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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913195/breast-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-stimulate-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-pro-angiogenic-behavior-of-adipose-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Young Hye Song, Christine Warncke, Sung Jin Choi, Siyoung Choi, Aaron E Chiou, Lu Ling, Han-Yuan Liu, Susan Daniel, Marc A Antonyak, Richard A Cerione, Claudia Fischbach
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are abundantly present in the mammary microenvironment and can promote breast cancer malignancy by differentiating into myofibroblasts. However, it remains largely unclear which role tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) play in this process. Here, we used microfabricated, type I collagen-based 3-D tissue culture platforms to investigate the effect of breast cancer cell-derived TEVs on ASCs myofibroblast differentiation and consequential changes in extracellular matrix remodeling and vascular sprouting...
November 29, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912987/gp85-protein-vaccine-adjuvanted-with-silica-nanoparticles-against-alv-j-in-chickens
#2
Jia Cheng, Shiyong Wen, Shenghua Wang, Pan Hao, Ziqiang Cheng, Yongxia Liu, Peng Zhao, Jianzhu Liu
This study focused on the effect of silica nanoparticles as adjuvant for vaccine applications comprised of gp85, a dominating structural protein of J Subgroup Avian Leukosis Virus (ALV-J), and which was evaluated by comparing with the responsiveness induced by that emulsified in Freund adjuvant. Thirty-six chickens were inoculated twice with gp85 adjuvanted with the silica nanoparticles or Freund's adjuvant at the 2nd and 3rd week old. Two weeks later, the inoculated chickens were challenged with a 10(2.2) 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) of ALV-J...
November 29, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910783/recent-advances-and-challenges-in-studies-of-control-of-cancer-stem-cells-and-the-gut-microbiome-by-the-trametes-derived-polysaccharopeptide-psp-review
#3
Joseph M Wu, Barbara B Doonan, Tze-Chen Hsieh, Qingyao Yang, Xiao-Tong Yang, Ming-Tat Ling
The medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor has been well recognized for its activity in maintaining the general health of the population and in managing and treating human diseases in various cultures. Its use has been recently gaining acceptance and popularity in Western countries. The reported health benefits of T. versicolor led to a search for the identity of its bioactive ingredients. These efforts have resulted in the isolation of the polysaccharopeptide PSP from cultured mycelia of strain Cov-1, which expresses large amounts of PSP...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909893/osteogain%C3%A2-loaded-onto-an-absorbable-collagen-sponge-induces-attachment-and-osteoblast-differentiation-of-st2-cells-in-vitro
#4
Richard J Miron, Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Yufeng Zhang, Anton Sculean, Benjamin Pippenger, Yoshinori Shirakata, Umadevi Kandalam, Maria Hernandez
OBJECTIVES: Dimensional changes of the alveolar bone following tooth extraction are a major challenge in daily dental practice. To limit bone loss, a variety of biomaterials including bone grafts, barrier membranes, and growth factors have been utilized either alone or in combination therapies to increase the speed and quality of new bone formation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the regenerative potential of Osteogain®, a new liquid carrier system of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in combination with an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) specifically designed for extraction socket healing...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907004/in-vitro-variant-surface-antigen-expression-in-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites-from-a-semi-immune-individual-is-not-correlated-with-var-gene-transcription
#5
Ellen Inga Bruske, Sandra Dimonte, Corinna Enderes, Serena Tschan, Matthias Flötenmeyer, Iris Koch, Jürgen Berger, Peter Kremsner, Matthias Frank
Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is considered to be the main variant surface antigen (VSA) of Plasmodium falciparum and is mainly localized on electron-dense knobs in the membrane of the infected erythrocyte. Switches in PfEMP1 expression provide the basis for antigenic variation and are thought to be critical for parasite persistence during chronic infections. Recently, strain transcending anti-PfEMP1 immunity has been shown to develop early in life, challenging the role of PfEMP1 in antigenic variation during chronic infections...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906056/umbilical-cord-blood-derived-non-hematopoietic-stem-cells-retrieved-and-expanded-on-bone-marrow-derived-extracellular-matrix-display-pluripotent-characteristics
#6
Junjie Wu, Yun Sun, Travis J Block, Milos Marinkovic, Zhi-Liang Zhang, Richard Chen, Yixia Yin, Juquan Song, David D Dean, Zhongding Lu, Xiao-Dong Chen
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) not only contains hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but also non-hematopoietic stem cells (NHSCs) that are able to differentiate into a number of distinct cell types. Based on studies published to date, the frequency of NHSCs in UCB is believed to be very low. However, the isolation of these cells is primarily based on their adhesion to tissue culture plastic surfaces. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the current study, we demonstrate that this approach overlooks some of the extremely immature NHSCs because they lack the ability to adhere to plastic...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904124/mycotic-aneurysm-caused-by-bacteroides-fragilis-in-an-elderly-immunosuppressed-patient
#7
Takahiko Fukuchi, Sadao Kawasaki, Hiroki Hayashi, Daisuke Koreeda, Takahiro Ashikawa
An 82-year-old Japanese man, who presented with a fever and abdominal pain, was admitted to our hospital. According to enhanced computed tomography images, the probable diagnosis was abdominal aortic mycotic aneurysm. Eight sets of blood cultures obtained from the patient were negative. Despite administering treatment with vancomycin and ceftriaxone, the aneurysm progressively enlarged. He underwent open debridement surgery and in situ replacement because of an aneurysmal rupture. Bacteroides fragilis was isolated from the tissue culture of the aortic wall...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902390/virulence-determinants-in-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-from-monomicrobial-and-polymicrobial-infections-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#8
Kavitha Shettigar, Spoorthi Jain, Deepika V Bhat, Raviraj Acharya, Lingadakai Ramachandra, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, T S Murali
Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus has emerged as an important pathogen. We characterized S. aureus isolates from monomicrobial and polymicrobial wound infections from 200 diabetic individuals with foot ulcers to understand their underlying diversity and pathogenicity. Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec typing was performed and genes coding for production of biofilm, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin, Leukotoxins DE and M were screened...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901477/the-neurotrophin-neuritin1-cpg15-is-involved-in-melanoma-migration-attachment-independent-growth-and-vascular-mimicry
#9
Anja Katrin Bosserhoff, Nadja Schneider, Lisa Ellmann, Lucie Heinzerling, Silke Kuphal
The neurotrophin Neuritin1 (NRN1; cpg15) belongs to the candidate plasticity gene (CPG) family and is expressed in postmitotic-differentiating neurons of the developmental nervous system and neuronal structures associated with plasticity in the brain of human adult.Our newest findings document that NRN1 deregulation could contribute also to disease development and have impact on malignant melanoma. Our analyses displayed the over-expression of NRN1 in melanoma in vitro and in vivo, shown by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR on microdissected melanoma tissue; furthermore, soluble NRN1 was detectable in tissue culture supernatant and serum of melanoma patients...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899931/melatonin-in-plants-and-plant-culture-systems-variability-stability-and-efficient-quantification
#10
Lauren A E Erland, Abhishek Chattopadhyay, Andrew Maxwell P Jones, Praveen K Saxena
Despite growing evidence of the importance of melatonin and serotonin in the plant life, there is still much debate over the stability of melatonin, with extraction and analysis methods varying greatly from lab to lab with respect to time, temperature, light levels, extraction solvents, and mechanical disruption. The variability in methodology has created conflicting results that confound the comparison of studies to determine the role of melatonin in plant physiology. We here describe a fully validated method for the quantification of melatonin, serotonin and their biosynthetic precursors: tryptophan, tryptamine and N-acetylserotonin by liquid chromatography single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in diverse plant species and tissues...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899587/temporal-self-regulation-of-transposition-through-host-independent-transposase-rodlet-formation
#11
Lauren E Woodard, Laura M Downes, Yi-Chien Lee, Aparna Kaja, Eyuel S Terefe, Matthew H Wilson
Transposons are highly abundant in eukaryotic genomes, but their mobilization must be finely tuned to maintain host organism fitness and allow for transposon propagation. Forty percent of the human genome is comprised of transposable element sequences, and the most abundant cut-and-paste transposons are from the hAT superfamily. We found that the hAT transposase TcBuster from Tribolium castaneum formed filamentous structures, or rodlets, in human tissue culture cells, after gene transfer to adult mice, and ex vivo in cell-free conditions, indicating that host co-factors or cellular structures were not required for rodlet formation...
November 28, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898837/global-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-differences-in-gene-expression-patterns-between-nonhyperhydric-and-hyperhydric-peach-leaves
#12
Yakup Bakir, Vahap Eldem, Gokmen Zararsiz, Turgay Unver
Hyperhydricity is a morphophysiological disorder of plants in tissue culture characterized morphologically by the presence of translucent, thick, curled, and fragile leaves as a result of excessive water intake. Since clonal propagation is a major in vitro technique for multiplying plants vegetatively, the emergence of hyperhydricity-related symptoms causes significant economic losses to agriculture and horticulture. Although numerous efforts have been hitherto devoted to the morphological and anatomical responses of plants to hyperhydricity, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898058/ccl5-rantes-contributes-to-hypothalamic-insulin-signaling-for-systemic-insulin-responsiveness-through-ccr5
#13
Szu-Yi Chou, Reni Ajoy, Chun Austin Changou, Ya-Ting Hsieh, Yang-Kao Wang, Barry Hoffer
Many neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by metabolic disorders. CCL5/RANTES, and its receptor CCR5 are known to contribute to neuronal function as well as to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, atherosclerosis and metabolic changes after HIV infection. Herein, we found that the lack of CCR5 or CCL5 in mice impaired regulation of energy metabolism in hypothalamus. Immunostaining and co-immunoprecipitation revealed the specific expression of CCR5, associated with insulin receptors, in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895021/1-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-sulfur-containing-linear-bisphosphonates-against-apicomplexan-parasites
#14
Sergio H Szajnman, Tamila Galaka, Zhu-Hong Li, Catherine Li, Nathan M Howell, María N Chao, Boris Striepen, Vasant Muralidharan, Silvia N J Moreno, Juan B Rodriguez
We tested a series of sulfur-containing linear bisphosphonates against Toxoplasma gondii, the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis. The most potent compound ( 22: , 1-[(n-decylsulfonyl)ethyl]-1,1-biphosphonic acid) is a sulfone-containing compound, which had an EC50 of 0.11 ± 0.02 μM against intracellular tachyzoites. The compound showed low toxicity when tested in tissue culture with a selectivity index of >2,000. 22: also showed high activity in vivo in a toxoplasmosis mouse model. The compound inhibited the Toxoplasma farnesyl diphosphate synthase (TgFPPS) but the concentration needed to inhibit 50% of the enzymatic activity (IC50) was higher than the concentration that inhibited 50% of growth...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892608/an-advanced-mouse-model-for-human-skin-wound-healing
#15
Jie Wen, Xiangyong Li, Xue Leng, Xin Xu, Xunwei Wu
Here we report a model for studying wound repair based on skin regenerated from human tissue culture-expanded cells. The reconstituted skin (hRSK) responds to injury similar to that of intact human skin, and its constituent cells contribute to the healing process. As we have demonstrrated that hRSK composed of GFP-labelled cells also heals "normally", we believe this model will be useful in analyzing the wound repair process using genetically modified human cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891773/cigarette-smoke-alters-the-secretome-of-lung-epithelial-cells
#16
Alessandra Mossina, Christina Lukas, Juliane Merl-Pham, Franziska E Uhl, Kathrin Mutze, Andrea Schamberger, Claudia Staab-Weijnitz, Jie Jia, Ali Ö Yildirim, Melanie Königshoff, Stefanie M Hauck, Oliver Eickelberg, Silke Meiners
Cigarette smoke is the most relevant risk factor for the development of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many of its more than 4500 chemicals are highly reactive thereby altering protein structure and function. Here, we used subcellular fractionation coupled to label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to globally assess alterations in the proteome of different compartments of lung epithelial cells upon exposure to cigarette smoke extract. Proteomic profiling of the human alveolar-derived cell line A549 revealed the most pronounced changes within the cellular secretome with preferential downregulation of proteins involved in wound healing and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization...
November 28, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890674/passive-immunotherapy-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-with-equine-immunoglobulin-or-immunoglobulin-fragments-in-a-mouse-model
#17
Yongkun Zhao, Chong Wang, Boning Qiu, Chufang Li, Hualei Wang, Hongli Jin, Weiwei Gai, Xuexing Zheng, Tiecheng Wang, Weiyang Sun, Feihu Yan, Yuwei Gao, Qian Wang, Jinghua Yan, Ling Chen, Stanley Perlman, Nanshan Zhong, Jincun Zhao, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal pulmonary infection caused by a coronavirus (CoV), MERS-CoV. With the continuing spread of MERS-CoV, prophylactic and therapeutic treatments are urgently needed. In this study, we prepared purified equine F(ab')2 from horses immunized with MERS-CoV virus-like particles (VLPs) expressing MERS-CoV S, M and E proteins. Both IgG and F(ab')2 efficiently neutralized MERS-CoV replication in tissue culture. Passive transfer of equine immune antibodies significantly reduced virus titers and accelerated virus clearance from the lungs of MERS-CoV infected mice...
November 24, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890026/electrostatic-capture-following-laser-microdissection-for-the-preparation-of-homogeneous-biological-specimens
#18
Dingrong Yi, Linghua Kong, Ranjith K Kankala, Zi Wang
There is an unmet need for researchers in life sciences and clinical pathology to obtain untainted target cells with very high accuracy, which are suitable for subsequent genome and protein analysis. In this paper, an electrostatic capture laser microdissection technology (ECM) is proposed and explained. Following microscopic identification and separation of target cells from the surrounding tissues using laser cutting, the ECM uses electrostatic forces to capture target cells. Validation experiments indicate that ECM can capture a wide assortment of contamination-free homogeneous samples, ranging from very tiny pieces of a few micrometers in diameter to large pieces with a surface area of over 40,000 µm2...
November 28, 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889521/azacytidine-and-mir156-promote-rooting-in-adult-but-not-in-juvenile-arabidopsis-tissues
#19
Mehdi Massoumi, Frans A Krens, Richard G F Visser, Geert-Jan M De Klerk
Poor adventitious root (AR) formation is a major obstacle in micropropagation and conventional vegetative propagation of many crops. It is affected by many endogenous and exogenous factors. With respect to endogenous factors, the phase change from juvenile to adult has a major influence on AR formation and rooting is usually much reduced or even fully inhibited in adult tissues. It has been reported that the phase change is characterized by an increase in DNA-methylation and a decrease in the expression of microRNA156 (miR156)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886451/activity-of-fluorine-containing-analogues-of-wc-9-and-structurally-related-analogues-against-two-intracellular-parasites-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-toxoplasma-gondii
#20
María N Chao, Catherine Li, Melissa Storey, Bruno N Falcone, Sergio H Szajnman, Sergio M Bonesi, Roberto Docampo, Silvia N J Moreno, Juan B Rodriguez
Two obligate intracellular parasites, Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, and Toxoplasma gondii, an agent of toxoplasmosis, upregulate the mevalonate pathway of their host cells upon infection, which suggests that this host pathway could be a potential drug target. In this work, a number of compounds structurally related to WC-9 (4-phenoxyphenoxyethyl thiocyanate), a known squalene synthase inhibitor, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their effect on T. cruzi and T. gondii growth in tissue culture cells...
November 25, 2016: ChemMedChem
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