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"plant propagation"

Kyle Benzle, Katrina Cornish
BACKGROUND: Plant roots are used as an efficient target tissue for plant transformation assays. In root propagable species transformed roots are able to regenerate into whole plants without the addition of exogenous hormones, thus avoiding somaclonal variation associated with many plant transformation protocols. Plants grown in soil or soilless solid medium have roots that tend to be extremely delicate and are difficult to sterilize in advance of plant transformation experiments. Axenic tissue culture plants grown on semi-solid media are slow to produce large amounts of biomass compared to plants grown in solution-based media...
2017: Plant Methods
Zhixin Zhang, Xun Tian, Yuguang Bai, Huifang Liu, Xueli Niu, Zhiwei Wang, Qian Wang
The success of a biological invasion relies on the environment and is closely linked to factors such as water and temperature. Invasive plant species display different seed characteristics, including shape. Field sandbur (Cenchrus pauciflorus) is a globally widespread invasive species capable of adapting to broad environmental conditions. However, its germination response to water and temperature still remains unclear. C. pauciflorus contains two seeds in the same bur that differ in size: big seeds (M) and small seeds (P)...
2016: PloS One
Zhenyi Chang, Zhufeng Chen, Na Wang, Gang Xie, Jiawei Lu, Wei Yan, Junli Zhou, Xiaoyan Tang, Xing Wang Deng
The breeding and large-scale adoption of hybrid seeds is an important achievement in agriculture. Rice hybrid seed production uses cytoplasmic male sterile lines or photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) as female parent. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines are propagated via cross-pollination by corresponding maintainer lines, whereas PTGMS lines are propagated via self-pollination under environmental conditions restoring male fertility. Despite huge successes, both systems have their intrinsic drawbacks...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sin Ae Kang, Jae Woo Han, Beom Seok Kim
Endophytic bacteria may act individually or in consortia in controlling certain plant diseases. In this study, pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Nokkwang) were cultivated in glasshouse conditions using field soils collected from two different geographic locations, Deokso (DS) and Gwangyang (GY) in Korea. Community structure and antifungal activity of pepper endophytic bacteria were analyzed using culture-independent (PCR-DGGE) and culture-dependent (plating) methods, respectively. Dissimilarities were observed between DGGE profiles of DS and GY samples at all plant tissues...
December 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Stefanie Duchow, Renate I Dahlke, Thomas Geske, Wolfgang Blaschek, Birgit Classen
Root extracts of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides, native to South Africa, are used globally for the treatment of common cold and cough. Due to an increasing economic commercialization of P. sidoides remedies, wild collections of root material should be accompanied by effective methods for plant propagation like somatic embryogenesis. Based on this, the influence of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) on somatic embryogenesis and plant propagation of P. sidoides has been investigated. High-molecular weight AGPs have been isolated from dried roots as well as from cell cultures of P...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sandhya Srikanth, Tsui Wei Choong, An Yan, Jie He, Zhong Chen
Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
R Thaniarasu, T Senthil Kumar, M V Rao
The present study describes the plant propagation via indirect organogenesis from in vitro derived leaf and internode explants of Plectranthus bourneae, an endemic plant to south India. Leaf and internodal explants successfully callused on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with different concentrations of auxins [2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), NAA (α-naphthalene acetic acid), IAA (indole-3 acetic acid), IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) and PIC (Picloram); 0.1-2.0 mg/l] in combination with BA (6-benzyladenine) (0...
January 2016: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Abdul Kareem, Dhanya Radhakrishnan, Xin Wang, Subhikshaa Bagavathiappan, Zankhana B Trivedi, Kaoru Sugimoto, Jian Xu, Ari Pekka Mähönen, Kalika Prasad
BACKGROUND: Plants have the remarkable property to elaborate entire body plan from any tissue part. The conversion of lateral root primordium (LRP) to shoot is an ideal method for plant propagation and for plant researchers to understand the mechanism underlying trans-differentiation. Until now, however, a robust method that allows the efficient conversion of LRP to shoot is lacking. This has limited our ability to study the dynamic phases of reprogramming at cellular and molecular levels...
2016: Plant Methods
Manal Ahmed Sadeq, Malabika Roy Pathak, Ahmed Ali Salih, Mohammed Abido, Asma Abahussain
Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram) is an important endangered medicinal plant distributed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Plant tissue culture technique is applied for ex situ conservation study. Nodal stem segments are cultured in modified MS media supplemented with various combination and concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Plants are regenerated via shoot organogenesis from the nodal meristems. Plants are regenerated in three different steps: initial shoot development, shoot multiplication, and rooting...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ting Zhou, Xiyan Yang, Kai Guo, Jinwu Deng, Jiao Xu, Wenhui Gao, Keith Lindsey, Xianlong Zhang
Somatic embryogenesis (S.E.) is a versatile model for understanding the mechanisms of plant embryogenesis and a useful tool for plant propagation. To decipher the intricate molecular program and potentially to control the parameters affecting the frequency of S.E., a proteomics approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF was used. A total of 149 unique differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified at different stages of cotton S.E. compared with the initial control (0 h explants)...
June 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Uwe Druege, Philipp Franken, Mohammad R Hajirezaei
Adventitious root (AR) formation in cuttings is a multiphase developmental process, resulting from wounding at the cutting site and isolation from the resource and signal network of the whole plant. Though, promotive effects of auxins are widely used for clonal plant propagation, the regulation and function of plant hormones and their intricate signaling networks during AR formation in cuttings are poorly understood. In this focused review, we discuss our recent publications on the involvement of polar auxin transport (PAT) and transcriptional regulation of auxin and ethylene action during AR formation in petunia cuttings in a broad context...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Anderson Tadeu Silva, Pamela A Ribone, Raquel L Chan, Wilco Ligterink, Henk W M Hilhorst
The transition from a quiescent dry seed to an actively growing photoautotrophic seedling is a complex and crucial trait for plant propagation. This study provides a detailed description of global gene expression in seven successive developmental stages of seedling establishment in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Using the transcriptome signature from these developmental stages, we obtained a coexpression gene network that highlights interactions between known regulators of the seed-to-seedling transition and predicts the functions of uncharacterized genes in seedling establishment...
April 2016: Plant Physiology
Przemysław Sitarek, Ewa Skała, Halina Wysokińska, Marzena Wielanek, Janusz Szemraj, Monika Toma, Tomasz Śliwiński
Leonurus sibiricus L. has been used as a traditional and medicinal herb for many years in Asia and Europe. This species is known to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity and has demonstrated a reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. All tested extracts of L. sibiricus showed protective and DNA repair stimulating effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells exposed to H2O2. Preincubation of the CHO cells with 0.5 mg/mL of plant extracts showed increased expression level of antioxidant genes (SOD2, CAT, and GPx)...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Andreia Gomes, Sofia Fortalezas, Rui Pimpão, Inês Figueira, João Maroco, Carlos Aguiar, Ricardo B Ferreira, Célia Miguel, Cláudia N Santos
Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years...
2013: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Chhourn Orn, Rieko Shishido, Masahiro Akimoto, Ryo Ishikawa, Than Myint Htun, Ken-Ichi Nonomura, Yohei Koide, Men Sarom, Seng Vang, Sakhan Sophany, Ouk Makara, Takashige Ishii
A total of 448 samples in five natural populations of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were collected in Cambodia. They were examined using 12 SSR and two chloroplast markers to evaluate the degree of variation among populations and the genetic structure within populations. In the two annual populations, the number of plants with homozygous alleles at all 12 SSR loci were high (66.3% and 79.5%), suggesting that these plants propagate mainly through self-pollination. In the three perennial populations, no individuals had all homozygous genotypes, but redundant genotypes resulted from clonal propagation were observed...
December 2015: Breeding Science
Sara Porfírio, Marco D R Gomes da Silva, Augusto Peixe, Maria J Cabrita, Parastoo Azadi
Plant hormones, and especially auxins, are low molecular weight compounds highly involved in the control of plant growth and development. Auxins are also broadly used in horticulture, as part of vegetative plant propagation protocols, allowing the cloning of genotypes of interest. Over the years, large efforts have been put in the development of more sensitive and precise methods of analysis and quantification of plant hormone levels in plant tissues. Although analytical techniques have evolved, and new methods have been implemented, sample preparation is still the limiting step of auxin analysis...
January 1, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sergio L Florez, Matthew S Curtis, Sydney E Shaw, Nathaniel K Hamaker, Jeffrey S Larsen, Wayne R Curtis
Temporary immersion bioreactors (TIBs) are being used to propagate superior plant species on a commercial scale. We demonstrate a new TIB design, a Hydrostatic-driven TIB (Hy-TIB), where periodic raising and lowering the media reservoir maintains the advantages of temporary immersion of plant tissues without requiring large amounts of gas to move the media that is a characteristic of other TIB designs. The advantage of utilizing low volumes of gas mixtures (that are more expensive than air) is shown by a doubling of the growth rate of plant root cultures under elevated (40%) oxygen in air, and with CO2 supplementation showing improved phototrophic and photomixotrophic growth of seedless watermelon meristem cultures...
March 2016: Biotechnology Progress
Mohamad Abu-Abied, Inna Mordehaev, Gujulla B Sunil Kumar, Ron Ophir, Geoffrey O Wasteneys, Einat Sadot
Adventitious roots (AR) are post embryonic lateral organs that differentiate from non-root tissues. The understanding of the molecular mechanism which underlies their differentiation is important because of their central role in vegetative plant propagation. Here it was studied how the expression of different microtubule (MT)-associated proteins (MAPs) is affected during AR induction, and whether expression differences are dependent on MT organization itself. To examine AR formation when MTs are disturbed we used two mutants in the MT severing protein KATANIN...
2015: PloS One
Traud Winkelmann
Plant embryogenesis is a fascinating developmental program that is very successfully established in nature in seeds. In case of in vitro somatic embryogenesis this process is subjected to several limitations such as asynchronous differentiation and further development of somatic embryos, malformations and disturbed polarity, precocious germination, lack of maturity, early loss of embryogenic potential, and strong genotypic differences in the regeneration efficiency. Several studies have shown the similarity of somatic and zygotic embryos in terms of morphological, histological, biochemical, and physiological aspects...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tinde van Andel, Sofie Ruysschaert, Karin Boven, Lewis Daly
BACKGROUND: Magical charm plants to ensure good luck in hunting, fishing, agriculture, love and warfare are known among many Amerindians groups in the Guianas. Documented by anthropologists as social and political markers and exchangeable commodities, these charms have received little attention by ethnobotanists, as they are surrounded by secrecy and are difficult to identify. We compared the use of charm species among indigenous groups in the Guianas to see whether similarity in charm species was related to geographical or cultural proximity...
2015: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
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