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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546320/a-cohort-mortality-study-of-lead-exposed-workers-in-the-usa-finland-and-the-uk
#1
Kyle Steenland, Vaughn Barry, Ahti Anttila, Markku Sallmén, Damien McElvenny, A C Todd, Kurt Straif
OBJECTIVES: To investigate further whether inorganic lead is a carcinogen among adults, or associated with increased blood pressure and kidney damage, via a large mortality study. METHODS: We conducted internal analyses via Cox regression of mortality in three cohorts of lead-exposed workers with blood lead (BL) data (USA, Finland, UK), including over 88 000 workers and over 14 000 deaths. Our exposure metric was maximum BL. We also conducted external analyses using country-specific background rates...
May 25, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535543/microrna-181a-5p-impedes-il-17-induced-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer-proliferation-and-migration-through-targeting-vcam-1
#2
Yang Cao, Dan Zhao, Ping Li, Lanrong Wang, Bingli Qiao, Xiaoyan Qin, Lei Li, Yang Wang
AIM: The contribution of the inflammatory mediator interleukin-17 (IL-17) in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) malignancy has been reported in the literature. MicroRNA-181a-5p (miR-181a-5p) acts as a tumor suppressor which can regulate target gene at the posttranscriptional level. Our study aimed to investigate the interaction between IL-17 and miR-181a-5p in NSCLC. METHODS: 35 patients with NSCLC and 24 COPD controls were selected and examined in our study. In vitro, H226 and H460 cell lines were exposed to different doses (20, 40, 60, and 80 ng/mL) of IL-17 to examine the effect of IL-17 on miR-181a-5p and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expression...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522810/integrative-analysis-of-genomic-sequencing-data-reveals-higher-prevalence-of-lrp1b-mutations-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-patients-with-copd
#3
Dakai Xiao, Fuqiang Li, Hui Pan, Han Liang, Kui Wu, Jianxing He
Both chronic Obstruction Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and lung cancer are leading causes of death globally. Although COPD and lung cancer coexist frequently, it is unknown whether lung cancer patients with COPD harbor distinct genomic characteristics compared to those without COPD. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed genomic sequencing data from 272 patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and compared the genetic alterations in LUAD patients with and without COPD. Integrative analysis of whole-genome and exome sequencing data revealed that COPD and non-COPD groups showed high concordance in mutational burden and spectra...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513256/do-current-oels-for-silica-protect-from-obstructive-lung-impairment-a-critical-review-of-epidemiological-data
#4
Perrine Hoet, Laure Desvallées, Dominique Lison
Inhalation of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) can lead to serious health effects such as silicosis and lung cancer. There also seems to be a general consensus to consider that RCS exposure is associated with obstructive lung impairment or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability worldwide. It is, however, not clear whether occupational exposure levels (OELs), generally set to prevent silicosis, also protect workers from developing an obstructive impairment...
May 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481981/socioeconomic-position-and-mortality-risk-of-smoking-evidence-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing-elsa
#5
Dan Lewer, Martin McKee, Antonio Gasparrini, Aaron Reeves, Cesar de Oliveira
: It is not clear whether the harm associated with smoking differs by socioeconomic status. This study tests the hypothesis that smoking confers a greater mortality risk for individuals in low socioeconomic groups, using a cohort of 18 479 adults drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Additive hazards models were used to estimate the absolute smoking-related risk of death due to lung cancer or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Smoking was measured using a continuous index that incorporated the duration of smoking, intensity of smoking and the time since cessation...
May 7, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468623/acute-cigarette-smoke-exposure-activates-apoptotic-and-inflammatory-programs-but-a-second-stimulus-is-required-to-induce-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-copd-epithelium
#6
Lynne A Murray, Rebecca Dunmore, Ana Camelo, Carla A Da Silva, Malin J Gustavsson, David M Habiel, Tillie L Hackett, Cory M Hogaboam, Matthew A Sleeman, Darryl A Knight
BACKGROUND: Smoking and aberrant epithelial responses are risk factors for lung cancer as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In these conditions, disease progression is associated with epithelial damage and fragility, airway remodelling and sub-epithelial fibrosis. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of cigarette smoke on epithelial cell phenotype and pro-fibrotic responses in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Apoptosis was significantly greater in unstimulated cells from COPD patients compared to control, but proliferation and CXCL8 release were not different...
May 3, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462210/the-expression-of-proline-specific-enzymes-in-the-human-lung
#7
REVIEW
Gwendolyn Vliegen, Tom K Raju, Dirk Adriaensen, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Ingrid De Meester
The pathophysiology of lung diseases is very complex and proteolytic enzymes may play a role or could be used as biomarkers. In this review, the literature was searched to make an overview of what is known on the expression of the proline-specific peptidases dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4, 8, 9, prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) and fibroblast activation protein α (FAP) in the healthy and diseased lung. Search terms included asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, fibrosis, ischemia reperfusion injury and pneumonia...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461786/prospective-evaluation-of-anxiety-depression-and-quality-of-life-in-medically-inoperable-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-treated-with-stereotactic-ablative-radiotherapy
#8
Jacek Rutkowski, Magdalena Szymanik, Maciej Blok, Joanna Kozaka, Renata Zaucha
AIM: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the level of anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL) in medically inoperable patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). BACKGROUND: Prolonged survival is equally important as maintaining high QoL and good psychological functioning during the treatment of lung cancer. Nowadays available SABR has markedly changed clinical care and outcomes in the group of medically inoperable patients...
May 2017: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449053/fresh-fruit-consumption-and-all-cause-and-cause-specific-mortality-findings-from-the-china-kadoorie-biobank
#9
Huaidong Du, Liming Li, Derrick Bennett, Ling Yang, Yu Guo, Timothy J Key, Zheng Bian, Yiping Chen, Robin G Walters, Iona Y Millwood, Junshi Chen, Junzheng Wang, Xue Zhou, Le Fang, Yijun Li, Xianzhi Li, Rory Collins, Richard Peto, Zhengming Chen
Background: Higher fruit consumption is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Substantial uncertainties remain, however, about the associations of fruit consumption with all-cause mortality and mortality from subtypes of CVD and major non-vascular diseases, especially in China. Methods: In 2004-08, the nationwide China Kadoorie Biobank Study recruited > 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse localities in China. Fresh fruit consumption was estimated using an interviewer-administered electronic questionnaire, and mortality data were collected from death registries...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440530/comorbidity-in-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-lung-cancer-do-we-have-an-adequate-tool-to-assess-it
#10
Marta Lembicz, Piotr Gabryel, Beata Brajer-Luftmann, Wojciech Dyszkiewicz, Halina Batura-Gabryel
INTRODUCTION: In the recent years comorbidity has been discussed as a factor affecting therapeutic decisions, the course of treatment, and prognosis of patients with lung cancer. The aim of the study was 1. to evaluate the occurrence of comorbidities in patients with lung cancer undergoing surgery, and 2. to investigate the utility of Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Simplified Comorbidity Score (SCS) for preoperative evaluation of Polish patients with lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective study included 476 patients with lung cancer, who underwent surgical treatment...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440225/observation-of-nonanoic-acid-and-aldehydes-in-exhaled-breath-of-patients-with-lung-cancer
#11
L Callol-Sanchez, M A Munoz-Lucas, O Gomez-Martin, J A Maldonado-Sanz, C Civera-Tejuca, C Gutierrez-Ortega, G Rodriguez-Trigo, J Jareno-Esteban
Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second leading cause in women worldwide. The use of low-dose computed tomography in early diagnosis was shown to reduce mortality by 20% with a median follow-up time of 6.5 years. In order to increase profitability and reduce radiation risks and costs, exhaled biomarkers could serve to help establish narrower inclusion criteria. The aim of this study was to identify new, well-founded volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath which distinguish LC patients from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and healthy subjects...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431934/etiological-analysis-and-epidemiological-comparison-among-adult-cap-and-nhcap-patients-in-okinawa-japan
#12
Gretchen Parrott, Daijiro Nebeya, Takeshi Kinjo, Kazuya Miyagi, Shusaku Haranaga, Futoshi Higa, Masao Tateyama, Jiro Fujita
BACKGROUND: Etiological epidemiology and diagnosis are important issues for CAP and NHCAP. Despite the availability of effective therapies, significant morbidity and mortality ensues. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the etiology of 200 pneumonia patients at the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Patients were categorized into CAP (n = 97) or NHCAP (n = 103), according to the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines. Diagnoses were made using clinical tests including, Gram stain, bacterial culture, serum and urinary tests...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431562/effects-of-the-common-polymorphism-in-the-human-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-aldh2-gene-on-the-lung
#13
Aoi Kuroda, Ahmed E Hegab, Gao Jingtao, Shuji Yamashita, Nobuyuki Hizawa, Tohru Sakamoto, Hideyasu Yamada, Satoshi Suzuki, Makoto Ishii, Ho Namkoong, Takanori Asakura, Mari Ozaki, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Junko Hamamoto, Shizuko Kagawa, Kenzo Soejima, Tomoko Betsuyaku
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) play a major role in detoxification of aldehydes. High expression of ALDHs is a marker for stem cells of many organs including the lungs. A common polymorphism in ALDH2 gene (ALDH2*2) results in inactivation of the enzyme and is associated with alcohol flushing syndrome and increased risk for cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases and some cancers. The effect of this ALDH2 polymorphism on the lung and its stem cells has not been thoroughly examined...
April 21, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416970/dna-methylation-profiling-in-peripheral-lung-tissues-of-smokers-and-patients-with-copd
#14
Isaac K Sundar, Qiangzong Yin, Brian S Baier, Li Yan, Witold Mazur, Dongmei Li, Martha Susiarjo, Irfan Rahman
BACKGROUND: Epigenetics changes have been shown to be affected by cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoke (CS)-mediated DNA methylation can potentially affect several cellular and pathophysiological processes, acute exacerbations, and comorbidity in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to determine whether genome-wide lung DNA methylation profiles of smokers and patients with COPD were significantly different from non-smokers. We isolated DNA from parenchymal lung tissues of patients including eight lifelong non-smokers, eight current smokers, and eight patients with COPD and analyzed the samples using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416135/all-the-rage-in-lung-disease-the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-endproducts-rage-is-a-major-mediator-of-pulmonary-inflammatory-responses
#15
REVIEW
Elizabeth A Oczypok, Timothy N Perkins, Tim D Oury
The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a pro-inflammatory pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory diseases. It was discovered in 1992 on endothelial cells and was named for its ability to bind advanced glycation endproducts and promote vascular inflammation in the vessels of patients with diabetes. Further studies revealed that RAGE is most highly expressed in lung tissue and spurred numerous explorations into RAGE's role in the lung...
March 18, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412726/inhaled-corticosteroids-have-a-protective-effect-against-lung-cancer-in-female-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#16
Shih-Feng Liu, Ho-Chang Kuo, Meng-Chih Lin, Shu-Chen Ho, Mei-Lien Tu, Yu-Mu Chen, Yung-Che Chen, Wen-Feng Fang, Chin-Chou Wang, Guan-Heng Liu
Whether the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) protects patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from lung cancer remains undetermined. In this retrospective nationwide population-based cohort study, we extracted data of 13,686 female COPD patients (ICS users, n = 1,290, ICS non-users, n = 12,396) diagnosed between 1997 and 2009 from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance database. These patients were followed-up until 2011, and lung cancer incidence was determined. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer incidence...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408813/copd-is-commonly-underdiagnosed-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-results-from-the-recoil-study-retrospective-study-of-copd-infradiagnosis-in-lung-cancer
#17
Dámaso Parrón Collar, Mario Pazos Guerra, Paula Rodriguez, Carolina Gotera, Ignacio Mahíllo-Fernández, Germán Peces-Barba, Luis M Seijo
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with COPD are underdiagnosed, including patients with coexisting lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of COPD prevalence and outcomes among all patients diagnosed with lung cancer at our institution during a 2-year period. Patients with known COPD (group A) were compared with those who received a diagnosis of COPD at the time of their oncologic workup (group B). RESULTS: A total of 306 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer during the study period, including 87 with COPD (28...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394954/-risk-factors-for-the-development-of-lung-cancer-in-a-cohort-of-adult-smokers
#18
Fernando Saldías Peñafiel, José Manuel Elola Aránguiz, Javier Uribe Monasterio, Arturo Morales Soto, Orlando Díaz Patiño
BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for lung cancer in the population could improve the cost-effectiveness of early detection programs using thoracic computed tomography (CT). AIM: To examine the risk factors of lung cancer in a cohort of adult smokers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An annual clinical and respiratory functional assessment, chest computed tomography for three years and clinical follow up for five years was carried out in 270 patients aged 65 ± 9 years, 55% males, active or former smokers of 10 or more pack-years...
November 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393718/comorbidities-and-their-impact-on-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
REVIEW
Neşe Dursunoğlu, Nurdan Köktürk, Ayşe Baha, Ahmet Kaya Bilge, Şermin Börekçi, Fatma Çiftçi, Makbule Gezmen Karadağ, Ebru Çalık Kütükçü, Ayşın Noyan, Mehmet Polatlı, Zeynep Pınar Önen, Sevinç Sarınç, Sema Umut, Esra Uzaslan, Ayşe Kubat Üzüm, Öznur Akkoca Yıldız
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease that is associated with devastating outcomes resulting from lung involvement and several comorbidities. Comorbidities could impact on symptomology, quality of life, the complications, the management, economic burden and the mortality of the disease. The importance of comorbidities originates from their impact on the outcome of COPD. The most frequent comorbidities in COPD are cardiovascular, endocrinological, musculoskeletal, phycological disorders and lung cancer...
December 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389225/prognosis-of-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-undiagnosed-copd-in-the-general-population-in-denmark-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Yunus Çolak, Shoaib Afzal, Børge G Nordestgaard, Jørgen Vestbo, Peter Lange
BACKGROUND: COPD can be diagnosed early using spirometry, but spirometry use is only recommended in symptomatic smokers, even though early stages of COPD can be asymptomatic. We investigated the prognosis of individuals with asymptomatic and symptomatic, undiagnosed COPD in the general population in Denmark. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we analysed data from 95 288 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study. 32 518 (34%) of these individuals were regarded as being at high risk for COPD (defined as individuals aged 40 years or older, with cumulative tobacco consumption of ten pack-years or higher, and without self-reported or a previous hospital contact for asthma)...
April 4, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
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