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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184227/using-ceres-maize-and-enso-as-decision-support-tools-to-evaluate-climate-sensitive-farm-management-practices-for-maize-production-in-the-northern-regions-of-ghana
#1
Dilys S MacCarthy, Samuel G K Adiku, Bright S Freduah, Francis Gbefo, Alpha Y Kamara
Maize (Zea mays) has traditionally been a major cereal staple in southern Ghana. Through breeding and other crop improvement efforts, the zone of cultivation of maize has now extended to the northern regions of Ghana which, hitherto, were the home to sorghum and millet as the major cereals. Maize yield in the northern Ghana is hampered by three major biophysical constraints, namely, poor soil fertility, low soil water storage capacity and climate variability. In this study we used the DSSAT crop model to assess integrated water and soil management strategies that combined the pre-season El-Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-based weather forecasting in selecting optimal planting time, at four locations in the northern regions of Ghana...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158204/atmospheric-co2-concentration-effects-on-rice-water-use-and-biomass-production
#2
Uttam Kumar, William Paul Quick, Marilou Barrios, Pompe C Sta Cruz, Michael Dingkuhn
Numerous studies have addressed effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on rice biomass production and yield but effects on crop water use are less well understood. Irrigated rice evapotranspiration (ET) is composed of floodwater evaporation and canopy transpiration. Crop coefficient Kc (ET over potential ET, or ETo) is crop specific according to FAO, but may decrease as CO2 concentration rises. A sunlit growth chamber experiment was conducted in the Philippines, exposing 1.44-m2 canopies of IR72 rice to four constant CO2 levels (195, 390, 780 and 1560 ppmv)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134461/responses-to-atmospheric-co2-concentrations-in-crop-simulation-models-a-review-of-current-simple-and-semicomplex-representations-and-options-for-model-development
#3
REVIEW
Eline Vanuytrecht, Peter J Thorburn
Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2 ]) cause direct changes in crop physiological processes (e.g. photosynthesis and stomatal conductance). To represent these CO2 responses, commonly used crop simulation models have been amended, using simple and semicomplex representations of the processes involved. Yet, there is no standard approach to and often poor documentation of these developments. This study used a bottom-up approach (starting with the APSIM framework as case study) to evaluate modelled responses in a consortium of commonly used crop models and illuminate whether variation in responses reflects true uncertainty in our understanding compared to arbitrary choices of model developers...
January 30, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124255/the-primary-root-of-sorghum-bicolor-l-moench-as-a-model-system-to-study-brassinosteroid-signaling-in-crops
#4
David Blasco-Escámez, Fidel Lozano-Elena, Norma Fàbregas, Ana I Caño-Delgado
Roots anchor plants to the soil and are essential for a successful plant growth and adaptation to the environment. Research on the primary root in the plant model system Arabidopsis thaliana has yielded important advances in the molecular and cellular understanding of root growth and development. Several studies have uncovered how the hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) control cell cycle and differentiation programs through different cell-specific signaling pathways that are key for root growth and development...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102202/consistent-negative-response-of-us-crops-to-high-temperatures-in-observations-and-crop-models
#5
Bernhard Schauberger, Sotirios Archontoulis, Almut Arneth, Juraj Balkovic, Philippe Ciais, Delphine Deryng, Joshua Elliott, Christian Folberth, Nikolay Khabarov, Christoph Müller, Thomas A M Pugh, Susanne Rolinski, Sibyll Schaphoff, Erwin Schmid, Xuhui Wang, Wolfram Schlenker, Katja Frieler
High temperatures are detrimental to crop yields and could lead to global warming-driven reductions in agricultural productivity. To assess future threats, the majority of studies used process-based crop models, but their ability to represent effects of high temperature has been questioned. Here we show that an ensemble of nine crop models reproduces the observed average temperature responses of US maize, soybean and wheat yields. Each day >30 °C diminishes maize and soybean yields by up to 6% under rainfed conditions...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991912/plausible-rice-yield-losses-under-future-climate-warming
#6
Chuang Zhao, Shilong Piao, Xuhui Wang, Yao Huang, Philippe Ciais, Joshua Elliott, Mengtian Huang, Ivan A Janssens, Tao Li, Xu Lian, Yongwen Liu, Christoph Müller, Shushi Peng, Tao Wang, Zhenzhong Zeng, Josep Peñuelas
Rice is the staple food for more than 50% of the world's population(1-3). Reliable prediction of changes in rice yield is thus central for maintaining global food security. This is an extraordinary challenge. Here, we compare the sensitivity of rice yield to temperature increase derived from field warming experiments and three modelling approaches: statistical models, local crop models and global gridded crop models. Field warming experiments produce a substantial rice yield loss under warming, with an average temperature sensitivity of -5...
December 19, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891133/modeling-long-term-corn-yield-response-to-nitrogen-rate-and-crop-rotation
#7
Laila A Puntel, John E Sawyer, Daniel W Barker, Ranae Dietzel, Hanna Poffenbarger, Michael J Castellano, Kenneth J Moore, Peter Thorburn, Sotirios V Archontoulis
Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L.) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare crop model-based techniques in estimating optimal N rate for corn; and (c) utilize the calibrated model to explain factors causing year to year variability in yield and optimal N...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864754/tips-and-tricks-for-exogenous-application-of-synthetic-post-translationally-modified-peptides-to-plants
#8
Nathan Czyzewicz, Elisabeth Stes, Ive De Smet
The first signaling peptide discovered and purified was insulin in 1921. However, it was not until 1991 that the first peptide signal, systemin, was discovered in plants. Since the discovery of systemin, peptides have emerged as a potent and diverse class of signaling molecules in plant systems. Peptides consist of small amino acid sequences, which often act as ligands of receptor kinases. However, not all peptides are created equal, and signaling peptides are grouped into several subgroups dependent on the type of post-translational processing they undergo...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853151/field-warming-experiments-shed-light-on-the-wheat-yield-response-to-temperature-in-china
#9
Chuang Zhao, Shilong Piao, Yao Huang, Xuhui Wang, Philippe Ciais, Mengtian Huang, Zhenzhong Zeng, Shushi Peng
Wheat growth is sensitive to temperature, but the effect of future warming on yield is uncertain. Here, focusing on China, we compiled 46 observations of the sensitivity of wheat yield to temperature change (SY,T, yield change per °C) from field warming experiments and 102 SY,T estimates from local process-based and statistical models. The average SY,T from field warming experiments, local process-based models and statistical models is -0.7±7.8(±s.d.)% per °C, -5.7±6.5% per °C and 0.4±4.4% per °C, respectively...
November 17, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824092/future-climate-impacts-on-maize-farming-and-food-security-in-malawi
#10
Tilele Stevens, Kaveh Madani
Agriculture is the mainstay of Malawi's economy and maize is the most important crop for food security. As a Least Developed Country (LDC), adverse effects of climate change (CC) on agriculture in Malawi are expected to be significant. We examined the impacts of CC on maize production and food security in Malawi's dominant cereal producing region, Lilongwe District. We used five Global Circulation Models (GCMs) to make future (2011 to 2100) rainfall and temperature projections and simulated maize yields under these projections...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790232/connecting-biochemical-photosynthesis-models-with-crop-models-to-support-crop-improvement
#11
REVIEW
Alex Wu, Youhong Song, Erik J van Oosterom, Graeme L Hammer
The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723774/combining-limited-multiple-environment-trials-data-with-crop-modeling-to-identify-widely-adaptable-rice-varieties
#12
Tao Li, Jauhar Ali, Manuel Marcaida, Olivyn Angeles, Neil Johann Franje, Jastin Edrian Revilleza, Emmali Manalo, Edilberto Redoña, Jianlong Xu, Zhikang Li
Multi-Environment Trials (MET) are conventionally used to evaluate varietal performance prior to national yield trials, but the accuracy of MET is constrained by the number of test environments. A modeling approach was innovated to evaluate varietal performance in a large number of environments using the rice model ORYZA (v3). Modeled yields representing genotype by environment interactions were used to classify the target population of environments (TPE) and analyze varietal yield and yield stability. Eight Green Super Rice (GSR) and three check varieties were evaluated across 3796 environments and 14 seasons in Southern Asia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612146/assessing-the-impact-of-air-pollution-on-grain-yield-of-winter-wheat-a-case-study-in-the-north-china-plain
#13
Xiuwei Liu, Hongyong Sun, Til Feike, Xiying Zhang, Liwei Shao, Suying Chen
The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596940/using-biophysical-models-to-manage-nitrogen-pollution-from-agricultural-sources-utopic-or-realistic-approach-for-non-scientist-users-case-study-of-a-drinking-water-catchment-area-in-lorraine-france
#14
Pierre-Yves Bernard, Marc Benoît, Jean Roger-Estrade, Sylvain Plantureux
The objectives of this comparison of two biophysical models of nitrogen losses were to evaluate first whether results were similar and second whether both were equally practical for use by non-scientist users. Results were obtained with the crop model STICS and the environmental model AGRIFLUX based on nitrogen loss simulations across a small groundwater catchment area (<1 km(2)) located in the Lorraine region in France. Both models simulate the influences of leaching and cropping systems on nitrogen losses in a relevant manner...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580625/barley-hordeum-vulgare-circadian-clock-genes-can-respond-rapidly-to-temperature-in-an-early-flowering-3-dependent-manner
#15
Brett Ford, Weiwei Deng, Jenni Clausen, Sandra Oliver, Scott Boden, Megan Hemming, Ben Trevaskis
An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575368/temporal-variations-of-water-productivity-in-irrigated-corn-an-analysis-of-factors-influencing-yield-and-water-use-across-central-nebraska
#16
Tony Carr, Haishun Yang, Chittaranjan Ray
Water Productivity (WP) of a crop defines the relationship between the economic or physical yield of the crop and its water use. With this concept it is possible to identify disproportionate water use or water-limited yield gaps and thereby support improvements in agricultural water management. However, too often important qualitative and quantitative environmental factors are not part of a WP analysis and therefore neglect the aspect of maintaining a sustainable agricultural system. In this study, we examine both the physical and economic WP in perspective with temporally changing environmental conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471781/modelling-impacts-of-climate-change-on-arable-crop-diseases-progress-challenges-and-applications
#17
REVIEW
Fay Newbery, Aiming Qi, Bruce Dl Fitt
Combining climate change, crop growth and crop disease models to predict impacts of climate change on crop diseases can guide planning of climate change adaptation strategies to ensure future food security. This review summarises recent developments in modelling climate change impacts on crop diseases, emphasises some major challenges and highlights recent trends. The use of multi-model ensembles in climate change modelling and crop modelling is contributing towards measures of uncertainty in climate change impact projections but other aspects of uncertainty remain largely unexplored...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446143/implications-of-high-temperature-and-elevated-co2-on-flowering-time-in-plants
#18
REVIEW
S V Krishna Jagadish, Rajeev N Bahuguna, Maduraimuthu Djanaguiraman, Rico Gamuyao, P V Vara Prasad, Peter Q Craufurd
Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27436830/genome-wide-analysis-of-yield-in-europe-allelic-effects-vary-with-drought-and-heat-scenarios
#19
Emilie J Millet, Claude Welcker, Willem Kruijer, Sandra Negro, Aude Coupel-Ledru, Stéphane D Nicolas, Jacques Laborde, Cyril Bauland, Sebastien Praud, Nicolas Ranc, Thomas Presterl, Roberto Tuberosa, Zoltan Bedo, Xavier Draye, Björn Usadel, Alain Charcosset, Fred Van Eeuwijk, François Tardieu
Assessing the genetic variability of plant performance under heat and drought scenarios can contribute to reduce the negative effects of climate change. We propose here an approach that consisted of (1) clustering time courses of environmental variables simulated by a crop model in current (35 years × 55 sites) and future conditions into six scenarios of temperature and water deficit as experienced by maize (Zea mays L.) plants; (2) performing 29 field experiments in contrasting conditions across Europe with 244 maize hybrids; (3) assigning individual experiments to scenarios based on environmental conditions as measured in each field experiment; frequencies of temperature scenarios in our experiments corresponded to future heat scenarios (+5°C); (4) analyzing the genetic variation of plant performance for each environmental scenario...
October 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323866/uncertainty-in-soil-data-can-outweigh-climate-impact-signals-in-global-crop-yield-simulations
#20
Christian Folberth, Rastislav Skalský, Elena Moltchanova, Juraj Balkovič, Ligia B Azevedo, Michael Obersteiner, Marijn van der Velde
Global gridded crop models (GGCMs) are increasingly used for agro-environmental assessments and estimates of climate change impacts on food production. Recently, the influence of climate data and weather variability on GGCM outcomes has come under detailed scrutiny, unlike the influence of soil data. Here we compare yield variability caused by the soil type selected for GGCM simulations to weather-induced yield variability. Without fertilizer application, soil-type-related yield variability generally outweighs the simulated inter-annual variability in yield due to weather...
June 21, 2016: Nature Communications
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