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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338924/dynamic-epigenetic-changes-during-plant-regeneration
#1
REVIEW
Kyounghee Lee, Pil Joon Seo
Plants have the remarkable ability to drive cellular dedifferentiation and regeneration. Changes in epigenetic landscapes accompany the cell fate transition. Notably, modifications of chromatin structure occur primarily during callus formation via an in vitro tissue culture process and, thus, pluripotent callus cells have unique epigenetic signatures. Here, we highlight the latest progress in epigenetic regulation of callus formation in plants, which addresses fundamental questions related to cell fate changes and pluripotency establishment...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338819/in-vitro-efficacy-of-continuous-mild-high-temperature-on-the-biofilm-formation-of-aspergillus-niger
#2
Rong Zeng, Jian Bo Tong, Yu Zhen Liu, Qing Chen, Tong Lin, Min Li, Gui Xia Lü
Objective To investigate whether continuous mild high temperature (increased temperature without causing significant damage to host cells) can inhibit the biofilm formation of Aspergillus niger (A.niger) and its vitality.Methods A.niger biofilms were formed on a coverslip in 24-well tissue culture plate and were checked at the time points 4,8,10,16,24,48 and 72 hours.Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to image and quantify A.niger biofilm formation under three different continuous mild high temperatures at 37℃,39℃,and 41℃...
December 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337622/isolation-of-avipoxvirus-from-tongue-of-canaries-serinus-canaria-show-severe-localized-proliferative-glossitis
#3
Salvatore Catania, Silvia Carnaccini, Marta Mainenti, Maria Luisa Moronato, Federica Gobbo, Terregino Calogero
Poxvirus was the causative agent of two unusual outbreaks of proliferative glossitis in canary ( Serinus canaria forma domestica) breeders in the Northern Italy. A total of 45, 7-9-mo-old canaries were submitted in fair postmortem conditions to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie at the beginning of November 2005 for diagnostic investigation. Birds belonged to two unrelated and geographically distant aviaries in northern Italy, herein identified as Aviary A and Aviary B. The two breeder flocks had both attended the same bird exposition held at the beginning of October and started experiencing an onset of high mortality 3 wk after the show...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336215/non-invasive-real-time-assessment-of-cell-viability-in-a-three-dimensional-tissue
#4
Seyed Hossein Mahfouzi, Ghassem Amoabediny, Ali Doryab, Seyed Hamid Safiabadi-Tali, Mostafa Ghanei
Maintaining cell viability within 3D tissue engineering scaffolds is an essential step toward a functional tissue or organ. Assessment of cell viability in 3D scaffolds is necessary to control and optimize tissue culture process. Monitoring systems based on respiration activity of cells (e.g., oxygen consumption) have been used in various cell cultures. In this research, an online monitoring system based on respiration activity was developed to monitor cell viability within acellular lung scaffolds. First, acellular lung scaffolds were recellularized with human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells, and then, cell viability was monitored during a 5-day period...
January 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334734/a-method-for-selective-depletion-of-zn-ii-ions-from-complex-biological-media-and-evaluation-of-cellular-consequences-of-zn-ii-deficiency
#5
Christopher E R Richardson, Lisa S Cunden, Vincent L Butty, Elizabeth M Nolan, Stephen J Lippard, Matthew D Shoulders
We describe the preparation, evaluation, and application of an S100A12 protein-conjugated solid support, hereafter the "A12-resin," that can remove 99% of Zn(II) from complex biological solutions without significantly perturbing the concentrations of other metal ions. The A12-resin can be applied to selectively deplete Zn(II) from diverse tissue culture media and from other biological fluids, including human serum. To further demonstrate the utility of this approach, we investigated metabolic, transcriptomic, and metallomic responses of HEK293 cells cultured in medium depleted of Zn(II) using S100A12...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333043/picroside-i-and-picroside-ii-from-tissue-cultures-of-picrorhiza-kurroa
#6
Yamjala Ganeshkumar, Ajmera Ramarao, Ciddi Veeresham
Background: Picrorhiza kurroa (PK) belongs to Scrophulariaceae family and is a representative endemic, medicinal herb, widely distributed throughout the higher altitudes of alpine Himalayas from west to east, between 3000 and 4500 m above mean sea level. Objective: The objective of the present study is to assess the production of picroside I and picroside II from tissue cultures of PK. Materials and Methods: Auxiliary shoot tips of PK were incubated in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid and kinetin phytohormones...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330036/regulation-of-fibrotic-changes-by-the-synergistic-effects-of-cytokines-dimensionality-and-matrix-towards-the-development-of-an-in-vitro-human-dermal-hypertrophic-scar-model
#7
Shikha Chawla, Sourabh Ghosh
Current therapeutic strategies to reduce scarring in full thickness skin defect offer limited success due to poor understanding of scar tissue formation and the underlying signaling pathways. There is an urgent need to develop human cell based in vitro scar tissue models as animal testing is associated with ethical and logistic complications and inter-species variations. Pro-inflammatory cytokines play critical role in regulating scar development through complex interplay and interaction with the ECM and corresponding signaling pathways...
January 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325889/early-cell-response-of-osteogenic-cells-on-differently-modified-implant-surfaces-sequences-of-cell-proliferation-adherence-and-differentiation
#8
Sebastian Blatt, Andreas Max Pabst, Eik Schiegnitz, Marco Hosang, Thomas Ziebart, Christian Walter, Bilal Al-Nawas, Marcus Oliver Klein
OBJECTIVES: Osseointegration of dental implants is a crucial prerequisite for long-term survival. Therefore, surface modifications are needed to interact with the extracellular environment and to trigger osteogenic cell responses such as cell proliferation, adherence, and differentiation. The purpose of this study was to investigate different surface modifications in vitro over 2 weeks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Commercially available cells from a human osteogenic cell line (HHOB-c) were cultivated on the following surfaces: titanium with smooth surfaces (polished titanium (P), machined titanium (M), polyetheretherketone (Peek)), titanium with rough and hydrophilised surfaces (acid etched titanium (A), sandblasted acid etched titanium (SA and SA2), sandblasted acid etched hydrophilised (SAH), titanium plasma painted titanium (TPS)), titanium with calcium phosphate-containing surfaces (titanium plasma painted calcium phosphate modified titanium (TPS-CaP), sandblasted calcium phosphate modified titanium (S-CaP), sandblasted acid etched calcium phosphate modified titanium (SA-CaP)), and zirconium-oxide (yttrium amplified zirconium (Z), yttrium amplified Ca2+ delivering zirconium (Z-Ca))...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324306/mechanically-resilient-injectable-scaffolds-for-intramuscular-stem-cell-delivery-and-cytokine-release
#9
Stuart A Young, Stephen E Sherman, Tyler T Cooper, Cody Brown, Fraz Anjum, David A Hess, Lauren E Flynn, Brian G Amsden
A promising strategy for treating peripheral ischemia involves the delivery of stem cells to promote angiogenesis through paracrine signaling. Treatment success depends on cell localization, retention, and survival within the mechanically dynamic intramuscular (IM) environment. Herein we describe an injectable, in situ-gelling hydrogel for the IM delivery of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), specifically designed to withstand the dynamic loading conditions of the lower limb and facilitate cytokine release from encapsulated cells...
January 4, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321325/the-identification-and-characterization-of-sindbis-virus-rna-host-protein-interactions
#10
Autumn T LaPointe, Natasha N Gebhart, Megan E Meller, Richard W Hardy, Kevin J Sokoloski
Arthropod-borne viruses, such as the members of genus Alphavirus, are a significant concern to global public health. As obligate intracellular pathogens, RNA viruses must interact with the host cell machinery to establish, and complete, their viral lifecycles. Despite considerable efforts to define the host/pathogen interactions essential for alphaviral replication, an unbiased and inclusive assessment of alphaviral RNA:protein interactions has not been undertaken. Moreover, the biological and molecular importance of these interactions, in the full context of their molecular function as RNA-binding proteins, has not been fully realized...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321321/functional-analysis-of-the-dengue-virus-genome-using-an-insertional-mutagenesis-screen
#11
Jeffrey W Perry, Yanhua Chen, Elizabeth Speliotes, Andrew W Tai
In the last few decades, dengue virus, an arbovirus, has spread to over 120 countries. Although a vaccine has been approved in some countries, limitations on its effectiveness, and a lack of effective antiviral treatments reinforce the need for additional research. The functions of several viral nonstructural proteins are essentially unknown. To better understand the functions of these proteins and thus dengue virus pathogenesis, we embarked on a genome wide transposon mutagenesis screen with Next Generation Sequencing to determine sites in the viral genome that tolerate 15 nucleotide insertions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317369/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-extracellular-matrix-enhances-chondrogenic-phenotype-of-and-cartilage-formation-by-encapsulated-chondrocytes-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#12
Yuanheng Yang, Hang Lin, He Shen, Bing Wang, Guanghua Lei, Rocky S Tuan
Mesenchymal stem cell derived extracellular matrix (MSC-ECM) is a natural biomaterial with robust bioactivity and good biocompatibility, and has been studied as a scaffold for tissue engineering. In this investigation, we tested the applicability of using decellularized human bone marrow derived MSC-ECM (hBMSC-ECM) as a culture substrate for chondrocyte expansion in vitro, as well as a scaffold for chondrocyte-based cartilage repair. hBMSC-ECM deposited by hBMSCs cultured on tissue culture plastic (TCP) was harvested, and then subjected to a decellularization process to remove hBMSCs...
January 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315257/post-modified-polypeptides-with-ucst-type-behavior-for-control-of-cell-attachment-in-physiological-conditions
#13
Xuan Xue, Lalitha Thiagarajan, James E Dixon, Brian R Saunders, Kevin M Shakesheff, Cameron Alexander
Upper Critical Solution Temperature (UCST)-type thermally responsive polypeptides (TRPs) with phase transition temperatures around 37 °C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer (pH 7.4, 100 mM) were prepared from poly(l-ornithine) hydrobromide and coated on non-tissue culture-treated plastic plates (nTCP). Cell adhesion was observed at temperatures above the phase transition temperature of the coating polymer (39 °C), while cell release was triggered when the culture temperature was switched to 37 °C. Approximately 65% of the attached cells were released from the surface within 6 h after changing the temperature, and more than 96% of the released cells were viable...
January 9, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314033/amustaline-s-303-treatment-inactivates-high-levels-of-chikungunya-virus-in-red-blood-cell-components
#14
M Aubry, A Laughhunn, F Santa Maria, M C Lanteri, A Stassinopoulos, D Musso
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been reported in all continents, and the potential risk for CHIKV transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) was demonstrated by the detection of CHIKV RNA-positive donations in several countries. TTIs can be reduced by pathogen inactivation (PI) of blood products. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of amustaline and glutathione (S-303/GSH) to inactivate CHIKV in red-blood-cell concentrates (RBCs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Red-blood-cells were spiked with high level of CHIKV...
January 4, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310749/culture-independent-approaches-to-chlamydial-genomics
#15
Alyce Taylor-Brown, Danielle Madden, Adam Polkinghorne
The expanding field of bacterial genomics has revolutionized our understanding of microbial diversity, biology and phylogeny. For most species, DNA extracted from culture material is used as the template for genome sequencing; however, the majority of microbes are actually uncultivable, and others, such as obligate intracellular bacteria, require laborious tissue culture to yield sufficient genomic material for sequencing. Chlamydiae are one such group of obligate intracellular microbes whose characterization has been hampered by this requirement...
January 3, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301233/analyses-of-tissue-culture-adaptation-of-human-herpesvirus-6a-by-whole-genome-deep-sequencing-redefines-the-reference-sequence-and-identifies-virus-entry-complex-changes
#16
Joshua G Tweedy, Eric Escriva, Maya Topf, Ursula A Gompels
Tissue-culture adaptation of viruses can modulate infection. Laboratory passage and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)mid cloning of human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, resulted in genomic deletions and rearrangements altering genes encoding the virus entry complex, which affected cellular tropism, virulence, and vaccine development. Here, we analyse these effects on the reference genome for related betaherpesviruses, Roseolovirus, human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) strain U1102. This virus is also naturally "cloned" by germline subtelomeric chromosomal-integration in approximately 1% of human populations, and accurate references are key to understanding pathological relationships between exogenous and endogenous virus...
December 31, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300297/e3l-and-f1l-gene-functions-modulate-the-protective-capacity-of-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-immunization-in-murine-model-of-human-smallpox
#17
Asisa Volz, Sylvia Jany, Astrid Freudenstein, Markus Lantermann, Holger Ludwig, Gerd Sutter
The highly attenuated Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) lacks most of the known vaccinia virus (VACV) virulence and immune evasion genes. Today MVA can serve as a safety-tested next-generation smallpox vaccine. Yet, we still need to learn about regulatory gene functions preserved in the MVA genome, such as the apoptosis inhibitor genes F1L and E3L. Here, we tested MVA vaccine preparations on the basis of the deletion mutant viruses MVA-ΔF1L and MVA-ΔE3L for efficacy against ectromelia virus (ECTV) challenge infections in mice...
January 4, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299897/successful-treatment-of-protothecal-tenosynovitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-using-amphotericin-b-deoxycholate
#18
Ji Eun Kim, Tae Hoon Oh, Kyung Hwa Lee, Jong Hee Shin, Sook In Jung
Protothecosis is an uncommon human infection caused by achlorophyllic algae of the genus Prototheca, especially P. wickerhamii. The skin is the most frequently involved organ and cases of protothecal tenosynovitis are very rare. A 71-year-old woman without prior medical history except hypertension presented with painful swelling of her right hand that did not improve despite receiving antibiotic treatment. She underwent tenosynovectomy and drainage. Histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and numerous spherical or morula-like organisms with a spoked wheel appearance...
December 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299515/models-for-the-study-of-nasal-and-sinus-physiology-in-health-and-disease-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Ahmed A Al-Sayed, Remigius U Agu, Emad Massoud
Objective: Chronic sinusitis is a very common yet poorly understood medical condition with significant morbidity. Hence, it remains an entity that is difficult to treat with unsatisfactory outcomes of current management options. This necessitates research into the etiology and pathophysiology of the condition to enhance our knowledge and the therapeutic options. Unfortunately, this kind of research is not always feasible on human subjects due to practical and ethical limitations. Therefore, an alternative model that simulates the disease had to be found in order to overcome these limitations...
December 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299323/a-transcriptional-view-on-somatic-embryogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Anneke Horstman, Marian Bemer, Kim Boutilier
Somatic embryogenesis is a form of induced plant cell totipotency where embryos develop from somatic or vegetative cells in the absence of fertilization. Somatic embryogenesis can be induced in vitro by exposing explants to stress or growth regulator treatments. Molecular genetics studies have also shown that ectopic expression of specific embryo- and meristem-expressed transcription factors or loss of certain chromatin-modifying proteins induces spontaneous somatic embryogenesis. We begin this review with a general description of the major developmental events that define plant somatic embryogenesis and then focus on the transcriptional regulation of this process in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis)...
August 2017: Regeneration
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