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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770129/cutaneous-papillomaviruses-and-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-causal-agents-or-innocent-bystanders
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Hasche, Sabrina E Vinzón, Frank Rösl
There is still controversy in the scientific field about whether certain types of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causally involved in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Deciphering the etiological role of cutaneous HPVs requires - besides tissue culture systems - appropriate preclinical models to match the obtained results with clinical data from affected patients. Clear scientific evidence about the etiology and underlying mechanisms involved in NMSC development is fundamental to provide reasonable arguments for public health institutions to classify at least certain cutaneous HPVs as group 1 carcinogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768082/mary-jane-hogue-1883-1962-a-pioneer-in-human-brain-tissue-culture
#2
Steven J Zottoli, Ernst-August Seyfarth
The ability to maintain human brain explants in tissue culture was a critical step in the use of these cells for the study of central nervous system disorders. Ross G. Harrison (1870-1959) was the first to successfully maintain frog medullary tissue in culture in 1907, but it took another 38 years before successful culture of human brain tissue was accomplished. One of the pioneers in this achievement was Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962). Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 in West Chester, Pennsylvania, and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College in Baltimore, Maryland...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766931/-in-vitro-differentiation-of-neural-cells-from-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells
#3
Shruti D Dave, Chetan N Patel, Aruna V Vanikar, Hargovind L Trivedi
Background: Stem cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs), are endowed with self-renewal capability and hence hold great opportunity for the institution of replacement/protective therapy. We propose a method for in vitro generation of stromal cells from human adipose tissue and their differentiation into neural cells. Materials and Methods: Ten grams of donor adipose tissue was surgically resected from the abdominal wall of the human donor after the participants' informed consents...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766620/insane-in-the-apical-membrane-trafficking-events-mediating-apicobasal-epithelial-polarity-during-tube-morphogenesis
#4
REVIEW
Cayla E Jewett, Rytis Prekeris
The creation of cellular tubes is one of the most vital developmental processes, resulting in the formation of most organ types. Cells have co-opted a number of different mechanisms for tube morphogenesis that vary among tissues and organisms; however, generation and maintenance of cell polarity is fundamental for successful lumenogenesis. Polarized membrane transport has emerged as a key driver not only for establishing individual epithelial cell polarity, but also for coordination of epithelial polarization during apical lumen formation and tissue morphogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765425/production-of-adult-human-synovial-fluid-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-stirred-suspension-culture
#5
Kristen D Jorgenson, David A Hart, Roman Krawetz, Arindom Sen
The chondrogenic potential of synovial fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SF-MSCs) supports their use in cartilage regeneration strategies. However, their paucity in synovial fluid necessitates their proliferation in culture to generate clinically relevant quantities. Here it was determined that 125 mL stirred suspension bioreactors utilizing Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads represent a viable platform for the proliferation of these cells. During the inoculation phase, a bead loading of 2 g/L, an inoculation ratio of 4...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763507/effect-of-titanium-surfaces-on-the-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#6
Diogo Godoy Zanicotti, Warwick John Duncan, Gregory John Seymour, Dawn Elizabeth Coates
PURPOSE: To investigate whether human adipose-derived stem cells will form a functional bone-like matrix on titanium substrates. The behavior of human adipose-derived stem cells was examined when grown in either serum-free, xeno-free stem cell growth medium or osteogenic differentiation medium and cultured on either machined titanium (MTi) or on roughened alumina-blasted titanium (ABTi) discs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cellular proliferation, extracellular mineralized matrix production, osteogenic-related protein production (RUNX2 and osteocalcin), and gene expression for pluripotency and self-renewal (TERT and OCT4) and osteogenic-related (MSX2, RUNX2, and BGLAP) genes were performed...
May 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756030/3d-tissue-engineered-in-vitro-models-of-cancer-in-bone
#7
Anna M Sitarski, Heather Fairfield, Carolyne Falank, Michaela R Reagan
Biological models are necessary tools for gaining insight into underlying mechanisms governing complex pathologies such as cancer in the bone. Models range from in vitro tissue culture systems to in vivo models and can be used with corresponding epidemiological and clinical data to understand disease etiology, progression, driver mutations, and signaling pathways. In bone cancer, as with many other cancers, in vivo models are often too complex to study specific cell-cell interactions or protein roles, and 2D models are often too simple to accurately represent disease processes...
February 12, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751771/unique-and-shared-inflammatory-profiles-of-human-brain-endothelia-and-pericytes
#8
Leon C D Smyth, Justin Rustenhoven, Thomas I-H Park, Patrick Schweder, Deidre Jansson, Peter A Heppner, Simon J O'Carroll, Edward W Mee, Richard L M Faull, Maurice Curtis, Mike Dragunow
BACKGROUND: Pericytes and endothelial cells are critical cellular components of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and play an important role in neuroinflammation. To date, the majority of inflammation-related studies in endothelia and pericytes have been carried out using immortalised cell lines or non-human-derived cells. Whether these are representative of primary human cells is unclear and systematic comparisons of the inflammatory responses of primary human brain-derived pericytes and endothelia has yet to be performed...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750140/proof-of-principle-that-a-decoy-virus-protects-oncolytic-measles-virus-against-neutralizing-antibodies
#9
Chun Xu, Annika Verena Goß, Carmen Dorneburg, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Jiwu Wei, Christian Beltinger
Background: Attenuated oncolytic measles virus (OMV) is a promising antitumor agent in early-phase clinical trials. However, pre-existing immunity against measles might be a hurdle for OMV therapy. Methods: OMV was inactivated with short-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV-C). Loss of replication and oncolytic activity of UV-inactivated OMV were confirmed by tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50 ) assay using Vero cells and by flow cytometry using Jurkat cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to verify that UV-inactivated OMV remained antigenic...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748819/recent-advances-in-steroidal-saponins-biosynthesis-and-in-vitro-production
#10
REVIEW
Swati Upadhyay, Gajendra Singh Jeena, Shikha, Rakesh Kumar Shukla
Steroidal saponins exhibited numerous pharmacological activities due to the modification of their backbone by different cytochrome P450s (P450) and UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Plant-derived steroidal saponins are not sufficient for utilizing them for commercial purpose so in vitro production of saponin by tissue culture, root culture, embryo culture, etc, is necessary for its large-scale production. Saponin glycosides are the important class of plant secondary metabolites, which consists of either steroidal or terpenoidal backbone...
May 10, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747634/regulation-of-fibroblast-fas-expression-by-soluble-and-mechanical-pro-fibrotic-stimuli
#11
Amos E Dodi, Iyabode O Ajayi, Christine Chang, Meghan Beard, Shanna L Ashley, Steven K Huang, Victor J Thannickal, Daniel J Tschumperlin, Thomas H Sisson, Jeffrey C Horowitz
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast apoptosis is a critical component of normal repair and the acquisition of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype contributes to the pathogenesis of fibrotic repair. Fibroblasts from fibrotic lungs of humans and mice demonstrate resistance to apoptosis induced by Fas-ligand and prior studies have shown that susceptibility to apoptosis is enhanced when Fas (CD95) expression is increased in these cells. Moreover, prior work shows that Fas expression in fibrotic lung fibroblasts is reduced by epigenetic silencing of the Fas promoter...
May 10, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746242/biochemical-analyses-of-human-iron-sulfur-protein-biogenesis-and-of-related-diseases
#12
Oliver Stehling, Viktoria D Paul, Janina Bergmann, Somsuvro Basu, Roland Lill
Maturation of Fe/S proteins in mammals is an intricate process mediated by two assembly systems located in the mitochondrial and cytosolic-nuclear compartments. Malfunction particularly of the mitochondrial system gives rise to severe neurological, metabolic, or hematological disorders, often with fatal outcome. In this chapter, we describe approaches for the differential biochemical investigation of cellular Fe/S protein maturation in mitochondria, cytosol, and nucleus. The analyses may also facilitate the identification of the affected Fe/S protein assembly step in diseased state...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741358/fibrous-topography-potentiated-canonical-wnt-signaling-directs-the-odontoblastic-differentiation-of-dental-pulp-derived-stem-cells
#13
Saeed Ur Rahman, Joung-Hwan Oh, Young-Dan Cho, Shin Hye Chung, Gene Lee, Jeong-Hwa Baek, Hyun-Mo Ryoo, Kyung Mi Woo
Nanofibrous engineered matrices have significant potential in cellular differentiation and tissue regeneration. Stem cells require specific extracellular signals that lead to the induction of different lineages. However, the mechanisms by which the nanofibrous matrix promotes mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the mechanisms which underlie nanofibrous matrix-induced odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp MSCs (DP-MSCs). An electrospun polystyrene nanofibrous (PSF) matrix was prepared, and the cell responses to the PSF matrix were assessed in comparison with those on conventional tissue culture dishes...
May 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740679/analysis-of-rabies-diagnosis-in-dogs-and-cats-in-the-state-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#14
Juliana Galera Castilho, Samira Maria Achkar, Rafael de Novaes Oliveira, Enio Mori, Pedro Carnieli, Carla Isabel Macedo
The genetic lineage of rabies virus (RABV) associated with dogs has not been found in the state of São Paulo since 1998, and all cases of rabies in domestic animals reported since then have involved the RABV lineage that circulates in bats. As there has been a change in the rabies transmission cycle in cats and dogs, we decided to analyze the tests used to diagnose rabies in these animals in the 15-year period from 2002 to 2016 in the state of São Paulo. During this period, 85,508 central nervous system (CNS) samples from dogs and cats were submitted to the Rabies Diagnosis Section at the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo for testing...
May 8, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740450/a-novel-three-dimensional-immune-oncology-model-for-high-throughput-testing-of-tumoricidal-activity
#15
Hilary Sherman, Hannah J Gitschier, Ann E Rossi
The latest advancements in oncology research are focused on autologous immune cell therapy. However, the effectiveness of this type of immunotherapy for cancer remediation is not equivalent for all patients or cancer types. This suggests the need for better preclinical screening models that more closely recapitulate in vivo tumor biology. The established method for investigating tumoricidal activity of immunotherapies has been study of two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures of immortalized cancer cell lines or primary tumor cells in standard tissue culture vessels...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739270/bioinspired-3d-human-neuromuscular-junction-development-in-suspended-hydrogel-arrays
#16
Thomas Dixon, Eliad Cohen, Dana Meredith Cairns, Maria Rodriguez, Juanita Mathews, Rod Jose, David L Kaplan
The physical connection between motoneurons and skeletal muscle targets is responsible for the creation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), which allow electrical signals to be translated to mechanical work. NMJ pathology contributes to the spectrum of neuromuscular, motoneuron, and dystrophic disease. Improving in vitro tools that allow for recapitulation of the physiology of the neuromuscular connection will enable researchers to better understand the development and maturation of NMJs, and will help to decipher mechanisms leading to NMJ degeneration...
May 9, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736623/in-vitro-plant-tissue-culture-means-for-production-of-biological-active-compounds
#17
REVIEW
Claudia A Espinosa-Leal, César A Puente-Garza, Silverio García-Lara
Plant tissue culture as an important tool for the continuous production of active compounds including secondary metabolites and engineered molecules. Novel methods (gene editing, abiotic stress) can improve the technique. Humans have a long history of reliance on plants for a supply of food, shelter and, most importantly, medicine. Current-day pharmaceuticals are typically based on plant-derived metabolites, with new products being discovered constantly. Nevertheless, the consistent and uniform supply of plant pharmaceuticals has often been compromised...
May 7, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736584/bioreactors-and-microfluidics-for-osteochondral-interface-maturation
#18
Raphaël F Canadas, Alexandra P Marques, Rui L Reis, J Miguel Oliveira
The cell culture techniques are in the base of any biology-based science. The standard techniques are commonly static platforms as Petri dishes, tissue culture well plates, T-flasks, or well plates designed for spheroids formation. These systems faced a paradigm change from 2D to 3D over the current decade driven by the tissue engineering (TE) field. However, 3D static culture approaches usually suffer from several issues as poor homogenization of the formed tissues and development of a necrotic center which limits the size of in vitro tissues to hundreds of micrometers...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734680/the-use-of-proteomic-tools-to-address-challenges-faced-in-clonal-propagation-of-tropical-crops-through-somatic-embryogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Chiew Foan Chin, Hooi Sin Tan
In many tropical countries with agriculture as the mainstay of the economy, tropical crops are commonly cultivated at the plantation scale. The successful establishment of crop plantations depends on the availability of a large quantity of elite seedling plants. Many plantation companies establish plant tissue culture laboratories to supply planting materials for their plantations and one of the most common applications of plant tissue culture is the mass propagation of true-to-type elite seedlings. However, problems encountered in tissue culture technology prevent its applications being widely adopted...
May 4, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731649/comparative-evaluation-of-methods-for-the-detection-of-biofilm-formation-in-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-and-correlation-with-antibiogram
#20
Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are normal commensals of human skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of CNS among clinical isolates, characterize them up to species level, compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation, and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and methods: CNS were obtained from various clinical samples including blood, urine, central venous catheter tips, endotracheal tube aspirate, and pus during a 1-year period (July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
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