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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231393/effects-of-tissue-culture-and-mycorrhiza-applications-in-organic-farming-on-concentrations-of-phytochemicals-and-antioxidant-capacities-in-ginger-zingiber-officinale-roscoe-rhizomes-and-leaves
#1
Byungrok R Min, Lurline E Marsh, Keegan Brathwaite, Adebola O Daramola
Tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications can provide disease-free seedlings and enhanced nutrient absorption, respectively, for organic farming. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is rich in phytochemicals and has various health-protective potentials. This study was aimed at determining effects of tissue culture and mycorrhiza applications alone or in combinations in organic farming on phytochemical contents (total phenolics and flavonoids [TP and TF, respectively], gingerol and shogaol homologues, phenolic acids, and carotenoids) and antioxidant capacities (DPPH [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl] radical scavenging, oxygen radical absorbance (ORAC), and iron-chelating capacities [ICC]) in solvent-extractable (Free) and cell-wall-matrix-bound (Bound) fractions of ginger rhizome and Free fraction of the leaves in comparison with non-organics...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229408/isolation-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-epidermal-stem-cells
#2
Kasper S Moestrup, Marianne S Andersen, Kim B Jensen
Colony-forming assays represent prospective methods, where cells isolated from enzymatically dissociated tissues or from tissue cultures are assessed for their proliferative capacity in vitro. Complex tissues such as the epithelial component of the skin (the epidermis) are characterized by a substantial cellular heterogeneity. Analysis of bulk populations of cells by colony-forming assays can consequently be convoluted by a number of factors that are not controlled for in population wide studies. It is therefore advantageous to refine in vitro growth assays by sub-fractionation of cells using flow cytometry...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228376/xenopus-laevis-kif18a-is-a-highly-processive-kinesin-required-for-meiotic-spindle-integrity
#3
Martin M Möckel, Andreas Heim, Thomas Tischer, Thomas U Mayer
The assembly and functionality of the mitotic spindle depends on the coordinated activities of microtubule-associated motor-proteins of the dynein and kinesin superfamily. Our current understanding of the function of motor-proteins is significantly shaped by studies using Xenopus laevis egg extract as its open structure allows complex experimental manipulations hardly feasible in other model systems. Yet, the Kinesin-8 orthologue of human Kif18A has not been described in Xenopus laevis so far. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of Xenopus laevis (Xl) Kif18A...
February 22, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226458/investigating-parylene-ht-as-a-substrate-for-human-cell-patterning
#4
Brad J Raos, E Scott Graham, Alan F Murray, M Cather Simpson, Charles P Unsworth, Brad J Raos, E Scott Graham, Alan F Murray, M Cather Simpson, Charles P Unsworth, Alan F Murray, Charles P Unsworth, Brad J Raos, E Scott Graham, M Cather Simpson
We demonstrate, for the first time, how parylene-HT on SiO2 substrates can be used as a human cell patterning platform. We demonstrate this platform with hNT astrocytes, derived from the human NTera2.D1 cell line. We show how hNT astrocytes are attracted to Parylene-HT and repelled by the SiO2 and are shown to adopt a similar morphology as that attained on standard tissue culture polystyrene. Furthermore, parylene-HT was capable of patterning the astrocytes achieving a ratio of 8:1 for cells on parylene compared to SiO2...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218638/metagaap-a-novel-pipeline-to-estimate-community-composition-and-abundance-from-non-model-sequence-data
#5
Christopher Noune, Caroline Hauxwell
Next generation sequencing and bioinformatic approaches are increasingly used to quantify microorganisms within populations by analysis of 'meta-barcode' data. This approach relies on comparison of amplicon sequences of 'barcode' regions from a population with public-domain databases of reference sequences. However, for many organisms relevant 'barcode' regions may not have been identified and large databases of reference sequences may not be available. A workflow and software pipeline, 'MetaGaAP,' was developed to identify and quantify genotypes through four steps: shotgun sequencing and identification of polymorphisms in a metapopulation to identify custom 'barcode' regions of less than 30 polymorphisms within the span of a single 'read', amplification and sequencing of the 'barcode', generation of a custom database of polymorphisms, and quantitation of the relative abundance of genotypes...
February 17, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218503/long-term-tissue-culture-of-adult-brain-and-spleen-slices-on-nanostructured-scaffolds
#6
Sonja Kallendrusch, Felicitas Merz, Ingo Bechmann, Stefan G Mayr, Mareike Zink
Long-term tissue culture of adult mammalian organs is a highly promising approach to bridge the gap between single cell cultures and animal experiments, and bears the potential to reduce in vivo studies. Novel biomimetic materials open up new possibilities to maintain the complex tissue structure in vitro; however, survival times of adult tissues ex vivo are still limited to a few days with established state-of-the-art techniques. Here, it is demonstrated that TiO2 nanotube scaffolds with specific tissue-tailored characteristics can serve as superior substrates for long-term adult brain and spleen tissue culture...
February 20, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217558/the-scid-mouse-model-for-identifying-virulence-determinants-in-coxiella-burnetii
#7
Erin J van Schaik, Elizabeth D Case, Eric Martinez, Matteo Bonazzi, James E Samuel
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular, zoonotic pathogen that is the causative agent of Q fever. Infection most frequently occurs after inhalation of contaminated aerosols, which can lead to acute, self-limiting febrile illness or more serve chronic infections such as hepatitis or endocarditis. Macrophages are the principal target cells during infection where C. burnetii resides and replicates within a unique phagolysosome-like compartment, the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV). The first virulence determinant described as necessary for infection was full-length lipopolysaccarride (LPS); spontaneous rough mutants (phase II) arise after passage in immuno-incompetent hosts...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213098/gelatin-based-3d-conduits-for-transdifferentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-schwann-cell-like-phenotypes
#8
Metin Uz, Melda Buyukoz, Anup D Sharma, Donald S Sakaguchi, Sacide Alsoy Altinkaya, Surya K Mallapragada
: In this study, gelatin-based 3D conduits with three different microstructures (nanofibrous, macroporous and ladder-like) were fabricated for the first time via combined molding and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) technique for peripheral nerve regeneration. The effects of conduit microstructure and mechanical properties on the transdifferentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into Schwann cell (SC) like phenotypes were examined to help facilitate neuroregeneration and understand material-cell interfaces...
February 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207793/the-drosophila-speciation-factor-hmr-localizes-to-genomic-insulator-sites
#9
Thomas Andreas Gerland, Bo Sun, Pawel Smialowski, Andrea Lukacs, Andreas Walter Thomae, Axel Imhof
Hybrid incompatibility between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans is caused by a lethal interaction of the proteins encoded by the Hmr and Lhr genes. In D. melanogaster the loss of HMR results in mitotic defects, an increase in transcription of transposable elements and a deregulation of heterochromatic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that mediate HMR's function, we measured genome-wide localization of HMR in D. melanogaster tissue culture cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Interestingly, we find HMR localizing to genomic insulator sites that can be classified into two groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207638/association-of-local-intrapulmonary-production-of-antibodies-specific-to-donor-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-with-the-progression-of-chronic-rejection-of-lung-allografts
#10
Ei Miyamoto, Hideki Motoyama, Masaaki Sato, Akihiro Aoyama, Toshi Menju, Kei Shikuma, Terumasa Sowa, Akihiko Yoshizawa, Masao Saito, Akihiro Takahagi, Satona Tanaka, Mamoru Takahashi, Keiji Ohata, Takeshi Kondo, Kyoko Hijiya, Toyofumi F Chen-Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Date
BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection may lead to chronic lung allograft dysfunction, but antibody-mediated rejection may develop in the absence of detectable donor-specific antibody (DSA) in recipient serum. This study investigated whether humoral immune responses develop not only systemically but locally within rejected lung allografts, resulting in local production of DSA. METHODS: Lewis rats received orthotopic left lung transplantation from Lewis (syngeneic control) or Brown-Norway (major histocompatibility complex-mismatched allogeneic) donor rats...
February 15, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206737/bio-inspired-hierarchically-structured-surfaces-for-efficient-capture-and-release-of-circulating-tumor-cells
#11
Xiao-Qiu Dou, Ping Li, Siyu Jiang, Haider Bayat, Holger Schönherr
The development of novel bio-inspired surfaces with hierarchical micro- and nanoscale topographic structures for efficient capture and release of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is reported. The capture of CTCs, facilitated by surface-immobilized epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibodies (anti-EpCAM), was shown to be significantly enhanced in novel three-dimensional hierarchically structured surfaces that were fabricated by replicating the natural micro- and nanostructures of rose petals. Under static conditions, these hierarchical capture substrates exhibited up to 6 times higher cell capture ability at concentrations of 100 cells mL-1 in contrast to flat anti-EpCAM-functionalized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces...
February 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206726/are-modic-type-2-disc-changes-associated-with-low-grade-infections-a-pilot-study
#12
Lorenzo Drago, Carlo L Romanò, Riccardo Cecchinato, Jorge H Villafañe, Elena De Vecchi, Claudio Lamartina, Pedro Berjano
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to compare intra-operative cultural examination in patients undergoing elective surgery for low-back pain with Modic 2 changes to patients without Modic signs. The aim of this study is to compare intra-operative cultural examination in patients undergoing elective surgery for low-back pain with Modic 2 changes to patients without Modic signs. METHODS: Sixteen patients with Modic 2 changes were compared with 23 patients without Modic signs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203489/effects-of-anti-repulsive-guidance-molecule-c-rgmc-hemojuvelin-antibody-on-hepcidin-and-iron-in-mouse-liver-and-tumor-xenografts
#13
S V Torti, E Lemler, B K Mueller, A Popp, F M Torti
OBJECTIVE: Hepcidin is a peptide hormone produced by the liver that regulates systemic iron homeostasis. Hepcidin is also synthesized by tumors, where it contributes to tumor growth by increasing the tumoral retention of iron. Targeted reduction of hepcidin may therefore be useful in reducing tumor growth. H5F9-AM8 is an antibody in preclinical development for the anemia of chronic disease that reduces hepcidin synthesis by binding to RGMc, a co-receptor involved in the transcriptional induction of hepcidin by BMP6...
November 2016: Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202518/prolactin-receptor-mediated-internalization-of-imaging-agents-detects-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-with-enhanced-sensitivity-and-specificity
#14
Karthik M Sundaram, Yilin Zhang, Anirban K Mitra, Jean-Louis K Kouadio, Katja Gwin, Brian R Roman, Anthony A Kossiakoff, Ernst Lengyel, Joseph Piccirilli
Poor prognosis of ovarian cancer (OvCa), the deadliest of the gynecologic malignancies, reflects major limitations associated with detection and diagnosis. Current methods lack high sensitivity to detect small tumors and high specificity to distinguish malignant from benign tissue, both impeding diagnosis of early and metastatic cancer stages and leading to costly and invasive surgeries. Tissue microarray analysis revealed that >98% of OvCa express the prolactin receptor (PRLR), forming the basis of a new molecular imaging strategy...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199128/sox2-drives-bronchial-dysplasia-in-a-novel-organotypic-model-of-early-human-squamous-lung-cancer
#15
Lúcia L Correia, Jo-Anne Johnson, Peter McErlean, Julien Bauer, Hassan Farah, Doris M Rassl, Robert C Rintoul, Tariq Sethi, Paul Lavender, Emma L Rawlins, Trevor D Littlewood, Gerard I Evan, Frank M McCaughan
Rationale Improving the early detection and chemoprevention of lung cancer are key to improving outcomes. The pathobiology of early squamous lung cancer is poorly understood. We have shown that amplification of SOX2 is an early and consistent event in the pathogenesis of this disease but its functional oncogenic potential remains uncertain. We tested the impact of deregulated SOX2 expression in a novel organotypic system that recreates the molecular and microenvironmental context in which squamous carcinogenesis occurs...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197987/effects-of-frutalin-on-early-follicle-morphology-ultrastructure-and-gene-expression-in-cultured-goat-ovarian-cortical-tissue
#16
Maria A A Soares, José J N Costa, Gisvani L Vasconcelos, Regislane P Ribeiro, José C Souza, André L C Silva, Robert Van den Hurk, José R V Silva
Frutalin is a galactose-binding lectin that has an irreversible cytotoxic effect on HeLa cervical cancer cells, by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. It was previously shown that after in vitro incubation, frutalin is internalized into HeLa cells nucleus, which indicates that frutalin apoptosis-inducing activity might be linked with its nuclear localization. Considering that drugs commonly used for cancer treatment have a deleterious effect on germ cells, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of frutalin on the activation, survival, ultrastructure and gene expression in follicles cultured within ovarian tissue...
February 15, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196858/the-2016-walter-b-cannon-lecture-deconstructing-metabolic-inflammation-using-cellular-systems
#17
Kenny L Chan, Parastoo Boroumand, Marciane Milanski, Nicolas J Pillon, Philip J Bilan, Amira Klip
Over the past years we have embarked in a systematic analysis of the effect of obesity or fatty acids on circulating monocytes, microvascular endothelial cells, macrophages and skeletal muscle cells. Using cell culture strategies, we have deconstructed complex physiological systems, then reconstructed 'partial equations' to better understand cell-to-cell communication. Through these approaches we identified that in high saturated fat environments, cell-autonomous pro-inflammatory pathways are activated in monocytes and endothelial cells, promoting monocyte adhesion and transmigration...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195889/a-biodegradable-hemostatic-gelatin-polycaprolactone-composite-for-surgical-hemostasis
#18
Niann-Tzyy Dai, Keng-Yen Fu, Pai-Shan Hsieh, Yu-Min Hung, Yun-Lung Fang, Nien-Chi Huang, Tzu-Wei Lu, Lien-Guo Dai, Shyi-Gen Chen, Tim-Mo Chen
Massive bleeding is the leading cause of battlefield-related deaths and the second leading cause of deaths in civilian trauma centers. One of the challenges of managing severe wounds is the need to promote hemostasis as quickly as possible, which can be achieved by using hemostatic dressings. In this study, we fabricated 2 kinds of gelatin/polycaprolactone composites with 2 ratios of gelatin/polycaprolactone, 1:1 and 2:1 (GP11 and GP21, respectively). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the GP11 composite exhibited rougher and more porous structure than the GP21 composite did...
February 14, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193493/development-of-a-monoclonal-sandwich-elisa-for-direct-detection-of-bluetongue-virus-8-in-infected-animals
#19
Andre Ten Haaf, Johannes Kohl, Sibylle Pscherer, Hans-Peter Hamann, Hans Ulrich Eskens, Max Bastian, Stefan Gattenlöhner, Mehmet Kemal Tur
Bluetongue is an infectious viral disease which can cause mortality in affected ruminants, and tremendous economic damage via impacts upon fertility, milk production and the quality of wool. The disease is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) which is transmitted by species of Culicoides biting midge. Rapid detection of BTV is required to contain disease outbreaks and reduce economic losses. The purpose of this study was to develop a monoclonal sandwich ELISA for direct detection of BTV in infected animals. Phage display technology was used to isolate BTV specific antibody fragments by applying the human scFv Tomlinson antibody libraries directly on purified BTV-8 particles...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187422/differential-expression-of-hyperhydricity-responsive-peach-mirnas
#20
Ebru Diler, Turgay Unver, Gökhan Karakülah
Hyperhydricity is a syndrome that causes morpho-physiological malformations in tissue culture plantlets. Micro-RNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in plant development, stress response, and adaptation to environmental conditions. In this study, differential expression analysis indicated that miRNAs play an underlying role in the responses to the hyperhydricity syndrome in peach Prunus persica (L.) leaves. 24 known and three novel potential miRNAs were characterized in hyperhydric and non-hyperhydric transcriptome libraries...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
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