and eccentric durations on muscle activation and neuromuscular fatigue. Seventeen males with previous experience in resistance training performed 3 training protocols (A - 2s con : 4s ecc; B - 3s con : 3s ecc; and C - 4s con : 2s ecc) with the Smith machine bench press exercise, all with 3 sets, 6 repetitions, 3 minutes' rest, and 60% of 1RM. The normalized root mean square of the electromyographic signal (EMGRMS) and mean frequency electromyography (EMGMF) for pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles were calculated for 2nd and 5th repetitions in each set...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725197/skeletal-muscle-remodeling-in-response-to-eccentric-vs-concentric-loading-morphological-molecular-and-metabolic-adaptations
#12
REVIEW
Martino V Franchi, Neil D Reeves, Marco V Narici
Skeletal muscle contracts either by shortening or lengthening (concentrically or eccentrically, respectively); however, the two contractions substantially differ from one another in terms of mechanisms of force generation, maximum force production and energy cost. It is generally known that eccentric actions generate greater force than isometric and concentric contractions and at a lower metabolic cost. Hence, by virtue of the greater mechanical loading involved in active lengthening, eccentric resistance training (ECC RT) is assumed to produce greater hypertrophy than concentric resistance training (CON RT)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715403/improving-strength-power-muscle-aerobic-capacity-and-glucose-tolerance-through-short-term-progressive-strength-training-among-elderly-people
#13
Eva A Andersson, Per Frank, Marjan Pontén, Björn Ekblom, Maria Ekblom, Marcus Moberg, Kent Sahlin
This protocol describes the simultaneous use of a broad span of methods to examine muscle aerobic capacity, glucose tolerance, strength, and power in elderly people performing short-term resistance training (RET). Supervised progressive resistance training for 1 h three times a week over 8 weeks was performed by RET participants (71±1 years, range 65-80). Compared to a control group without training, the RET showed improvements on the measures used to indicate strength, power, glucose tolerance, and several parameters of muscle aerobic capacity...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713281/effectiveness-of-traditional-strength-vs-power-training-on-muscle-strength-power-and-speed-with-youth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
David G Behm, James D Young, Joseph H D Whitten, Jonathan C Reid, Patrick J Quigley, Jonathan Low, Yimeng Li, Camila D Lima, Daniel D Hodgson, Anis Chaouachi, Olaf Prieske, Urs Granacher
Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677940/effect-of-shoulder-position-on-triceps-brachii-heads-activity-in-dumbbell-elbow-extension-exercises
#15
Daniel de Souza Alves, Thiago T da Matta, Liliam F de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Elbow extension exercises in different shoulder positions are selected to raise distinct effort levels among the triceps brachii heads. Because there are several triceps exercises, its choice is a big challenge on resistance training prescription. The present study aimed to compare the electromyographic signal of triceps brachii long and lateral heads among three different elbow ranges of motion (ROM) during two commonly prescribed elbow extension exercises: overhead dumbbell elbow extension (OD) and lying dumbbell elbow extension (LD)...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657932/the-influence-of-external-load-on-quadriceps-muscle-and-tendon-dynamics-during-jumping
#16
Jacob E Earp, Robert U Newton, Prue Cormie, Anthony J Blazevich
Tendons possess both viscous (rate-dependent) and elastic (rate-independent) properties that determine tendon function. During high-speed movements external loading increases both the magnitude (FT) and rate (RFDT) of tendon loading. PURPOSE: The influence of external loading on muscle and tendon dynamics during maximal vertical jumping was explored. METHODS: Ten resistance-trained men performed parallel-depth, countermovement vertical jumps with and without additional load (0%, 30%, 60%, and 90% of maximum squat lift strength), while joint kinetics and kinematics, quadriceps tendon length (LT) and patellar tendon FT and RFDT were estimated using integrated ultrasound, motion analysis and force platform data and muscle tendon modelling...
November 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641044/the-effects-of-short-versus-long-inter-set-rest-intervals-in-resistance-training-on-measures-of-muscle-hypertrophy-a-systematic-review
#17
Jozo Grgic, Bruno Lazinica, Pavle Mikulic, James W Krieger, Brad Jon Schoenfeld
Although the effects of short versus long inter-set rest intervals in resistance training on measures of muscle hypertrophy have been investigated in several studies, the findings are equivocal and the practical implications remain unclear. In an attempt to provide clarity on the topic, we performed a systematic literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) electronic databases. Six studies were found to have met the inclusion criteria: (a) an experimental trial published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal; (b) the study compared the use of short (≤60 s) to long (>60 s) inter-set rest intervals in a traditional dynamic resistance exercise using both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, with the only difference in resistance training among groups being the inter-set rest interval duration; (c) at least one method of measuring changes in muscle mass was used in the study; (d) the study lasted for a minimum of four weeks, employed a training frequency of ≥2 resistance training days per week, and (e) used human participants without known chronic disease or injury...
September 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630577/effects-of-high-velocity-elastic-band-versus-heavy-resistance-training-on-hamstring-strength-activation-and-sprint-running-performance
#18
Donatas Janusevicius, Audrius Snieckus, Albertas Skurvydas, Viktoras Silinskas, Eugenijus Trinkunas, Joan Aureli Cadefau, Sigitas Kamandulis
Hamstring muscle injuries occur during high-speed activities, which suggests that muscular strength at high velocities may be more important than maximal strength. This study examined hamstring adaptations to training for maximal strength and for strength at high velocities. Physically active men (n = 25; age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years) were randomly divided into: (1) a resistance training (RT, n = 8) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions; (2) a resistance training concentric (RTC; n = 9) group, which performed high-load, low-velocity concentric-only hamstring contractions; and (3) a high-velocity elastic band training (HVT, n = 8) group, which performed low-load, high-velocity concentric-eccentric hamstring contractions...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628245/effects-of-resistance-training-using-known-vs-unknown-loads-on-eccentric-phase-adaptations-and-concentric-velocity
#19
J L Hernández-Davó, R Sabido, D G Behm, A J Blazevich
The aims of this study were to compare both eccentric- and concentric-phase adaptations in highly trained handball players to 4 weeks of twice-weekly rebound bench press throw training with varying loads (30%, 50% and 70% of one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) using either known (KL) or unknown (UL) loads and to examine the relationship between changes in eccentric- and concentric-phase performance. Twenty-eight junior team handball players were divided into two experimental groups (KL or UL) and a control group...
June 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571132/cardiovascular-response-and-serum-interleukin-6-level-in-concentric-vs-eccentric-exercise
#20
Mayank Agarwal, Shraddha Singh, Jagdish Narayan, Shivani Pandey, Sunita Tiwari, Priyanka Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Resistance exercise is strongly recommended for implementation in CVD prevention programs. Dynamic resistance exercise comprises of concentric (muscle shortening) and eccentric (muscle lengthening) phase. The contraction of skeletal muscle promotes the synthesis and secretion of cytokines and peptides from myocytes, known as 'myokines'. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the first myokine to be released in the blood in response to exercise...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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